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THE STUDY OF FISHES V02

A GUIDE
TO

THE STUDY OF

FISHES

BY

DAVID STARR JORDAN
President

With Colored

o/"

Leland Stan_ford Junior University

and ^07

Frontispieces


IN

Illustrations

TWO VOLUMES

Vol

II.

"I am

the wiser in respect to all knowl-

edge and the better qualified
for

knowing that there

brook. "

is

— Thoreau

NEW YORK

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY
190.S

a

for all fortunes

minnow

in that




VARIATIONS
The Oniukose

or

Demon

THE COLOR OF FISHES

IN

Iniviicus japonicus (Cuv. and Val.), from

Stinger,

From nature by Kako

Wakanoiira, Japan.

Morita.

Surface coloration about lava rocks.

Coloration of specimens living

Coloration in deep

vi^ater

;

among red

algse.

Inimicus aurantiacus

(Schlegel).


Copyright, 1905

BY

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY
Published March, 1905

ROBERT DRUMMOND, PRINTER,

NEW YORK




CONTENTS
VOL.

II.

CHAPTER

I.

THE GANOIDS.
Subclass Actinopteri.

Group?



—The

PAGB

Ganoidei.—Are the Ganoids a Natural
Systematic Position of Lepidosteus. Gill on the Ganoids as a
Series



Natural Group

i

CHAPTER
THE GANOIDS

II.

{Continued).

— Order Lysopteri. —The
—The Platy—The Dictyopygidae. — Order Chondrostei.
Order Selachostomi: the Paddle-fishes. — Order Pycnodonti. — Order Lepi—Family Lepisosteidae. —Embryology of the Garpike. —
Garpikes. — Order Halecomorphi. — Pachycormidas. —The Bowfins: Amiidae.

Classification of Ganoids.

somidse.

—^The

Palseoniscidae.

Dorypteridae.

dostei.

The

Fossil

Oligopleuridae

13

CHAPTER

III.

ISOSPONDYLI.
The

Subclass Teleostei, or

tion of the

Bony

Fishes.

Bony
— Order Isospondyli. —The
—Relationships Isospondyli. —The Clupeoidea.
Fishes.

Classifica-

of

The Leptolepidae.—The Elopidae.—The Albulids.—The Chanidae.—The
Hiodontidas.
The Pterothrissidae. The Ctenothrissidae. The Notopteridae.
The Clupeidae. The Dorosomatidas. The Engraulididas. GonoThe Osteoglossidae. The Pantodontidae
rhynchidas.
37












CHAPTER







IV.

SALMONID^.

— Coregonus, the Whitefish. —Argyrosomus, the Lake Her—Brachymystax and Stenodus, the Inconnus. — Oncorhynchus, the
Quinnat Salmon. — The Parent-stream Theory. —The Jadgeska Hatchery.
—Salmon-packing

The Salmon Family.
ring.

61



Contents

vi

CHAPTER
SALMONID^

V.

{Continued).

Salmo, the Trout and Atlantic Salmon.— The Atlantic Salmon.—The Ouananiche.—The Black -spotted Trout.—The Trout of Western America.— CutCharr.
throat or Red-throated Trout.— Hucho, the Huchen.— Salvelinus, the

— Cristivomer,
rant-fishing.

the Great

Lake Trout.—The Ayu, or Sweetfish.— Cormo-

—Fossil Salmonidse

89

CHAPTER

VI.

THE GRAYLING AND THE SMELT.

—The Argentinidae. —The Microstomidje. —The
—The Haplochitonidae. —Stomiatidae. —Suborder
Iniomi, the Lantern-fishes. —Aulopidae. —The Lizard-fishes. — Ipnopidse.
Rondeletiidae. — Myctophidae. — Chirothricidae. — Maurolicidas. — The
Lancet-fishes. —The Stemoptychidae. — Order Lyopomi

The

Grayling, or Thymallidae.
or

Salangidas,

Icefishes.

CHAPTER

VII.

THE APODES, OR EEL-LIKE

FISHES.

— Order Symbranchia. — Order Apodes, or True Eels. —Suborder
— Suborder Enchelycephali. —Family AnguilUdae. —Reproduction of the
—Food of the Eel. — Larva of the Eel. — Species of Eels.
Pug-nosed
— Conger-eels. —The Snake-eels. — Suborder Colocephali,
or Morays. — Family Moringuidae. — Order Carencheli, the Long-necked
Eels. — Order Lyomeri or Gulpers. — Order Heteromi

The

120

Eels.

Archencheli.

Eel.

Eels.

CHAPTER

139

VIII.

SERIES OSTARIOPHYSI.

—The Eventognathi. —The Cyprinidae.
—Chubs of the Pacific Slope. — The Carp and
Goldfish. —The Catostomidae. —
Cyprinidae. — The Loaches

Ostariophysi.

—The

Species of

Heterognathi.

Dace and

Shiner.

Fossil

CHAPTER

159

IX.

THE NEMATOGNATHI, OR CATFISHES.









The Nematognathi. Families of Nematognathi. The Siluridae. The Sea
Catfish.
The Channel Cats. Horned Pout. The Mad-toms. The Old
World Catfishes.— The Sisoridae. The Plotosidae. The Chlariidje.— The
Hypophthalmidae or Pygidiidae. The Loricariidae. The CaUichthyidie.



Fossil Catfishes.






— Order Gymnonoti




177


——
Contents

CHAPTER

vii

X.

THE SCYPHOPHORI, HAPLOMI, AND XENOMI.

—The
Mud minnows. — The

Order

Scyphophori.

Mormyrids.

KilUfishes.

Galaxiidae.

—The

Haplomi.

—The

PAGE

—The
— The

Pikes.

— Amblyopsidae. — Kneriidae,

etc.

—Order Xenomi

i88

CHAPTER

XI.

ACANTHOPTERYGII; SYNENTOGNATHI.
Order Acanthopterygii, the Spiny-rayed Fishes.

