ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR ENTOMOLOGIE
Band 14, Heft 9: 173-208
Ansfelden, 25. April 1993
A New Genus and a New Species of Tetrastichinae
Turktichus gen. nov. and its type-species, Turktichus ghananensis sp. nov., are
described and the diagnostic characters of the taxa are illustrated.
Turktichus gen. nov. und die Typusart, Turktichus ghananensis sp. nov., werden
beschrieben. Die diagnostischen Merkmale der Taxa werden illustriert.
In the last two decades the genera of Tetrastichinae were keyed out by several
authors (BOUCEK 1977, 1988; KOSTJUKOV 1978; GRAHAM 1987). BOUCEK (1977) prepared
a tentative key to World genera. KOSTJUKOV (1978) gave a key to the genera of the USSR.
GRAHAM (1987) created a key for the European genera. BOUCEK (1988) gave a tentative
illustrated key to the Australasian genera. But, the keys for African and American genera
are badly needed.
The present paper deals with a study on the specimens of Tetrastichinae from Ghana
in the Zoologische Staassammlung München. By following the key of BOUCEK (1977), the
specimens run to the "? part of Tetrastichus" of the couplet 9 in which Tetrastichodes
ASHMEAD, 1887, was treated as a distinct genus and separated from the group which was
stated as "? part of Tetrastichus", and by following the key of GRAHAM (1987) they run to
the subgenus Tetrastichodes of Aprostocetus WESTWOOD, 1833. But, the specimens from
Ghana differ from Tetrastichodes and represent a new genus in Tetrastichinae, the main
characters of which are given in its diagnosis.
Turktichus gen. nov. (figs. 1-9)
Type-species: Turktichus ghananensis sp. nov. Gender: Masculine.
Body strongly sclerotised, with distinct reticulation, gaster convex, noncollapsed,
sometimes only slightly, retiuculated.
Head (fig. 1) slightly broader than height; frons with median longitudinal line and
transverse suture in front of median ocellus, below it Y-shaped short sutures connected
with median line. Malar sulcus present. Anterior margin of clypeus almost truncate.
Temples nill. Antennal toruli slightly above ventral edge of eyes. Scapus reaching only
ventral edge of median ocellus. Antenna with 2 annelli (fig. 6); funicle with 3 Segments in
female (fig. 6), with 4 in male (fig. 8); fiagellar segments of male with whorls of long setae
which reach about 2/3 of the second segment following that which bears them; clava 3
segmented, the first segment of which with whorls of long setae reaching much fiirther the
Thorax (fig. 2) with pronotum short. Mid lobe of mesoscutum with median groove
indicatcd in its posterior half, with numerous hairs scattered all over the sclerite.
Scutellum with submedian and sublateral lines and two pairs of setae. Propodeum (fig. 3)
medially broadly and deeply emarginated, at least slightly shorter than dorsellum in
female, less deeply emarginated so as to be slightly longer than dorsellum in male; with
median carina, without plicae, with dense reticulation; spiracles small, subcircular,
separated by about half of their diameter from hind edge of metanotum, whole rim of
spiracles exposed; callus with a sharp carina runs throughout propodeum. Legs moderately
long, with first segment of mid and hind tarsi subequal to second (fig. 4); hind coxae with
raised reticulation, much coarser than that on propodeum. Forewing (fig. 5) with costal cell
shorter than marginal vein, submarginal vein with 3-4 dorsal setae; postmarginal vein
Gastral petiole (fig. 7) very narrow in female, subconical and dorsally finely
reticulated in male (fig. 9). Gaster of female (fig. 7) long ovate, acute apically, longer than
head plus thorax combined. Cerci in a circular cavity surrounded by carina; each cercus
with one seta nearly more than twice the length of the next longest. Ovipositor sheaths
projecting, its exserted portion about postcercale. Gaster of male (fig. 9) narrower, wedge
shaped, broadest near tip, slightly longer than thorax:
Body non-metallic, black, with some pale spots.
This genus is distinguished by the combination of the strongly sclerotised, raisedly
reticulated, non-collapsed body, the mesoscutum with numerous setae scattered all over the
sclerite, and with distinct median groove; the scutellum with submedian lines and two
pairs of setae, the fore pair of which located at middle of scutellum; the first segment of
mid and hind tarsi subequal to the second one; propodeum without plicae, callus with a
sharp carina which runs throughout propodeum.
The new genus is similar, in some respects, to Tetrastichodes,
Galeopsomyia GIRAULT, 1916, and Paragaleopsomyia GIRAULT, 1917. It differs from
Tetrastichodes in having the basitarsi of mid and hind legs shorter, and fore pair of
scutellar bristles at about middle of the sclerite (in Tetrastichodes the basitarsi of mid and
hind legs about 1.5 times as long as the second tarsal segment, and scutellar bristles near
hind margin of the sclerite); from Galeopsomyia and Paragaleopsomyia in having the
mesoscutum with numerous setae, and propodeum without plicae (in both genera
mesoscutum with median area bare, and in Galeopsomyia propodeum with plicae mesad of
spiracle; in Paragaleopsomyia propodeum fairly long and submarginal vein with 1-2
Turktichus ghananensis sp. nov. (figs. 1 -9)
Female. Length 2.0 - 2.1 mm. Body black, sometimes fuscous; sutures on head, lower
face, scapus, pedicellus, tegulae, basilar sclerites of wings, dorsellum, metanotum, legs,
except coxae and tip of pretarsi which are conclorous with thorax, gaster basally and basal
half of the last tergite of gaster yellow, flagellum brown; wings hyaline, venation pale.
