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THE STUDY OF FISHES V01

A GUIDE
TO

THE STUDY OF FISHES
BY

DAVID STARR JORDAN
President cf Leland Stanford

With Colored

and

Frontispieces

IN

TWO

J uiilor


University

42"] Illustrations

Vni,UMES

VOL

I.

"

I

am

the wiser in respect to all

edge and the better qualified
for

knowing

brfjok."

NEW

that there

is

— Thoreait

^T)RK

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY
1905

a


knowl-

for all fortunes

minnow

in that


l/'"

c-^

i

G

Copyrig-ht, 1905

EV

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY
Published March, 1905

ROBERT DRUMMOND, PRINTER,

NHW YORK


To
trbeoJ)ore Gill,
Ichthyologist, Philosopher, Critic, Master in
this

volume

is

dedicated.

Taxonomy,



PREFACE
This work treats of the fish from all the varied points of
view of the different branches of the study of Ichthyology. In
general all traits of the fish are discussed, those which the fish
shares with other animals most briefly, those which relate to
the evolution of the group and the divergence of^ its various
classes and orders most fully.
The extinct forms are restored
to their place in the series and discussed along with those still
extant.

In general, the writer has drawn on his
ichthyologist,

and with

this

on

all

own

experience as an

the literature of the science.

Special obligations are recognized in the text.

To Dr. Charles

indebted for a critical reading of most of his
proof-sheets
to Dr. Bashford Dean, for criticism of the proofsheets of the chapters on the lower fishes to Dr. William Emerson Ritter, for assistance in the chapters on Protochordata; to
Dr. George Clinton Price, for revision of the chapters on lancelets
and lampreys, and to Mr. George Clark, Secretary of Stanford
University, for assistance of various kinds, notably in the prep-

H. Gilbert, he

is

;

;

aration of the index.

many

To

Dr. Theodore Gill, he has been for

years constantly indebted for illuminating suggestions, and

Barton Warren Evermann, for a variety of favors. To
Dr. Richard Rathbun, the writer owes the privilege of using
illustrations from the "Fishes of Xorti: and Middle America"
by Jordan and Evermann. The remaining plates were drawn
for this work by Mary H. Wellman, Kako Morita, and Sekko
Shimada. Many of the plates are original. Those copied from
to Dr.

other authors are so indicated in the text.
No bibliography has been included in this work.

A

writers so complete as to have value to the student woulcl

list

of

make


viii

Preface

a volume of

itself.
The principal works and their autliors are
discussed in the chapter on the History of Ichthyolog}', and

with

must be contented.
a book valuable to technical
students, interesting to anglers and nature lovers, and instructive to all who open its pages.
tliis

for the present the reader

The writer has hoped

to

make

David Starr Jordan.
Palo Alto,

S.xnt.a

Cl.-vr.a

October,

County, Cal.,

1904.


CONTENTS
VOL.

I.

CHAPTER
THE
What

a Fish?

is

Fish.

LIFE OF

—The

THE FISH

Long-eared Sunfish.

I.

(Lepomis megalotis).

— Form

PAGE
of the Fish.

— Face

of

the

— How the Fish Breathes. —Teeth of the Fish. — How the Fish Sees.

Color of the Fish.— The Lateral Line.— The Fins of the Fish.— The Skele-

— The Fish
— The Fish's Nest

ton of the Fish.
Fish.

Action.— The Air-bladder.— The Brain

in

3

CHAPTER

II.

THE EXTERIOR OF THE
Form

of

Body.

—Measurement

of

Ctenoid and Cycloid Scales.

— Lateral

Line.

— Function

of the

— The Scales or E.xoskeleton.
— Bony and Prickly Scales.
Lateral Line. — The Fins of Fishes.

the

Fish.

— Placoid

of

the

FISH.

Scales.

Muscles

16

CH.\PTER

III.

THE DISSECTIOX OF THE

FISH.

Sunfish. — The Viscera. — Organs of Xutrition. — The
— The Spiral Valve. — Length of the Intestine

The Blue-green
tary Canal.

CHAPTER

Alimen26

IV.

THE SKELETON OF THE

FISH.

— Homologies of Bones of Fishes. — Parts of the
— Names of Bones of Fishes. — Bones of the Cranium. — Bones of
the Jaws. — The Suspensorium of the Mandible. — Membrane Bones of Head.
— Branchial Bones. — The Gill-arches. — The Pharyngeals. — The Vertebral

Specialization of the Skeleton.

Skeleton.

Column.