The

Garfishes: Belonidas.

—The Flying-fishes:
CHAPTER

— Suborder

Synentognathi.

208

Exocoetidae

XII.

PERCESOCES AND RHEGNOPTERI.






— Cobitopsidae. — Suborder Rhegnopteri

Suborder Percesoces. The Silversides: Atherinidae. The Mullets: MugiThe Barracudas; Sphyraenidae. Stephanoberycidae. Crossognathilidae.
dae.

CHAPTER



215

XIII.

PHTHINOBRANCHII: HEMIBRANCHII, LOPHOBRANCHII, AND
HYPOSTOMIDES.

—The Aulo—The Sticklebacks:
—The Trumpet-fishes: Aulostomi— Cornet-fishes:
—The Snipefishes: Macrorhamphosidae. —The Shrimp-fishes: CentriSyn—The Lophobranchs. —The Solenostomidae. —The
gnathidae. —The Sea-horses: Hippocampus. — Suborder Hypostomides, the

Suborder

Hemibranchii.

Gasterosteidae.

Fistulariidae.

rhynchidae.
dae.

Pipefishes:

scidas.

227

Sea-moths: Pegasidae

CHAPTER

XIV.

SALMOPERC.E AND OTHER TRANSITIONAL GROUPS-




Suborder Salmopercae, the Trout-perches: Percopsidae. Erismatopteridae.
Subordei Selenichthyes, the Opahs: Lamprididae. Suborder Zeoidea.
Amphistiidae.

—The John Dories:

Zeidae.

— Grammicolepidje

CHAPTER

241

XV.

BERYCOIDEI.
The Berycoid
centridae.





The Alfonsinos: Berycidas. The Soldier -fishes: Holo250
The Polymixiidae. The Pine-cone Fishes: Monocentridas

Fishes.






——
Contents

viii

CHAPTER

XVI.

PERCOMORPHI.
PAGE



Suborder Percomorphi,the Mackerels and Perches. The Mackerel Tribe: ScomThe True Mackerels: Scombridae. The Escolars: Gempylidae.
broidea.





Scabbard and Cutlass-fishes:
rhynchidae.

—The

Sailfishes:

—The
—The Swordfishes:

Lepidopidae and Trichiuridae.
Istiophoridae.

CHAPTER

Palaeo-

Xiphiidae..

.

.

258

XVII.

CAVALLAS AND PAMPANOS.

—The Papagallos: Nematistiidae. —The Blue—The Sergeant
Rachycentridse. —The ButRagfishes:
Stromateidas. —The
—The Pomfrets:
Coryphaenidae. —The Menidae. —The PemBramidae. — The Dolphins:

— The Square-tails: Tetragonuridae. —The Crested

The Pampanos:

Carangidae.

Cheilodipteridae.

fishes:

-fishes:

Icosteidae.

ter-fishes:

^Luvaridae.

pheridae.

Bandfishes: Lophotidae

272

CHAPTER

XVIII.

PERCOIDEA, OR PERCH-LIKE FISHES.
Percoid

Fishes.

fishes:

—The

Elassomidae.

Bass—The
Percidae.

Pirate-perches:

—The

—The Pigmy Sun— Crappies and Rock
Kuhliidas.-The True Perches:
Perches. —The Perches. —The Darters:

Sunfishes:

Aphredoderidae.
Centrarchidae.

Black Bass.— The Saleles:

—Relations

of Darters to

Etheostominae

293,

CHAPTER

XIX.

THE BASS AND THEIR RELATIVES.






The Cardinal -fishes: Apogonidas. The Anomalopidas. ^The Asineopidte
The Robalos: Oxylabracidae. The Sea-bass: Serranidae. The Jewfishes.
The Groupers. The Serranos. The Flashers: Lobotidse. The Big










—The Pentacerotidse. —The Snappers: Lutianidje.
The Grunts: Haemulidse.-The Porgies: Sparida.—The Picarels:
—The Mojarras: Gerridas. —The Rudder-fishes: Kyphosidse
Priacanthidae.

eyes:

Mffinidje.

CHAPTER XX.
THE SURMULLETS, THE CROAKERS AND THEIR RELATIVES.
The

Surmullets, or Goatfishes:

Perch:

Opisthognathidae,

Oplegnathidae.— The Swallowers:

canthidcB.

The

MuUidae.— The Croakers: Scianids.

etc.—The Jawfishes:

laginidae,

—The Blanquillos:
—The Sandfishes:

Cirrhitidas.

Latilidce.

Chiasmodontidse.

—The

Trichodontidae

—The

Sil-

etc.— The Stone-wall

Bandfishes:

—The

Mala-

Cepolidse.

316



Contents

CHAPTER

ix

XXI.

LABYRINTHICI AND HOLCONOTI.
PAGE

The Labyrinthine Fishes.—The Chmbing-perches: Anabantidae.—The Gou
ramis:
Osphromenidae.—The Snake-head Mullets;
Ophicephalids.—
Suborder Holconoti, the Surf -fishes.—The Embiotocidae
365



CHAPTER

XXII.

CHROMIDES AND PHARYNGOGNATHI.
Suborder Chromides.—The Cichlidae.— The Damsel-fishes: Pomacentridffi.—
Suborder Pharyngognathi. The Wrasse Fishes: Labridse.-The Parrot-



fishes: Scaridae

3S0

CHAPTER

XXIII.

THE SQUAMIPINNES.

—The Scorpididae. —The Boarfishes: Antigoniidae. —The
—The Ephippidae. —The Spade-fishes:
—The
Chaetodontidae. —The
Moorish Idols:
—The Tangs: Acanthuridas. —Suborder

The Squamipinnes.
Arches:

The
The

Toxotidae.

Ilarchidas.

Platacidae.

Butterfly-fishes:

Pygaeidae.

Zanclidas.

Amphacanthi, the Siganidae

397

CHAPTER

XXIV.

SERIES PLECTOGNATHI.