Head in frontal view (fig. 1) slightly broader than high, in dorsal view 2.6 times as
broad as long, surface of head with alutaceous reticulation, with sparse, minute pale hairs;
lower face, scrobal part and genae smooth.
Relative measurements: Head width 39; height 33; length 15; frons 22; POL 8; OOL
5; eye 20/15; malar Space 9; scapus length 15, width 3; pedicellus plus flagellum 40;
pedicellus 6:3; F] 7:4; F 2 6.5:4; F 3 6:4; clava 19:5 (Cj 5; C 2 5; C 3 4). Antenna (fig. 6)
having flagellum semierect sensillae; second annellus large.
Pronotum moderately short, dull with broad raised reticulation, fmely and densely
hairy, mesoscutum (fig. 2) with median groove distinct in posterior half. Relative
measurements for thorax: thorax length (including propodeum) 47, width 37; length of
pronotum medially 8(11); mesoscutum 23:25; scutellum 18:20; distance between
submedian lines 9; distance between submedian and sublateral lines 5; dorsellum 4;
propodeum 3(2); forewing 105:46; costal cell 24; marginal vein 30; stigmal vein 9.
Reticulation on scutellum fmer than that of mesoscutum; dorsellum and propodeum (fig. 3)
densely reticulate; callus with 3 setae; coxae rugulose reticulate; spur of mid tibia about
2.5 times, that of hind tibia about twice as long as width ofthat bears each of them (fig. 4),
fourth segment of hind tarsi as long as 2/3 of length of tarsus. Costal cell with a few hairs
distally undemeath; speculum closed below, continued narrow bare stripe below marginal
vein, reaching almost tip of wing; basal cell open below (fig. 5).
Petiole indistinct; gaster (fig.7) sparsely hairy, about thrice as long as broad, 1.9-2.3
times as long as thorax (including propodeum); cerci almost at middle of tergite;
hypopygium ending slightly beyond middle of gaster.
Male. Length 1.3 mm. Similar to female, except as follows: flagellum pale brown;
dorsellum and metanotum brown; tip of gaster without pale spot. Relative measurements:
Head width 32, height 28; length 13.5; frons 20; malar space 8; eye 16:12; scapus 11:4;
pedicellus plus flagellum 48; pedicellus 5; Fj 3.5; F 2 6; F 3 7; F 4 7; clava 16:3 (C^ 5; C 2
6; C 3 5); thorax 40:29; pronotum 8; mesoscutum 20:19; scutellum 14:16; distance between
submedian lines 7; distance between submedian and sublateral lines 4; dorsellum 3;
propodeum 4; forewing 83:38; costal cell 21; marginal vein 25; stigmal vein 7; gaster (fig.
9) 44:18. Antenna (fig. 8) with short ventral plaque at upper half; flagellar Segments with
sparse long hairs ventrally, with very long whorls of setae dorsally.
Material examined (1 male, 3 females): Holotype female (mounted with the male
paratype on same card). Ghana, Ashanti Region, Kumasi-Kwadaso, (3.XI.1965)
M.XI.1965, leg. F. BACHMAIER (in Zoologische Staatssammlung München).
Paratypes 1 male, 2 females. Same data as holotype (Host unknown).
Figs. 1-9 Turktichus ghananensis gen. et sp. nov., 1-7 female: 1) head in frontal view, 2)
thorax (excluding propodeum); 3) apical part of thorax; 4) mid and hind tarsi; 5)
forewing; 6) antenna; 7 gaster with petiole. - 8-9 male: 8) antenna; 9) gaster with
BOUCEK, Z. - 1977. Description of Tachinobia gen nov. and three new species of Tetrastichinae
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a tentative key to genera. - Bull, ent Res. 67: 17-30.
BOUCEK, Z. - 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). C-A-B International, Wallingford, Oxon,
U.K., pp. 593-597.
GRAHAM, M.W.R.de V. - 1987. A reclassification of the European Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera:
Eulophidae), with a revision of certain genera. - Bull. Br. Mus. nat Hist Ent 51: 27-45.
KOSTJUKOV, V.V. - 1978. Subfamily Tetrastichinae, pp. 796-800. In: Medvedev (Ed.), Keys to the insects
of the European part of the USSR. Translated from Russian in 1987, Amerind Pup. Co. PvL Ltd.
New Delhi, India.
Systematic Works on Sigmophora RONDANI, 1867
(Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae)
The main characters of Sigmophora RONDANI, 1867, are obtained in a wide sense
and the known species of the genus are listed. Tetrastichomyia GIRAULT, 1916, syn. nov.
and Koloptema GRAHAM, 1987, syn. nov. are synonymized with Sigmophora. The newly
found male of Sigmophora (= Koloptema) salirta (GRAHAM, 1987) is described and
illustrated. The differences between the specimens from different regions of Sigmophora
brevicomis (PANZER, 1804) are illustrated.
Die Merkmale für Sigmophora RONDANI, 1867, und deren Arten werden festgelegt.