—The Interneurals

Shoulder-girdle.

— The

Primitive Fishes.

—The

and Interhsemals.- The Pectoral Limb.— The

Posterior Limb.

— Degeneration. — The

Skeleton

Skeleton of Sharks.— The ;\rchipterygium

in

34


Contents

X

CHAPTER

V,

MORPHOLOGY OF THE

FINS OF FISHES.

PAGE

of the
Origin of the Fins of Fishes.^Origin of the Paired Fins.— Development
TheCurrent
Paired Fins in the Embryo.— Evidences of Palaeontology.—
Fold.—
Lateral
the
of
Theory
ories as to Origin of Paired Fin.— Balfour's

Objections.— Objections

to

Gegenbaur's Theory.— Kerr's Theory of Modi-

External Gills.— Uncertain Conclusions.— Forms of the Tail in Fishes.
Homologies of the Pectoral Limb.— The Girdle in Fishes other than

fied



62

Dipnoans

CHAPTER

VI.

THE ORGANS OF RESPIRATION.
Fishes Breathe.— The Gill Structures.— The Air-bladder.— Origin of the
Air-bladder.— The Origin of Lungs.— The Heart of the Fish.— The Flow

How

of

91

Blood

CHAPTER Vn.
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The Nervous System.— The Brain of the Fish.— The Pineal Organ.— The
109
Brain of Primitive Fishes.— The Spinal Cord.— The Ner\-es

CHAPTER

VHI.

THE ORGANS OF
The Organs

of

SENSE.

of Sight. — The Organs of
— The Sense of Taste. — The Sense of Touch

Smell.— The Organs

Voices of Fishes.

CHAPTER

Hearing.
115

LX.

THE ORG.ANS OF REPRODUCTION.
The

Germ-cells,

—The Eggs of Fishes. — Protection of the Eggs. — Sexual Modi124

fication

CHAPTER

X.

THE EMBRYOLOGY AND GROWTH OF

— General Laws of Development. — The
— The Development of the Bony Fishes.
Development
Fishes. — Peculiar Larval Fomis. — The DevelFlounders. — Hybridism. — The Age of Fishes. — Tenacity of

Postembryonic Development.

Signifi-

cance of Facts of Development.

The Larval
opment

of

FISHES.

of


Contents

xi
PAGE

Life.— Effect

Temperature on Fishes.— Transportation of Fishes.— Reproduction of Lost Parts.— Monstrosities among Fishes
131
of

CHAPTER XL
INSTINCTS, HABITS,

AND ADAPTATIONS.

The Habits of Fishes.— Irritability of Animals.— Nerve-cells and Fibers.
The Brain or Sensorium.— Reflex Action.— Instinct.— Classification of

—Variability of Instincts.— Adaptations Environment.— Flight
— Quiescent Fishes.—Migratory Fishes.—Anadromous Fishes.—
Pugnacity of Fishes. — Fear and Anger
Fishes. — Calhng the Fishes.
Sounds
Fishes. — Lurking Fishes. — The Unsymmetrical Eyes
the
Flounder. — Carrying Eggs
the Mouth

Instincts.

to

of Fishes.

in

of

of

in

CHAPTER

152

XII.

ADAPTATIONS OF

FISHES.

— Venomous Spines. — The Lancet of the Surgeon-fish.
— Spines of the Sting-ray. — Protection through Poisonous Flesh of Fishes.
Electric Fishes. — Photophores or Luminous Organs. — Photophores
the
Iniomous Fishes. — Photophores of Porichthys. — Globefishes. — Remoras.
Sucking-disks of Clingfishes. — Lampreys and Hogfishes. — The Sword—The Paddle-fishes. — The Sawfishes. — Peculiarities of Jaws and
TemperTeeth. — The Angler-fishes. — Relation of Number of Vertebra;
ature, and the Struggle for Existence. — Number of Vertebrje: Soft-rayed
Fishes; Spiny-rayed Fishes; Fresh-water Fishes; Pelagic Fishes. — Varia—DegeneraConditions of
tions
Fin-rays. — Relation of Numbers
tion of Structures. — Conditions of Evolution among Fishes

Spines of the Catfishes.

in

fishes.

to

Life.

to

in

CHAPTER
COLORS OF

179

XIII.

FISHES.

— Protective Coloration, — Protective Markings. — Sexual Colora— Nuptial Coloration. — Coral-reef Fishes. — Recognition Marks. — InPatSpirits.— Variation
tensity of Coloration. — Fading of Pigments

Pigmentation.
tion.

in

in

226

tern.