—^The
—The Trigger-fishes:
—The Spinacanthidae. —The Trunkfishes: Os—The Gymnodontes. —The Triodontidae. —The Globefishes: Tetraodontidae. —The Porcupine-fishes: Diodontida2. —The Head-fishes: Molidae.
411

The

Plectognaths.

—The

Scleroderms.

Balistidas.

Monacanthidae.

File-fishes:

traciidae.

.

CHAPTER XXV.
PAREIOPLIT^, OR MAILED-CHEEK FISHES.
The Mailed-cheek
fishes:

heads or Kochi:
poachers:

—The
—The

Fishes.

Anoplopomidae.

Scorpion-fishes:

Greenlings:

Skil-

Flat-

Sea—The Sculpins:
—The Lump-suckers: Cyclopteridae. —The
Baikal Cods: Comephoridae. — Suborder Craniomi: the
—The Flying Gurnards: Cephala—The
Cottidae.

Platycephalidae.

Sea-snails:

Agonidae.

Liparididae.

—The

—The
—The
—The

Scorpasnidae.

Hexagrammidas.

Gurnards, Triglidae.

Peristediidae.

426

canthidae

CHAPTER

XXVI.

GOBIOIDEI, DISCOCEPHALI,

AND T.ENIOSOMI.



Regalecidae. —The Dealfishes: Trachypteridas

Suborder Gobioidei, the Gobies: Gobiidae. Suborder Discocephali, the SharkSuborder Taeniosomi, the Ribbon-fishes. The
Echeneididas.
suckers:
Garfishes:



4S9



Contents

X

CHAPTER

XXVII.

SUBORDER HETEROSOMATA.

PAGE

Flatfishes.— Optic Nerves of Flounders.—Ancestry of Flounders.—The
Bothinae.— The Halibut
Flounders: Pleuronectidas.—The Turbot Tribe:

The

Tribe:

Hippoglossinffi.—The

Plaice Tribe:

Pleuronectinae.—The Soles:

Soleida.—The Broad Soles: Achirinae.—The European Soles (Soleinse).—

The

481

Tongue-fishes: Cynoglossinae

CHAPTER

XXVIII.

SUBORDER JUGULARES.
The

—The Weevers:
—The Star-gazers:

Jugular-fishes.

Leptoscopidae.

onymidae.

Trachinidae.

—The Nototheniidae. —The
—The Dragonets:

Uranoscopidae.

Calli-

—The Dactyloscopidae

499

CHAPTER XXIX.
THE BLENNIES: BLENNIIDiE.





The Northern Blennies: Xiphidiinae, Stichaeiniae, etc. The QuiUfishes: Ptilichthyidae.
The Blochiidae. The Pataecidae, etc. The Gadopsidae, etc.
The Wolf -fishes: Anarhichadidae. The Eel-pouts: Zoarcidae. The Cuskeels:
Ophidiidae.
Sand-lances: Ammodytidae. The Pearlfishes: Fierasferidae.
The Brotulidae. ^Ateleopodidae. Suborder Haplodoci. Suborder



















Xenopterygii

507

CHAPTER XXX.
OPISTHOMI AND ANACANTHINI.

— Order Anacanthini. —The Codfishes:
—The Grenadiers: Macrouridae

Order Opisthomi.
Merluciidae.

Gadidae.

—The Hakes:
532

CHAPTER XXXI.
ORDER PEDICULATI: THE ANGLERS.
Angler-fishes. —The Fishing-frogs: Lophiidae. —The Sea-devils:
—TheFrogfishes: Antennariidae. —TheBatfishes: Ogcocephalidas

The

Ceratiidae.

542


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
VOL.

II.

PAGE
Shoulder-girdle of a Flounder, Paralichihys calijornicus

Palaoniscum

2

jrieslebenense

14

Eurynotus crenatus

15

Dorypterus hoffmani

16

Chondrosietcs acipenseroides

Common

Acipenser sturio,

18

Sturgeon

Acipenser rubicundus, Lake Sturgeon

19
20

Scaphirhynchus platyrhynchus, Shovel-nosed Sturgeon

20

Polyodon spalhula, Paddle-fish, side-view

21

Polyodon spathida, Paddle-fish, view from below

21

Psephurus gladius

21

Cyrodus hexagonus

22

Mesturus verrucosus

23

Semionotus kapffi
Dapedium poliium

24

Tetragonolepis semicincius

26

Isopholis orlhosiomus

27

25

Lepisosteus osseus, Long-nosed Garpike

27

Caturus elongatus

28

Notagogus pentlandi

28

Ptycholepis curtus

28

Pholidophorus crenulaius

29

Lepisosteus iristiBchus, Alligator-gar

31

Lower Jaw

Amia

calva,

of

Amia

calva,

showing the gular plate

33

Bowfin (female)

35

Megalurus elegantissimus

36

Leptolepis dubius

41

Elops saurus, Ten-pounder

42
42

Holcolepis lewesiensis

Tarpon

atlanticus,

Tarpon or Grand

Ecaille

43

Albula vulpes, Lady-fish

44

Chanos chanos, Milkfish

45

Hiodon

tergisus,

Mooneye

45

46

Istieus grandis

46

Chirothrix libanicus
xi


List of Illustrations

xii

PAGE

Ctenothrissa vexilUjera

47


Clupea harengus, Herring

49

Pomolobics pseudoharengus, Alewife



Skeleton of Portheus molassus

Brevoortia tyrannus,

Menhaden

S^
5^

Diplomystus humilis

Dorosoma cepedianum, Hickory-shad
Anchovia perthecata, Silver Anchovy

53

Notogoneus osctdus

55

Phareodus

54

testis

Deposits of Green River Shales, bearing Phareodus, at Fossil,
A Day's Catch of fossil-fishes. Green River Eocene Shales

Wyoming

59
60

Alepocephalus agassizii
Coregontis williamsoni,

57
58

Rocky Mountain Whitefish

63

Coregonus clupeijormis, Whitefish

Argyrosomus nigripinnis, Bluefin Cisco

64
66

Sienodiis mackenziei, Inconnu
Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, Quinnat Salmon (female)

6q

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, King-salmon

70

67

(grilse)

Oncorhynchus nerka, Male Red Salmon

70

Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, Humpback Salmon (female)

72

Oncorhynchus masoic,

Masu

72

Oncorhynchus nerka, Red Salmon (mutilated dwarf male

after

spawning)

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, Quinnat Salmon (dying after spawmng)

76
77

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, Quinnat Salmon

79

Salmo irideus shasta. Rainbow Trout (male)Salmo irideus shasta. Rainbow Trout (female)
Salmo rivularis, Steelhead Trout
Head of Adult Troutworm, Dibothrium cordiceps.