Tetrastichomyia GIRAULT, 1916, syn. nov. und Koloptema GRAHAM, 1987, syn. nov.
werden mit Sigmophora synonymisiert. Das neu gefundene Männchen von Sigmophora (=
Koloptema) salina (GRAHAM, 1987) wird beschrieben und abgebildet. Die Unterschiede
zwischen Exemplaren von Sigmophora brevicomis (PANZER, 1804) aus verschiedenen
Regionen werden abgebildet.
For some time the genus Sigmophora RONDANI, 1867, has been accepted as a
species-group, the brevicornis-group, of Tetrastichus HALIDAY, 1843 (GRAHAM 1961;
DOMENICMNI 1964, 1966; KOSTYUKOV 1978) and as a synonym of Tetrastichus (BOUCEK
GRAHAM (1985) gave it a new Status as a distinct genus, separated it (1987) from the
known genera of Tetrastichinae, gave the main characters of the genus and its synonymy
and prepared a diagnostic key for its European species. BOUCEK (1988) studied the
Australasian species of the genus and gave some synonymy.
KROMBEIN et al. (1978) gave the genus Tetrastichomyia GIRAULT, 1916, as a
synonym of Syntomosphyrum FOERSTER, 1878, which is already a synonym of Aprostocetus
WESTWOOD, 1833. The genus was elevated to generic leyel by GRAHAM (1987), and he
gave its main diagnostic characters in his work.
GRAHAM (1987) described the genus Koloptema, including three new species, and
gave a key for the species.
By the works on the species of the genus Sigmophora in the Zoologische
Staatssammlung München it was found that the species which can be identified under
different genera, viz. Tetrastichomyia. Sigmophora, Koloptema, have many characters
which are almost the same of those given by GRAHAM (1987). In my opinion the genera
Tetrastichomyia and Koloptema are synonyms of Sigmophora. May be, the Australian
genus Aceratoneura GIRAULT & DODD, 1915 can also be united with Sigmophora by the
characters given by BOUCEK (1988).
Sigmophora RONDANI, 1867
Sigmophora RONDANI, 1867: 40. Type-species: Sigmophora scrophulariella RONDANI by
monotypy (GRAHAM 1987).
Lopodytes RONDANI, 1867a: 8. Type-species: Lopodytes prunicola RONDANI by monotypy (Homonym of
Lopodytes STAL, 1853; synonymized by GRAHAM 1985: 160).
Eulophotetrastichus GIRAULT, 1913: 70. Type-species: Eulophotetrastichus io GIRAULT by original
designation and monotypy (synonymized by GRAHAM 1985: 160).
Euplectrotetrastichus GIRAULT, 1915: 262. Type-species: Euplectrotetrastichus spenceri GIRAULT by
original designation (synonymized by BOUCEK 1988: 687).
Tetrastichomyia IRAULT, 1916: 48. Type-species: Miotropis clisiocampae ASHMEAD by original
designation, • syn. nov.
Lopodytiscus GHESQUIERE, 1946: 370 (replacement name for Lopodytes RONDANI; synonymized by
Koloptema GRAHAM, 1987: 80. Type-species: Koloplerna salina GRAHAM by original designation, - syn.
For the synonymy of Lopodytes, Eulophotetrastichus. Euplectrotetrastichus and Lopodytiscus see
GRAHAM 1985,1987 and BOUCEK 1988.
GRAHAM (1987) stated that the main characters of Tetrastichomyia were the thorax
with dorsellum divided medially, antenna with third annellus large, with several setae;
scutellum without submedian lines, sublateral lines deep, their outer edge sharply carinate;
vertex with a transverse ridge behind ocellar triangle; mid lobe of mesoscutum without
median line; frons without transverse suture in front of median ocellus. Most of these
characters were also the diagnostic ones for Sigmophora and Koloptema, except divided
dorsellum and large annellus for Sigmophora, in some species of which the third annellus
is still the larger one and with some setae on it (figs. 1 and 694 of GRAHAM 1987). The
main characters of Koloptema, which are given by GRAHAM (1987), are the first segment
of mid and hind tarsi much shorter than the second (fig. 11 and figs. 38, 39, 73 of GRAHAM
1987). But the basi tarsi of mid and hind legs are sometimes also shorter than the second in
Sigmophora (figs. 3,4). In Koloptema malar sulcus with a sublinear fovea below eye, and
in Sigmophora it has a subtriangular fovea (figs. 40, 72 of GRAHAM 1987). The differences
between them is only the shape of the foveae. In my opinion the ratios of marginal vein and
costal cell are not much important in generic laevel. By studying the species in the
Zoologische Staatssammlung it was found that the males of Sigmophora (= Koloptema)
salina (GRAHAM, 1987) (newly found) have also a divided dorsellum, same as
Tetrastichomyia (fig. 13), it is also slightly indicated in the female dorsellum of salina
from Corsica. All of the specimens of salina have the first segment of mid and hind tarsi
much shorter than the second (fig. 11). The species which can be identified as Koloptema
have also the third annellus large, with some setae (fig. 10). On the other hand, male
genitalia are very elongate in all of the species (figs. 2, 14 and figs. 557-560 of GRAHAM
In the new sense the main characters of Sigmophora are given as follows: Vertex
with transverse carina behind lateral ocelli, carina becomes weaker in some species,
sometimes a second one between ocelli; first segment of mid and hind tarsi very slightly to
distinctly shorter thän second segment; dorsellum undivided or with a Channel or a ridge
which separates it into two lobes; scutellum (flg. 13) with a groove along hind margin, and
with submedian lines slightly indicated or indistinct; male genitalia (figs. 2, 14) very
elongate, 8-14 times as long as broad; antenna of female with three annelli, the third of
which at least slightly larger, mostly quadrate and with some setae, than the first two
annelli combined (figs. 1, 10); 3 funicular and 3 claval Segments; antenna of male (fig. 12)
with 2 annelli, 4 funicular and 3 claval Segments, ventral plaque of scape extending at least
half of its length, Segments of flagellum with compact subbasal whorls of long dark setae.