CHAPTER

XIV.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF
Zoogeography.
riers.

— General

— Species

Changed

Laws

of Distribution.- Species

Absent through

through

Natural

Failure

to

FISHES.
Absent through Bar-

Maintain Foothold.— Species

Selection.— Extinction

of

Species.— Barriers


Contents

xii

Checking Movements
in

Distribution.

Distribution of
Fishes.

toral



of

— Agency
Marine

Marine Species. Temperature the Central Fact
Centers of Distribution.
of Ocean Currents.

Fishes.

— Distribution

Faunal Areas.

of

— Equatorial

tion of Fresh-water Fishes.

— Pelagic



Fishes.

Fishes

Littoral

— Bassalian

Fishes.

Lines.

by Coast

Lit-

— Minor

— Realms of Distribu— Equatorial Zone. — Southern

Fishes most Specialized.

— Xorthern

Zone.

— Origin of the New Zealand Fauna

Zone.

CHAPTER

237

XV.

ISTHMUS BARRIERS SEPARATING FISH FAUNAS.
of Suez. — The Fish Fauna of Japan. — Fresh-water Faunas of
— Faunal Areas of Marine Fishes of Japan. — Resemblance of Japan-

The Isthmus
Japan.

and Mediterranean Fish Faunas.

ese

— Significance

of

Resemblances.

— Source of
— Effects of Direction of Shore Lines. — Numbers of
DilTerent Faunas. — Significance of Rare Forms. — Distribution of
Genera
Shore-fishes. — Extension of Indian Fauna. — The Isthmus of Suez as a BarDifferences between Japanese and Mediterranean Fish Faunas.

Faunal Resemblances.
in

rier to Distribution.

Suez.

to the

Evidences of Submergence of Isthmus of

Mediterranean Explained by Present Conditions.

Panama
of

— Geological

— The Cape of Good Hope as a Barrier to Fishes. — Relations of Japan

the

as a Barrier to Distribution.

Jenkins.

— Views

Isthmus of Panama.

Panama.

— Catalogue

of

— Unlikeness of
of

— The

Hill.

of

Dr. Giinther on the Isthmus of

— Conclusions
— Final Hypothesis as

Fishes of Panama.

— Conclusions of Dr.

Isthmus

Species on the Shores

CHAPTER X\

Evermann &
Panama

of

to

255

I.

DISPERSION OF FRESH \V.\TER FISHES.
The Dispersion
to

of

Dispersion.

— Generalizations as
— Conclusions of Cope.

Fishes.— The Problem of Oatka Creek.

— Questions

Raised by Agassiz.

Questions Raised by Cope.— Views of Giinther. —Fresh-water Fishes of
North America.— Characters of Species.— Meaning of Species.— Special
Creation Impossible.— Origin of American Species of Fishes

CHAPTER

282

X\7I.

DISPERSION OF ERESH-W.\TER FISHES.

(Co„li„„cd.)

Local
— Fa\-orable
— Water-sheds. — How Fishes Cross Water-sheds
—The Suletind. —The Cas.siquiare. —Two-Ocean Pass. — Mountain Chains
— U]>land Fishes. — Lowland Fishes. — Cuban Fishes. — Swampy Water
sheds. — The Great Basin of Utah. —Arctic Species
Lakes. — Causes of

Barriers

to

Dispersion of Fresh-water Fishes:

IJarriers.

Waters Have Most Species.

in

DisTXTsion

still

in

Operation
^

297


Contents

CHAPTER
FISHES AS

xiii

XVIII.

FOOD FOR MAN.

The Flesh

of Fishes.— Relative Rank of Food-fishes.— Abundance of Foodfishes.— Variety of Tropical Fishes.— Economic Fisheries.— Angling
320

CHAPTER

XIX.

DISEASES OF FISHES.
Contagious Diseases: Crustacean Parasites.— Myxosporidia or Parasitic Protozoa.— Parasitic Worms: Trematodes, Cestodes.— The Worm of the Yellow-

stone.— The

Heart Lake

Tapeworm.— Thorn-head Worms.— Nematodes.

—Parasitic Fungi.— Earthquakes.— Mortality of Filefish

340

CHAPTER XX.
THE MYTHOLOGY OF FISHES.
The ^Mermaid.

—The Monkfish. — The

Bishop-fish.

CHAPTER

— The Sea-serpent

359

XXI.

THE CLASSIFICATION OF

FISHES.