98

pelican

Median segments

99
loi

From

intestine of white

103
of Dibothrium cordiceps

103

Salmo henshawi, Tahoe Trout
Salmo stomias. Green-back Trout
Salmo macdonaldi. Yellow-fin Trout of Twin Lakes
Salmo clarhii spilurus, Rio Grande Trout
Salmo clarhii pleuriticus, Colorado River Trout

104

Hucho

107

blackistoni, Ito

105
105

106
106

Salvelinus oquassa, Rangeley Trout

j^g

Salvelinus aureolus, Sunapee Trout

j-Qp

Salvelinus jontinalis. Speckled Trout (male)

j.j.q

Salvelinus jontinalis. Speckled Trout

j.j.j.

Salvelinus malma,

Malma Trout

Varden Trout
Cristivomer namaycush, Great Lake Trout

Salvelinus malma, Dolly

Plecoglossus altivelis, Ayu, or Japanese Samlet

^^
^ j.
j.^.

^ ^g


List of Illustrations

xiii
PAGE

Thymallus

signijer,

Thymallus

tricolor,

Alaska Grayling

120

Michigan Grayling

122

Osmerus mordax, Smelt

123

Thaleichihys pretiosus, Eulachon or Ulchen

124

Page

of

William Clark's Handwriting with Sketch of the Eulachon (Thaldch-

thys pacificus)

125

Mallotus villosus, Capelin

126

Salanx hyalocranius,

128

Icefish

Stomias jerox

128

Chatdiodus sloanei

129

Synodus

130

jceiens,

Lizard-fish

Ipnops murrayi

131

Cetomimus

132

Diaphiis

gillii

lucidiis.

Headlight-fish

132

Myciophumopalinum, Lantern-fish

133

Ceratoscopelus madeirensis, Lantern-fish

133

Rhinelltis jurcatiis

134

Plagyodus jerox, Lancet-fish

135

Eurypholis sulcidens

136

Eurypholis jreyeri

137

Argyropelecus

137

oljersi

Aldrovandia gracilis
Anguilla chrisypa.

Common

Anguilla chrisypa, Larva of

138
Eel

143

Common

Eel

148

Simenchelys parasiticus, Pug-nosed Eel

149

Synaphobranchus pinnatus

149

Leptocephalus conger. Conger-eel

150

Larva of Conger-eel, Leptocephalus conger
Xyrias revulsus
Myrichthys pantostigmius

151

Ophichthus

ocellatus

151

Nemichthys avocetta, Thread-eel
Jaws of Nemichthys avocetta

152

Murcena retijera
Gymnothorax berndti

153

Gymnothorax jordani
Gymnothorax moringa, Moray

iSS

Derichthys serpentinus

156

Gastrostomus bairdi, Gulper-eel

156

150

151

152

iS4

iSS

Notacanthus phasganorus
Inrjer view of

158,

Buffalo-fish (Ictiobus buhalus),

shoulder-girdle of

showing the
160

mesocoraftaid

Weberian apparatus and air-bladder of Carp
Brycon dentex
Pharyngeal bones and teeth of European Chub, Leuciscus cephalus


163
162

163


List of Illustrations

xiv

PAGE

Rhinichthys dulcis, Black-nosed Dace

164

Notropis hudsonius, White

165

Ericymba buccata,

Chub
Silver-jaw Minnow

165

Notropis whipplei, Silverfin

166

Camposioma anomalum,

167

Head

of

Stone-roller

Day-chub, Exoglossum maxillingua

167

Horned Dace

Semoiilus atromaculatus,

168

Abramis chrysoleucus, Shiner

168

Ptychocheilus grandis, Squawfish

169

Leuciscus lineatus.

Chub

Lower Pharyngeal

of Placopharynx duquesnii

Erimyzon

of the Great Basin

sucetta, Creekfish or

169
171

Chub-sucker

172

Ictiobus cyprinella, Buffalo-fish

173

Carpiodes cyprinus, Carp-sucker

1

Catostomus commersoni,

Common

73

Sucker

174

Catosiomus occidentalis, California Sucker

174

Pharyngeal teeth of Oregon Sucker, Catostomus macrocheilus

175

Xyrauchen cypho, Razor-back Sucker

175

Gaff-topsail Cat

179

Galeichthys milberti, Sea Catfish

Ictalwus punctatus, Channel Catfish

179
180

Ameiurus nebulosus, Horned Pout

181

Felichthys

jelis,

Schilbeodes juriosus,

Torpedo

Mad-tom.