Malar sulcus with a sublinear, oblong or subtriangular fovea below eye (figs. 40, 72 of
GRAHAM 1987); body non-metallic, black or yellow.
Hosts: Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, especially the genus Asphondylia (GRAHAM 1987;
BOUCEK 1988); Lepidoptera (KROMBEFN et al. 1978); ex Salicomia-Nadeki
Distribution: Temperate to tropical regions of Old World (BOUCEK 1988); all
continents of Old World (GRAHAM 1987); North America (KROMBEIN et al. 1978).
Species of Sigmophora
S. bilobata (GIRAULT)
Neomphaloidella bilobata GIRAULT, 1929: 327-328. Transferred to Sigmophora by BOUCEK 1988: 687.
S. brevicornis (PANZER)
Cynips brevicornis PANZER in SCHAFFER, 1804: 134. Transferred to Tetrastichus by SZELENYI 1941:
403, to Aprostocetusby GRAHAM 1961: 45, and to Sigmophora by GRAHAM 1985: 160.
Synonymy: Cinips quercus ramuli F.; Cirrospilus armaenus WALKER; Cirrospilus
zeuxo WALKER; Eulophus setiseries FÖRSTER; Eulophus verbasci DUFOUR; Lopodytes
asphondyliae RONDANI; Lopodytes prunicola RONDANI; Sigmophora scrophulariella
RONDANI; Geniocerus flavovarius (NEES) (for detailed information on the synonymy see
New records: 12 9 9, 8 66, München, 22.VI.-30.VI. 1967 (BACHMAIER); 1 9,
Nördlingen, 11.VH1991 (DOGANLAR); 1 9, Salzburg Parsch, 2.X.1964 (BABIY); 7 9 9 ,
Bastia, Corsica, 4.V.1964 (BACHMAIER); 1 9, Etang de Biguglia, Corsica, 17.IV.1965
(BACHMAIER); 2 9 9, London, 8.-12.VH.1981 (DOGANLAR); 1 9, Zile, Tokat, Turkey,
6.V.1988 (CAM); 2 9 9, Tokat, Turkey, 11.V.-12.VI.1989 (CAM).
GRAHAM (1987) stated that the Status of the species seems to be an agregate. The
study of the specimens from München showed that the shapes of hypopygia (figs. 5-8), of
annelli (fig. 1) and of mid and hind tarsi (figs. 3, 4) are quite different from the figures 73,
671, 694 of GRAHAM (1987) given for brevicornis. The specimens from München may
belong to the species described from Germany, such as brevicornis (PANZER), setiseries
FÖRSTER. In order to solve the problem, a study of the types of the species synonymized
with brevicornis is badly needed.
S. clisiocampae (ASHMEAD), comb. nov.
Miolropis clisiocampae ASHMEAD, 1894: 341. Transferrcd to Tetrastichomyia by GIRAULT 1916: 480,
and to Syntomosphyrum by BURKS in KROMBHN et al. 1978: 1004.
S. electra ( G I R A U L T )
Neotetrastichodes electra GlRAULT, 1915: 236. Transferred to Sigmophora by BOUCEK 1988: 687.
S. io ( G I R A U L T )
Eulophotetrastichus io GIRAULT, 1913: 70. Transferred to Neomphaloidella by GIRAULT 1913: 234, 236,
and to Sigmophora by GRAHAM 1985: 160.
Synonymy: Epitetrastichus x-carinatus GIRAULT, Neomphaloidella heracliti GIRAULT
S. itaüca (DOMENICHINI)
Tetrastichus italicus DOMENICHINL 1967: 92. Transferred to Sigmophora by GRAHAM 1985: 161.
S. kohatensis (Graham), comb. nov.
Kolopterna kohatensis GRAHAM, 1987: 82.
S. orgyiae (GIRAULT), comb. nov.
Tetrastichomyia orgyiae GIRAULT, 1916: 111. Transferred to Syntomosphyrum by BURKS in KROMBEIN
etal. 1978: 1005.
Synonymy: Syntomosphyrum orgyiazele BURKS, 1978 in KROMBEIN et al. 1978: 1005.
Replacement name (unnecessary) for Tetrastichomyia orgyiae, - syn. nov.
S. otys (WALKER)
Cirrospilus otys WALKER, 1839: 47-48. Transferred to Tetrastichus by WALKER 1846: 80, and to
Sigmophora by GRAHAM 1985: 161.
Synonymy: Neomphaloidella glucki GIRAULT; Neomphloidea parkmani GIRAULT
S. quartensis (GRAHAM), comb. nov.
Kolopterna quartensis GRAHAM, 1987: 83.
5. saüna (GRAHAM), comb. nov.
Kolopterna salina GRAHAM, 1987: 81, 82.