Showing the poisoned pectoral spine

eleclricus, Electric Catfish

Chlarias breviceps, African Catfish
Loricaria aurea,

Gnathonemus
Esox

185

Mailed Catfish from Venezuela

186

curvirostris

189

Pike

lucius,

182
183

191

Esox masquinongy, Muskallunge

192

Umbra pygmaa. Mud-minnow

1^3
ig^

Anableps dovii, Four-eyed Fish

Minnow
Minnow

Cyprinodon variegatus, Round

106

Tordanella florida, Everglade

107

Fundulis majalis, Mayfish (male)

iqg

Pundulis majalis, Mayfish (female)

iqg

Zygonectes notatus,

Top-minnow

jpg
jno

Empetrichthys merriami, Death Valley Fish

Xiphophorus
Goodea

helleri,

luitpoldi,

Sword-tail

Minnow

(male)

jon

a Viviparous Fish

Chologaster cornutus, Dismal

Swamp

200
Fish

201

Typhlichthys subterranetts, Blind Cave-fish

Amblyopsis

spelceus, Blindfish of the

Dallia pectoralis, Alaska Blackfish

Mammoth Cave

202
«

203

206

Tylosurus acus, Needle-fish

210

Scombresox saurus, Saury

212


List of Illustrations

xv
PAGE

Hyporhamphus

unijasciatus, Halfbeak

212

Fodiator acutus, Sharp-nosed Flying-fish

213

Cypselurus calijornicus, Catalina Flying-fish
Chirostoma humboldlianum, Pescado bianco

217

214

Kirtlandia vagrans, Silverside or Brit
Atherinopsis calijorniensis, Blue Smelt or Fez del
750 flos-maris, Flower of the Waves

Mugil

217

Rey

218
218

cephalus, Striped Mullet

221

Joturus pichardi, Joturo or Bobo

222

Sphyrcena barracuda, Barracuda

223

Cohitopsis acuta

224

Shoulder-girdle of a Threadfin, Polydactylus approximans

225

Polydactylus octonemus, Threadfin

225

Shoulder-girdle of a Stickleback, Gasterosieus aculeatus..

.

227

.-.

Shoulder-girdle of Fistularia petimba, showing greatly extended interclavicle,

the surface ossified

227

Casterosteus aculeatus, Three-spined Stickleback

232

Apeltes quadracus, Four-spined Stickleback

232

Aulostomus chinensis, Trumpet-fish

234

Macrorhamphosus

234

sagijue,

Japanese Snipefish.

^oliscus strigatus, Shrimp-fish

235

jEoliscus heinrichi

235

Solenosiomus cyanopterus

237

Hippocampus hudsonius, Sea-horse

238

Zalises umitengu. Sea-moth

240

Percopsis guttatus, Sand-roller

241

Erismatopterus endlicheri

242

242
Columbia iransmontana, Oregon Trout-perch
Shoulder-girdle of the Opah, Lampris guttatus (Brunniach), showing the en243

larged infraclavicle

Semiophorus

246

velijer

Amphistium paradoxum
Zeus fdber, John Dory

247

Skull of a Berycoidfish, Beryx splendens, showing the orbitosphenoid

250

Beryx splendens
Hoplopteryx lewesiensis

251

Paratrachichthys prosthemius

253

Holocentrus ascenscionis, Soldier-fish

254

Holocentrus ittodai

254

Ostichthys japonicus

255

248

252

Monocentris japonicus, Pine-cone Fish

256

Scomber scombrus, Mackerel
Germo alalunga. Long-fin Albacore

260

Scomberomorus maculatus, Spanish Mackerel
Trichiurus lepturus, Cutlass-fish

263


264

268


List of Illustrations

xvi

PAGE

Palmorhynchus glarisianus

268

Xiphias gladius, Young Swordfish

269

Xiphias gladius, Swordfish

270

Naitcrates ductor, Pilot-fish

273

Seriola lalandi, Amber-fish

273

Trachurus trachurus, Saurel

274

Carangus chrysos, Yellow Mackerel

275

Trachinotus carolinus, the

Pampano

277

Rachycentron canadum, Sergeant -fish

279
282

Peprilus paru, Harvest -fish

284

Gohiomorus gronovii, Portuguese Man-of-War Fish

285

Coryphxna hippurus, Dolphin or Dorado
Mene maadata

288

Cheilopdipterus saltatrix, Bluefish

Gasteronemus rhombeus

287

289

Pempheris midleri, Catalufa de

lo Alto

289

Pempheris nyctereutes

290

Luvarus imperialis, Louvar

290

Aphredoderus sayanus, Pirate Perch

295

Elassoma evergladei, Everglade Pigmy Perch

Rock

Skull of the

Bass, Amblopliks rupestris

Pomoxis annularis, Crappie
Pomoxis annularis, Crappie (from

297
life)

Rock Bass
Mesogonistius chatodon, Banded Sunfish
AmUoplites

rupestris,

Lepomis pallidus, Blue-gill

Lepomis megalotis. Long-eared Sunfish

Common

Eupomoiis gibbosus.

295

296

Sunfish

Mouth Black Bass
Large Mouth Black Bass

298
299
299
300

300
301

Micropterus dolomieu, Small

303

Micropterus salmoides.

305

Perca flavescens. Yellow perch

308

Stizostedion canadense, Sauger

309

Aspro

asper,

Aspron

Zingel zingel, Zingel

309
310

Percina caprodes, Log-perdh

311

Hadroplerus aspro, Black-sided Darter

311

Diplesion blennioides, Green-sided Darter

312

Boleosoma olmstedi, Tessellated Darter

312

Crystallaria asprella, Crystal Darter

213
315

Ammocrypta

clara.

Sand-darter

Etheostoma jordani
Etheostoma camurum. Blue-breasted Darter

Apogon

retrosella.

Cardinal-fish

Kurom^tsu

Telescopias gilberti,

Apogon

semilineatus

314
^14
2i6
^18
3ig


List of Illustrations

xvii
PAGE

Oxylabrax undecimahs, Robalo
Morone americana, White Perch
Promicrops ilaiara, Florida Jewfish

319

Eptnephelus

324

322
323

Nassau Grouper: Cherna criolla
Epinephelus drummond-hayi, John Paw or Speckled Hind
Eptnephelus morio. Red Grouper
Epinephelus adscensionis, Red Hind
Mycleroperca venenosa, Yellow-fin Grouper
striaius,

325
325

326

Hypoplectrus unicolor nigricans

327
328

Epinephelus niveaius, Snowy Grouper

329

Rypticus btsirispinus, Soapfish

330

Lobotes surinamensts, Flasher

331

Priacanthus arenaius, Catalufa

331

Pseudopriacanihus

332

alius,

Big-eye

Lutianus griseus, Gray Snapper

334

Lutianus apodus, Schoolmaster

335

Hoplopagrus guntheri

336

Lutianus synagris, Lane Snapper or Biajaiba

336

Ocyurus chrysurus. Yellow-tail Snapper

337

Eielis oculaius,

Xenocys

Cachucho

337

jessice

338

Aphareus jurcatus

339
340

Htemuion plumieri, Grunt
Anisoiremus virginicus, Porkfish

341

Pagrus major, Red Tai

342

of

Japan

Ebisu, the Fish-god of Japan, bearing a

Red Tai

343

Stenotomus chrysops^ Scup

344

Calamus bajonado, Jolt-head Porgy
Calamus proridens, Little-head Porgy

345

Diplodus holbrooki

346

Archosargus unimaculaius, Salema, Striped Sheepshead

347
348

Xystama cinereum, Mojarra
Gerres olisthoslomus, Irish Pampano
Kyphpsus seciairix, Chopa or Rudder-fish

345

349
349

Apomotis cyanellus. Blue-green Sunfish
Pseudupeneus maculatus. Red Goatfish or Salmonete

350

Mullus auratus. Golden Surmullet
Cynoscion nebulosus, Spotted Weakfish

352

Bairdiella chrysura. Mademoiselle

355

Scicenops ocellata.

Umbrina

Red Drum

sinaloce. Yellow-fin

351

353

356

Roncador

Menticirrhus americanus, Kingfish

Pogonias chromis,

,

Drum

357

357
358

Gnathypops evermanni

359

Opisihognaihus macrognathus, Jawfish

359

.


.

List of Illustrations

xviii

PAGE

3^°

Opislhognathus nigromarginatus

Chiasmodon

niger,

3^°

Black Swallower

3^4
364
366

Cirrhitus rivulatus

Trichodon trichodon, Sandfish

Anabas scandens, Climbing Perch

Channa jormosana

371

Ophic(Ephalus barca, Snake-headed China-fish

371

1

Cymatogaster aggregaius, White Surf-fish

Hyslerocarpus

372

Fresh-water Viviparous Perch

traski,

373
373

Hypsurtis caryi

Damalichthys argyrosomus, White Surf-fish

374

Rhacochilus toxotes, Thick -hpped Surf-fish

374

Hypocrilichthys analis, Silver Surf -fish, Viviparous

375
379

Hyslerocarpus

traski,

Viviparous Perch (male)

Hypsypops rubicunda. Garibaldi

382

Pomacentrus

382

leucostictus,

Damsel-fish

Glyphisodon marginatus, Cockeye Pilot

Microspathodon

Tauioga

onilis,

Tautoga

onilis,

Lachnolaimus

dorsalis,

383
384

Indigo Damsel-fish

Tautog
Tautog

384
386

jalcatus, Capitaine or

Hogfish

Xyrichlhys psitlacus, Razor-fish

387
388

Pimelomelopon pulcher, Redfish (male)

389

Lepidaplois perdilio

389

Pharyngeals of Itahan Parrot-fish,

Jaws

5pamoma cre^ewie.

a.

Upper;

ft,

Lower.

Calotomus xenodon

of Parrot-fish,

...

391

391

Cryptotomus beryllinus

391

Sparisoma hoplomyslax

392

Sparisoma abildgaardi. Red Parrot -fish

392

Jaws

of

Blue Parrot-fish, Scarus caruleus

Upper pharyngeals
Lower pharyngeals

of a Parrot -fish, Scarus strongylocephalus
of a Parrot-fish, Scarus strongylocephalus

393
393
393

Scarus emblematicus

294

Scarus caruleus, Blue Parrot-fish

794

Scarus vetula, Parrot-fish

795

HalichcBres bivittatus, Slippery Dick or Doncella, a fish of the coral-reefs

399

Mononactylus argenteus

,0^

Psettus sebce

,00

ChcElodipterus jaber, Spadefish

-qj-

Chcetodon capistratus. Butterfly-fish

Pomacanthus arcuatus, Black Angel-fish
Holacanthus ciliaris, Angel-fish or Isabelita
Holacanthus tricolor. Rock Beauty
Zanclus canescens, Moorish Idol
Teuthts ccBruleus, Blue

Tang

.q2

^^,
.^

g


List of Illustrations

xix
PAGE

Teulkis bahianus,

Brown Tang

408

Balistes carolinensis, Trigger-fish

412

Osbeckia

IcBvis, File-fish

414

Amanses

scopas. Needle-bearing File-fish

Stephanolepis hispidus,

Lactophrys

tricornis_

Ostracion cornutum,

Common

File-fish

Horned Trunkfish, Cowfish, or Cuckold
Korned Trunkfish

Lactophrys hicaudalis, Spotted Trunkfish
Lactophrys

bicatidalis,

Lactophrys

iriqtieter,

Spotted Trunkfish (face view)

414
415

416
416
416
417

Spineless Trunkfish

417

Lactophrys trigonus, Hornless Trunkfish

418

Skeleton of the Cowfish, Lactophrys tricornis

418

Lagocephalus IcBvigatus, Silvery Puffer

419
420
420

Spheroides spengleri, Puffer, Inflated
Spheroides maculatus, Puffer

Tetraodon meleagris

421

Tetraodon setosus, Bristly Globefish

422

Diodon

422

hystrix, Porcupine-fish

Chilomycterus

schospfi, Rabbit-fish

423

Mola mola, Headfish (adult)
Ranzania makua, King of the Mackerel, from Honolulu

424

Sebastes marinus, Rosefish

427

Skull of Scorpanichthys marmoratus

Sebastolobus altivelis

427
428

Sebasiodes myslinus, Priest -fish

430

Sebasiichthys serriceps

431

Sebastichthys nigrocinctus,

Banded Rockfish

425

432

Scorpoena grandicornis, Lion-fish

433

Scorpana mystes, Sea-scorpion

434

Pierois volitans, Lion-fish or Sausolele

435

Emmydrichthys vulcanus, Black Nohu or Poison-fish

436

Snyderina yamanokami

437
438

Trachtcephales uranoscopus

Anoplopoma fimbria, Skilfish
Pleurogrammus monopterygius, Atka-fish
Hexagrammos docagrammus, GreenUng
Ophiodon

elongatus, Cultus

Cod

438
439
440

440

Jordania zonope

442

Astrolytes notospilotus

442

Hemilepidotus jordani, Irish Lord

443

Triglops pingeli

Enophrys

443

,.