New records: 5 9 9, 3 66, Port du Ficori, Bastia, Corsica, 17.VII.1968, ex
6. V. 1965, ex Salicornia (BACHMAIER).
The species was described from the females by GRAHAM (1987). The differences
between the female specimens from Corsica and the description of the female of GRAHAM
(1987) are not important. In order to indicate the variations of the species, they are given
below: first funicular segment 4 times as long as broad (in the description it is 4.7 - 5
times); Third funicular segment 1.75 times as long as broad (in the description it is 1.9 - 2
times); head slightly broader than mesoscutum (42:37) (in the description head as broad as
mesoscutum); temple 0.2 times as long as length of eye (in the description it is 0.15 times);
pronotum 0.44 - 0.5 times as long as mesoscutum medially (in the description 0.25 times).
The males were reared together with the females and mounted mostly with the females on
same cards by F. BACHMAIER.
Description of male: Length 1.2 - 1.3 mm. Similar to female except as follows:
Antenna (fig. 12) with scape 1.15 times as long as eye length, about thrice as long as
broad, with ventral plaque almost 0.3 length of scapus; pedicellus plus flagellum slightly
more than twice breadth of mesoscutum; pedicellus twice as long as broad, slightly shorter
than first funicular segment. Relative measurements of antennal Segments: scape 15;
pedicellus 6; Fj 7; F 2 10; F 3 10; F 4 9.5; clava (C^ 7; C 2 7; C 3 5); whorled setae long
those of Fj reaching about half of F3; forewing with postmarginal vein undeveloped but in
one specimen it is almost equal to stigmal vein, stigmal vein short, 0.22 times as long as
marginal vein, the latter 0,7 times as long as costal cell; scutellum (fig. 13) mainly without
submedian lines, but in some specimens they are indicated by darker lines.
S. silvensis (GIRAULT), comb. nov.
Tetrastichomyia silvensis GIRAULT, 1919: 111. Transferred to Synlomosphyrum by BURKS in KROMBEIN
etal. 1978: 1005.
S. spenceri (GIRAULT)
Euplectrotetrastichus spenceri GIRAULT, 1915: 262. Transferred to Sigmophora by BOUCEK 1988:688.
S. westwoodi (GIRAULT)
Neomphaloidella westwoodi GIRAULT, 1913: 235-236. Transferred to Sigmophora by BOUCEK 1988:
Figs. 1-8: Sigmophora brevicomis (PANZER, 1804). -1) annelli from different places; 2) tip
of male genitalia; 3) mid and hind tarsi, from München; 4) same from Corsica; 5-8)
hypopygia from different places.
Figs. 9 -14: Sigmophora salina (GRAHAM, 1987). - 9) hypopygium; 10) female antenna and
annelli; 11) mid and hind tarsi; 12) male, apical part of thorax and propodeum; 14)
male genitalia and its tip.
BOUCEK, Z. -1974. On the Chaicidoidea (Hymenoptera) described by C. Rondani. - Redia 55: 241-285.
BOUCEK, Z. - 1988. Australasian Chaicidoidea (Hymenoptera). - C-A-B International, Wallingford, Oxon,
U.K., pp. 593-597, 686-688.
DOMENICHBJI, G. - 1964. Sui Tetrastichus Haliday s.l. (Eulophidae) paleartici parassiti oofagi di
Coleoptera Chrysomelidae. - Entomophaga 9: 33-38.
DOMENICMNI, G. - 1966. I Tetrachini (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) paleartici ed i loro ospiti. - Boll. Zool.
agr. Bachic. (s.2), 6: 61-205.
GlRAULT, AA. - 1913. Australian Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea-IV. The family Eulophidae with descriptions
of new genera and species. - Mem. Qd Mus. 2: 234,236.
GlRAULT, AA. - 1915. Australian Hymenoptera-IV. - Mem.Qd Mus., Suppl. 3: 243.
GlRAULT, A.A. - 1916. New North American Hymenoptera of the family Eulophidae. - Proc. U. S. nat.
GRAHAM, M.W.R.de V. - 1961. The genus Aprostocetus Westwood, sensu lato (Hym., Eulophidae); notes
on the synonymy of European species. - Ent. mon. Mag. 87: 45.
GRAHAM, M.W.R.de V. - 1985. On some Rondani types of Chaicidoidea (Hym.) in the Haliday collection,
Dublin. - Ent. mon. Mag. 121: 159-162.
GRAHAM, M.W.R.de V. - 1987. A reclassification of the European Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera:
Eulophidae), with a revision of certain genera. - Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. Ent. 51: 1-392.
KOSTYUKOV, V.V. - 1978. odsem. 5. Tetrastichinae, pp. 430-467; in Trjapitzin (Ed.) & al. - Opredelitel
Nasekom. evrop. SSSR3: 1-758
KROMBEIN, K.V., HURD, P.D., SMITH, D.S. & BURKS, B.D. - 1978. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America
north of Mexico. 1. Symphyta and Apocrita (Parasitica). Washington D. C , pp. 1004-1005.
SZELENYI, G. - 1941. Die Artengruppen Tetrastichus flavovarius auct. und T. brevicornis auct. Ein Beitrag
zur Systematik der Gattung Tetrastichus Hai. s.l. (Hym. Chalc. Eulophidae). - Ztschr. angew. Ent.
WALKER, F. - 1846. List of the specimens of Hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British
Museum. Part I. Chalcidites. vii, 100 pp. London.
A New Genus of Tetrastichinae from North America
Kocaagizus gen. nov. is defined and its type-species, K. pirireisi sp. nov., is
described and illustrated.