bison, Buffalo Sculpin

443

Ceratocottus diceraus

Elanura

444
444

jorficata

Coitus punctulatas, Yellowstone Miller's

Thumb

444


1

XX

List of Illustrations
PAGE

Uranidea

tenuis, Miller's

Thumb

445

CoUus evermanni

445

Coitus gulosus, California Miller's

Myxocephalus

Thumb

446

niger, Pribilof Sculpin

446

Myxocephalus octodecimspinosus, iS-spined Sculpin

447

Oncocottus quadricornis

447
448

Blepsias cirrhosus

Hemitripterus americanus, Sea-raven

448

Oligocottus maculosus

Ereunias grallator

449
450

Psychrolutes paradoxus, Sleek Sculpin

451

Gilbertidia sigolutes

451

Rhamphocottus richardsoni, Richardson's Sculpin

451

Stelgis vulsus

451

Draciscus sachi

452

Pallasina barbaia, Agonoid-fish

"

453

Aspidophoroides monopierygius

453

Cydopierus lumpus, Lumpfish

454

Crystallias matsushimcB, Liparid

454

Neoliparis mucosus, Snailfish

455

Prionotus evolans, Sea-robin

456

Cephalacanthus volitans, Flying Gurnard

4:7

Peristedion minialwm

45 7

Philypnus dormitor, Guavina de Rio
Eleotris pisonis,

-

Dormeur

460

Dormitator maculatus, Guavina

mapo

461

Vireosa hance

46

Gobionellus oceanicus, Esmeralda de

Mar

461

Pterogobius daimio

Aboma

460

462

etheosioma, Darter

Goby

462

Long-jawed Goby

463

Boleophthalmus chinensis. Pond-skipper

455

Periophthalmus barbarus, Mud-skippy

466

EutcBfiiichthys gillii

Leptecheneis naucrates. Sucking-fish or Pegador

467
468

Rhombochirus

460

Gillichthys mirabilis,

osteochir

Regaleaus glesneacsanius, Glesnees Garfish

4^6

Trachypterus rex-salmononim, Dealfish or King of the Salmon

478

Young Flounder

482

just hatched

Pseudopleuronectes americanus, Larval Flounder

Larval Stages of Platophrys podas, a Flounder
Platophrys lunatus, Peacock Flounder
Heterocercal Tail of

Homocercal Tail

of

Young Trout, Salmo

484
481;

jario.

a Flounder, Paralichthys calijornicus

Lophopsetta maculata, Window-pane

487

486
486
48 7


List of Illustrations

xxi

Syacium papillosum, Wide-eyed Flounder
Etopus crossotus

488

Hippoglossus hippoglossus, Halibut

492

Paralichthys dentatus, Wide-mouthed Flounder
Liopsetia putnami, Eel-back Flounder

494

Platichthys stellatus, Starry Flounder

495

Achirus

lineatus,

489
493

Hog-choker Sole

496

Symphurus plagiusa

498

Pteropsaron evolans

502

Bathymaster signatus

503;

Ariscopus iburius

504

Astroscopus guttatus, Star-gazer

505

Neoclinus

507
508

Blenny
Kelp Blenny

satiricus, Sarcastic

Gibbonsia evides,

Blennius cristatus
Altictis atlanticus.

508

Rock-skipper

509

Alticus saliens, Lizard-skipper

Emblemaria

atlantica



509
510

Scartichthys enosinuB, Fish of the rock -pools of the sacred island of Enoshima,

Japan

510

Zacalles bryope

Bryostemma

tarsodes.

511

511

'.

Exerpes asper

511

Pholis gunnellus, Gunnel

512

Xiphistes chirus

512

Ozorthe dictyogramma

513

StichcEus punctatus

513

Bryostemma otohime

514

Ptilichthys goodei, Quillfish

514

Blochius longirostris

514

Xiphasia

515

setijera

Wrymouth

Cryptacanthodes maculatus,

516

Anarkichas lupus, Wolf-iish

517

Skull of Anarrhichthys ocellatus

517
518

Zoacres anguillaris. Eel-pout

Lycodes reticulatus. Eel-pout

5^9

Lycenchelys

5^9

verrilli

Scytalina cerdale

5^9

Rissola marginala, Cusk-eel

Lycodapus dermatinus

S20
S^o

Ammodytes americanus. Sand-lance

521
S^i

Embolichthys mitsukurii
Fierasjer dubius, Pearlfish,

Embedded

in Pearl

522

Fierasjer acus, Pearlfish

5^3

Brotula barbaia

5^4


.

List of Illustrations

xxii

PAGE

Lucijuga subterranea, Blind Brotula
Opsanus pardus, Leopard Toadfish

524

Porichlhys porosissimus, Singing Fish (with

Aspasma

Many

525
526

Lateral Lines)

53°

ciconicB

Caularchus mceandricus, Clingfish

Maslacembelus

Gadus

531

ellipsijer

532

Codfish

533

callarias,

Skull of Haddock, Melanogrammus
Melanogrammus cegifinus, Haddock

CBglifinus

536
536

Theragra chalcogramma, Pollock

Microgradus tomcod,

537
538

Tomcod

Lota maculosa, Burbot

539

Enchelyopus cimbrius, Four-bearded Rockling

539
540

Merluccius productus, California

Hake

Coryphanoides carapinus, showing leptocercal

tail

540

Calorhynchus carminatus, Grenadier
Steindachnerella argentea

Lophius

litulon,

Anko

'.

or Fishing-frog

Cryptopsaras couesi

541

'

Ceralias holbolli, Deep-sea Angler

.