Kacoaagizus gen. nov. und seine Typusart, K. pirireisi sp. nov., werden beschrieben
In the study on Tetrastichinae specimens in Zoologische Staatssammlung, München,
an interesting specimen was found from North America. It has a very broad mouth and
large mandibles with big long falcate outer tooth and two minute and closely placed inner
teeth, which are seen almost equal to the outer one, due to this, the mandibles seem to be
two-toothed. By the shape of mandible it resembles Chaenotetrastichus GRAHAM, 1987,
but it has only two pairs scutellar setae, and submarginal with 4 dorsal setae. The
specimen seems to similar Tetrastichus halidayi (GRAHAM, 1961) in having broad mouth
and large toothed mandible, but it has propodeum without any plicae. It has an interesting
antenna with first armellus 2.5 times as broad as long, the second lamelliform, with 4
funicular Segments, but Fl without sensilla, 0.33 length of F2. By this apparence of the
antenna is similar to the longicomis-gcoup of Aprostocetus, in which the antenna with 4
funicular Segments, but none of the species of Aprostocetus has so broad mouth and large
mandible. Therefore, any of the characters of the specimen mentioned above cannot be
found in the genera given by BOUCEK (1977 and 1988), and the specimen is keyed out by
following the recent keys for the genera of Tetrastichinae created by GRAHAM (1987 and
1991). It represents a distinct new genus and species.
Kocaagizus gen. nov.
Gen.: Masculine. The name from Turkish Tcocaagiz' = broad mouth.
Type-species: Kocaagizus pirireisi sp. nov. by present designation
Diagnosis: Body noncollapsed; head (fig. 1) with very broad mouth, 5 times malar
space which is 0.33 length of eye; malar sulcus present, straight; frons with Y-shaped
median longitudinal line, arms of which reaching posterior ocelli; anterior margin of
clypeus distinctly bidentate; mandible (fig. 2) seems to have two equal large teeth, but
inner one has two minute inner teeth, which are closely approximated. Antenna of female
(fig. 3) with two minute annelli, first of which about 2.5 times as broad as long, second
lamelliform; funicle with 4 Segments; Fl without sensüla, about 0.33 length of F2; clava
with 3 Segments. Thorax with pronotum short, with slightly raised reticulation; mid lobe of
mesoscutum with one row of adnotaular setae on each side, with fme but distinct median
line, its surface with fme engraved sculpture; scutellum with distinct lines and two pairs of
setae; propodeum with spiracles larger and nearer to hind margin of metanotum; median
carina slightly indicated; plicae and paraspiracular carina absent; callus with two setae.
Legs long, hind femora 4.6 times as long as broad; first segment of mid and hind tarsi
almost equal to second. Forewing with SM having 4 dorsal setae; PM a short stub. Hind
wings broad, obtuse apically. Petiole distincly transverse, smooth. Gaster as long and as
broad as thorax; cercus with 3 setae in equal length. Ovipositor not reaching tip of last
tergite; tip of hypopygium distinctly beyond middle of gaster.
Distribution: New York, USA.
Comments: The new genus somewhat resembles Chaenotetrastichus in having broad
mouth and larger mandible as seen in fig.2, but it differs from this genus in having
scutellum with two pairs of setae and forewing with SM having 4 dorsal setae, mid lobe of
mesoscutum with distinct median line (in Chaenotetrastichus, scutellum with 5-6 pairs of
setae; SM with 1 dorsal seta, and mid lobe of mesoscutum without median line) (GRAHAM,
1987).The new genus is also similar to Tetrastichus halidayi in having broad mouth and
large toothed mandible, but it differs from the latter in having propodeum without plicae
(in T. halidayi propodeum with distinct Y-shaped plicae), and also to the elongatus-fgoup
of Aprostocetus in having antenna of female with 4 funicular Segments, but it differs from
Aprostocetus in having very diagnostic mouth region (figs. 1, 2).
Kocaagizus pirireisi sp. nov.
Female: Length 2.2 mm. Body black, with slightly bluish gloss on head and thorax;
pedicellus apically, flagellum and tibiae testaceous to fuscous; annelli, tips of femora and
tibiae, basal three Segments of tarsi yellow, pretarsi fuscous; sutures of thorax, sides of
scutellum and dorsellum brown.
Head (fig. 1) 1.2 times broader than height, in dorsal view 2.3 times as broad as
long; temples 0.19 lenght of eyes; POL 1.45 OOL; OOL twice OD. Eyes 1.26 times as long
as broad, very shortly and sparsely pubescent. Antenna (fig. 3) with scape distinctly shorter
than eye, about 4 times as long as broad, reaching about middle of mid ocellus; pedicellus
plus flagellum about 0.86 times breath of mesoscutum; pedicellus 1.75 times as Ion as
broad, slightly more than twice F l ; Fl subquadrate; F2 1.5 times, F3 1.33 times, F4 1.17
times as long as broad; clava somewhat broader than F4, about twice as long as broad;
slightly shorter than F3 plus F4; with Cl and C2 distinctly transverse; C3 conicle, with
minute spine; sensillae sparse.
Thorax 1.38 times as long as broad; pronotum conical, about 0.4 length of
mesoscutum medially, mid lobe of mesoscutum as broad as long, with fme engraved
reticulation, with 6 adnotaular setae on each sides; scutellum slightly longer than broad,
moderately convex; submedian lines distinctly nearer to sublateral lines than to each other,
enclosed space about twice as long as broad; setae equal, their length slightly less than
distance between submedian lines, anterior pair slightly behind middle of sclerite.
Dorsellum twice as broad as long, distinctly reticulated. Propodeum broadly and relatively
deeply emarginate, as long as dorsellum medially, its surface with fme raised reticulation.
Legs with spur of mid tibia equal length of basitarsus. Forewing (fig. 4) 2.16 times as long
as broad; costal cell slightly longer than M, with one row of hairs on lower suface; M thin
basally, broader apically, 2.5 times length of ST, its front edge on lower surface with 9-10
longish setae; speculum small, but with a bare stribe along cubital hair line, closed below,
basal vein with some irregulär hairs, basal cell bare; wing disc densely hairy, cilia short,
0.2 length of ST. Hind wing broad, obtuse apically, its cilia about 0.13 breadth of wing.
Gaster ovate, acuminate, about 1.6 times as long as broad, with very fine broad
Material examined: 1 female. Holotype female, Ithaca, six mile New York, USA,
7.V.1940, leg. P.P. BABIY (in Zoologische Staatssammlung, München).
Comments: The new species are very distinct from all species of Tetrastichinae in
having broad mouth, narrow malar Space (fig. 1), the mandibles as seen in fig. 2, and the
antenna as in fig. 3.
Figs. 1- 4: Kocaagizus pirireisi gen. and sp. nov., female. 1) head; 2) left mandible; 3)
antenna; 4) forewing.
Liters tu re
BOUCEK, Z. - 1977. Descriplions of Tachinobia genn. and three new species of Tetrastichinae
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a tentative key to genera. - Bull, ent es. 67: 17-30.
BOUCEK, Z. - 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). - C A B International Wallingford, Oxon,
U.K., 832 pp.
GRAHAM, M.W.R. de V. - 1987. A reclassification of the European Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera;
Eulophidae), with a revision of certain genera. - Bull. Br. Mus. Nat Hist (Ent) 55: 1-392.
GRAHAM, M.W.R. de V. - 1991. A reclassification of the European Tetrastichinae (Hymenoptera:
Eulophidae): revision of the remaining genera. - Mem. Amer. Ent Inst 49: 1-22.
A New Species of Tachinobia BOUCEK, 1977, from Africa
(Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae)
Tachinobia zairensis sp. nov. is described from Lübümbashi, Zaire, Africa, and its
diagnostic characters are illustrated.
Tachinobia zairensis sp. nov. wird aus Lübümbashi, Zaire, Africa, beschrieben, und
seine charakteritischen Merkmale werden illustriert.
The genus Tachinobia BOUCEK, 1977 was described with two species, one of which
from south-eastem Asia, the other from South America by BOUCEK (1977). In his study on
the Australasian genera of Tetrastichinae, BOUCEK (1988) gave the diagnostic characters of
Tachinobia and informations on its biology and distribution such as: Region New Guinea
and Solomon Island (1 sp.), northem South America and West Indies, and West Africa
(probably 2 spp.). Up to now there is no more information on the genus.
The present study deals with the specimens from Lübümbashi, Zaire, Africa. They
were sent to the Zoologische Staatssammlung, München, by Mr. F. MALAISSE. The
specimens present a new species which is close to Tachinobia repanda Boucek, 1977.
Tachinobia zairensis sp. nov.
Female. Length 1.0 - 1.1 mm (Holotype 1.1 mm). Body black with bronze golden
reflection; scape, pedicellus, sometimes first two funicular Segments, mouth parts,
trochanters, tibiae and tarsi yellow, sometimes pedicellus, rest of flagellum infuscate;
coxae and femora infuscate and submetallic. Wings hyaline, venation pale yellow, between
parastigma and base of marginal vein and also base of stigmal vein with paler break (fig.
Head in frontal view about as long as height; POL 6; OOL 3; OD 3; toruli (which are
slightly nearer to eyes than to each other) converging to a pale transverse spot at about
level of centers of eyes; furcal grooves arising from this spot, diverging upwards ending
outside lateral ocelli. Malar sulcus not developed; clypeus with slightly bidentate lower
margin; mouth slightly wider than malar space, the latter about half of length of eye. Eye
with very short pubescence, the ratio of legth to width 1.3 : 1. Reticulation of head very
fine. Antenna (fig. 2) with scape 5 times as long as broad, not reaching median oceLas,
broader at middle; pedicellus 1.6 times as long as broad; annelli indistinct; first funicular
segment 1.2 times wider and 1.33 times longer than 2nd segment; 3rd segment about as
long as the first, and about 2.2 times as broad as long; clava about as long as pedicellus
plus funicular segments combined, about twice as long as broad, C1 distictly shorter than
half of clava, C2 only slightly shorter than Cl, C3 with a long spine, length of which about
as long as C3. For sensillae see fig.2.
Thorax moderately depressed, sculpture fme as seen in fig.l. Pronotum campanulate,
distinctly shorter than mesoscutum medially, with a row of long bristles near apical
margin, leaving a bare stripe throughout the margin; the width of the stripe only slightly
shorter than length of the bristles; rest of pronotum with fine small bristles (flg. 1). Mid
lobe of mesoscutum about 1.6 times as broad as long, with 3-4 adnotaular setae, posterior
ones the longest; scutellum about 1.56 times as broad as long, without lines, with two pairs
only moderately long bristles, the length of which distincly shorter than the distance
between posterior pair, anterior pair of bristles before middle of sclerite; anterior margin of
scutellum distictly angulated at middle; dorsellum less than half of propodeum medially
(2:5), about 5 times as broad as long. Propodeum about half length of scutellum, fmely
reticulate with a fme but distinct median carina; plicae absent; callus with 3 hairs, with a
longitudinal carina running from just outside of each spiracle to hind comer of propodeum.