.

541

545

547
548

Caulophryne jordani

548

Pterophryne tumida, Sargassum-fish, one of the Anglers

Antennarius nox, Fishing-frog

549
550

Shoulder-girdle of a Batfish, Ogcocephalus radiatus

551

Antennarius scaber, Frogfish

551

Ogcocephalus vespertilio

552

Ogcocephalus vespertilio, Batfish

557

Ogcocephalus

55^

vespertilio, Batfish


CHAPTER

I

THE GANOIDS
UBCLASS

omy

Actinopteri.

— In our glance over the taxon-

of the earlier Chordates, or fish-like vertebrates,

we have detached from

the main stem one after another a long series of archaic or primitive types. We have first
set off those with rudimentary notochord, then those with retrogressive

development who

lose the notochord, then those with-

out skull or brain, then those without limbs or lower jaws.
The residue assiune the fish-like form of body, but still show
great differences among themselves. We have then detached
those without membrane-bones, or trace of lung or air-bladder.
We next part company with those having the air-bladder a
veritable lung, and those with an ancient type of paired fins,
a jointed axis fringed with rays, and those having the palate
We have finally left only those
still forming the upper jaw.
having fish-jaws, fish-fins, and in general the structure of the
modem fish. For all these in all their variety, as a class or
subclass, the name Actinopteri, or Actinopterygii, suggested by
The shorter form,
Professor Cope, is now generally adopted.
correct
certainly
preferable.
equally
is
This
Actinopteri, being
term {uktis, ray; nrepov or nrepvS, fin) refers to the structure
In all these fishes the bones supporting
of the paired fins.
the fin-rays are highly specialized and at the same time conIn general
cealed by the general integument of the body.
pectoral
fin
with
the
the
shoulder-girdle.
connect
two bones
The hypercoracoid is a flat square bone, usually perforated
by a foramen. Lying below it and parallel with it is the irreguAttached to them is a row of bones,
larly formed hypocoracoid.
the

actinosts,

or

pterygials,

short,

often

hour-glass-shaped,

which actually support the fin-rays. In the more specialized
forms, or Teleosts, the actinosts are few (four to six) in number.


The Ganoids
but in the more primitive types, or Ganoids, they may remain
numerous, a reminiscence of the condition seen in the CrossopOther variations may
terygians, and especially in Polypterus.

~

occur

the two coracoids

;

sometimes are imperfect
or specially modified, the

upper sometimes without
a foramen, and the ac-

may be distorted
form or position.
The Series Ganoidei.

tinosts

in



Among

many

nopteri
traits

lower Acti-

the

still

archaic

persist,

and

in its earlier representa-

group
apthe
proaches closely to the
Crossopterygii, although

tives

no forms actually

inter-

mediate are known either
or

living

great group

may be

The

fossil.

of Actinopteri

divided into two

series or subclasses, the

Ganoidei, or Chrondrostei,

containing those forms,

mostly extinct, which

re-

tain archaic traits of one

and the
bony fishes,
which most of the

sort or another,
Tig.

1.

— Shoulder-girdle

of a Flounder,
lichihys californicus (Ayres).

Para-

Teleostei, or

in

primitive characters have disappeared. Doubtless
Teleostei are descended from a ganoid ancestry.

Even among the

Ganoidei, as the term

is

all

of

the

here restricted,

there remains a very great variety of form and structure.

The

and existing forms do not form continuous series, but represent the tips and remains of many diverging branches perhaps
from some Crossopterygian central stock. The group constitutes
at least three distinct orders and, as a whole, does not admit of

fossil


The Ganoids

3

In most but not all of the species the tail
and obviously heterocercal, the lack of symmetry
of the tail in some Teleosts being confined to the bones and notevident without dissection. Most of the Ganoids have the
skeleton still cartilaginous, and in some it remains in a very
primitive condition.
Usually the Ganoids have an armature
of bony plates, diamond-shaped, with an enamel like that
developed on the teeth. In all of them the pectoral fin has
numerous basal bones or actinosts. All of them have the airbladder highly developed, usually cellular and functional as a
lung, but connecting with the dorsal side of the gullet, not with

perfect definition.
is

distinctly

the ventral side as in the Dipnoans.

In
a more or less perfect optic chiasma.

forms there
is
These ancient forms
retain also the many valves of the arterial bulb and the spiral
valve of the intestines found in the more archaic types of fishes.
But traces of some or all of these structures are found in some
bony fishes, and their presence in the Ganoids by no means
justifies the union of the Ganoids with the sharks, Dipnoans,
and Crossopterygians to form a great primary class, Palceichthyes, as proposed by Dr. Giinther.
Almost every form of body
may be found among the Ganoids. In the Mesozoic seas these
fishes were scarcely less varied and perhaps scarcely less abundant
than the Teleosts in the seas of to-day. They far exceed the
Crossopterygians in n-umber and variety of forms. Transitional
forms connecting the two groups are thus far not recognized. So
far as fossils show, the characteristic actinopterous fin with its
reduced and altered basal bones appeared at once without inall living

tervening gradations.
The name Ganoidei (yavos, brightness;

eiiSos,

resemblance),

alluding to the enameled plates, was first given by Agassiz to
those forms, mostly extinct, which were covered with bony scales
As the term was originally
or hard plates of one sort or another.
defined, mailed catfishes, sea-horses, Agonidcs, Arthrodires,
Ostracophores, and other wholly unrelated types were included
Most of these
with the garpikes and sturgeons as Ganoids.
by Johannes
eliminated
fishes
were
living
intruding forms among

MuUer, who recognized the various archaic characters common
to the existing forms after the removal of the mailed Teleosts.
Still later

Huxley separated the Crossopterygians

as a distinct


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