Forewing (fig. 3) with pubescence becoming very sparse proximally, speculum ahnost open
below, basal and costal cells bare; forewing 2.06 times as long as broad, marginal cilia
distinctly shorter than stigmal vein; marginal vein with 8-9 long setae on its front edge;
costal cell only slightly longer than marginal vein (9:8); marginal vein 3.2 times as long as
Gaster oval, distinctly pointed, slightly longer than thorax but as broad as thorax;
first three terga dorsally bare, except for dark hairs at sides; 4th tergum with a row of hairs
basally, 5th with two rows of hairs basally and apically; cerci with one seta C-shaped
curved and about twice the length of the next longest. Hypopygium (fig.4) reaching
distictly beyond the middle, emarginate at apex; ovipositor sheaths hardly excerted.
Material examined: 20 females. Holotype female, Zaire: Lübümbashi, Foret du
Shaba, 12.VI.1974, leg. F. MALAISSE (in Zoologische Staatssammlung, München).
Paratypes: 19 females, same data as holotype.
Distribution: Zaire, Africa.
Comments: The new species is similar to the other two species of the genus,
Tachinobia repanda and T. gradwelli BOUCEK, 1977. It differs from both of them in having
scutellar bristles shorter (fig.l) (in both species scutellum with very long bristles) (fig.3 of
BOUCEK 1977 and fig. 1221 of BOUCEK 1988), and mid lobe of mesoscutum with only 3-4
adnotaular setae on each side (in both species, mid lobe of mesoscutum with about 6 pairs
of bristles in two rows). T. zairensis sp. nov. also differs from gradwelli in having antenna
with funicular segments transverse and clava with long spine (fig. 2) (in gradwelli antenna
with longer funicular segments and with shorter and curved apical spine of clava) (figs. 22,
23 of BOUCEK 1977). The new species differs from repanda in having antenna with the 2nd
funicular segment larger than the others (in repanda the larger one is the 3rd funicular
segment) (figs.15-17 of BOUCEK 1977) and 2nd segment of clava is only slightly shorter
than thc first segment (in repanda the first segment is longer than half length of clava).
Figs. 1- 4: Tachinobia zairensis sp. nov., female. 1) thorax with sculpture; 2) antenna; 3)
venation of forewing; 4) hypopygium.
BOUCEK, Z. - 1977. Descriptions of Tachinobia gen. n. and three ncw species of Tetrastichinae
(Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), with a tentative key to genera. - Bull, ent Res. 67: 17-30.
BOUCEK, Z. - 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). - C A B International Wallingford, Oxon,
U.K.,pp. 5 9 4 , 6 9 7 , 751.
Notes on the Species of Tetrastichus HALIDAY, 1844,
With Descriptions of a New Subgenus and Two New Species
(Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae)
A new subgenus, Hocatetrastichus subgen. nov., of Tetrastichus HALIDAY, 1844,
with its type species Tetrastichus (Hocatetrastichus) zekioezeri sp. nov. from Cameroon,
Africa, and Tetrastichus (Tetrastichus) ahmetcitiri sp. nov. are described and illustrated.
New findings for 12 other species of Tetrastichus from Europe and Turkey are given.
Eine neue Untergattung, Hocatetrastichus subgen. nov., von Tetrastichus HALIDAY,
1844, mit ihrer Typusart, Tetrastichus (Hocatetrastichus) zekioezeri sp. nov., aus Kamerun
und Tetrastichus (Tetrastichus) ahmetcitiri sp. nov. werden beschrieben und abgebildet.
Neue Funde für 12 andere Tetrastichus-Aiten aus Europa und aus der Türkei werden
In the past, the genus Tetrastichus HALIDAY, 1844, was taken as a wide genus and
many other genera of Tetrastichinae were given as its synoyms by several authors
(KURDJUMOV 1913; BURKS 1943; PECK 1963; ERDÖS 1954; DOMENICHINI 1966; KOSTJUKOV
1978; KROMBEIN et al. 1979). By the works of GRAHAM (1987; 1991) and BOUCEK (1977;
1988) the diagnostic characters of the genera of Tetrastichinae were obtained in tentative
keys and the genus Tetrastichus was well understood. Many genera were taken off from its
synonym list and regarded as distinct genera, and many others were synonymized with
TETRASTICHUS by BOUCEK (1988) and GRAHAM (1991).
In this study the specimens from several parts of world in the Zoologische
Staatssammlung München were studied. By the study 14 species were found, viz., 4 of
them from Turkey, 9 species from Europe and one from Cameroon, Africa.
The specimens from Cameroon are distinct by several characters from the known
species of Tetrastichus and represent a new subgenus. The characters of the new subgenus
and of the subgenus Tetrastichus s. str.were given as follows:
Hocatetrastichus subgen. nov.
Body noncollabsed; frons with shallow scrobal area (fig. 6), without median
longitudinal carina; malar sulcus straight, not foveate below eye; anterior margin of