— Defects
Taxonomy. — Analogy and Homology. — Coues on
— Species as Twigs of a Genealogical Tree. —Nomenclature.
The Conception of Genus and Species. — The Trunkfishes. — Trinomial
Nomenclature. — Meaning of Species. — Generalization and Specialization,
High and Low Forms. — The Problem of the Highest Fishes

Ta.xonomy.

in

Classification.

CHAPTER

367

XXII.

THE HISTORY OF ICHTHYOLOGY.
Aristotle.

— Rondelet. — Marcgraf. — Osbeck. — Artedi. — Linnsus. — Forskal.
—Bloch.—Lacepede.—Cuvier.— Valenciennes.—Agassiz.— Bonaparte.

Risso.

— Giinther.— Boulenger.— Le

Sueur.— Muller.—Gi'l.— Cope.— Lutken.—
Steindachner.—Vaillant.—Bleeker.—Schlegel.—Poey.— Day.— Baird.— Gar-

man.

— Gilbert. — Evermann.— Eigenmann. —
— Traquair. — Wood—Dean.— Eastman.— Hay.— Gegenbaur.— Balfour.— Parker.— Dollo.
Zittel.

ward.

.

CHAPTER

to

Secure Fishes.— How to Preserve

ords of Fishes.

— Eternal Vigilance

387

XXIII.

THE COLLECTION OF
How



FISHES.

Fishes— Value

of

Formalin —Rec429


Contents

xiv

CHAPTER XXIV.
THE EVOLUTION OF

FISHES.

PAGE

Sharks.— Devonian
The Geological Distribution of
Fishes.— Carboniferous Fishes.— Mesozoic Fishes.— Terliary Fishes.— Factors of Extinction.— Fossilization of a Fish.— The Earliest Fishes.— The
Cyclostomes.— The Ostracophores.— The Arthrodires.— The Sharks.—
Fishes.— The

Earliest

Origin of the Shark.— The Chima;ras.— The Dipnoans.— The Crossopterj-gians.

— The Actinopteri. —The

Bony Fishes

435

CHAPTER XXV.
THE PROTOCHORD.\T.\.





The Chordate Animals. The Protochordates. Other Terms Used in ClassifiThe Enteropneusta. Classification of Enteropneusta. Family
cation.







Harrimaniidae.

— Balanoglossida;. — Low Organization of Harrimaniids

460

CHAPTER XXVL
THE TUNICATES, OR

ASCIDI.-\NS.

— Development of Tunicates. — Reproduction of Tuni— Habits of Tunicates. —Larvacea. — .-^scidiacea.- Thaliacea. — Origin
of Tunicates. — Degeneration of Tunicates

Structure of Tunicates.
cates.

CHAPTER

467

XXVII.

THE LEPTOCWRDII, OR L.^NCELETS.
The

Lancelet.

— Habits

of Lancelets.

— Species of

Lancelets.

— Origin

of

Lance482

lets

CHAPTER

XXVIII.

THE CYCLOSTOMES, OR LAMPREYS.

— Structure of the Lamprey. — Supposed Extinct Cyclostomes.
of Cyclostomes. — The Hyperotreta, or Hagfishes.
Hyperoartia, or Lampreys.— Food of Lampreys. — iNIetamorphosis of

The Lampreys.

Conodontes.— Orders

The
Lampreys.— Mischief Done by Lampreys.— Migration or "Running" of
Lampreys.— Requisite Conditions for Spawning with Lampreys.—The
Spawning Process with Lampreys.— What Becomes of Lampreys after
Spawning?

^86


Contents

xv

CHAPTER XXIX.
THE CLASS ELASMOBRANCHII, OR SHARK-LIKE

FISHES.

— Characters of Elasmobranchs. — Classification of Elasmobranchs.
— Subclasses of Elasmobranchs. — The Selachii. — Hassc's Classification of
Elasmobranchs. — Other Classifications of Elasmobranchs. — Primitive
Sharks. — Order Pleuropterygii. — Order Acanthodii. — Dean on Acanthodii.
— Order Ichthyotomi

The Sharks.

506

CHAPTER XXX.
THE TRUE SHARKS.

— Family Hexanchida;. — Family Chlamydoselachida;. — Order
— Suborder Cestraciontes. — Family Heterodontidae. — Edesand
— Onchus. — Family Cochliodontida;. — Suborder Galei.
Family Scyliorhinida;. — The Lamnoid, or Mackerel-sharks. — Family Mitsukurinidae, the Gobhn-sharks. — Family Alopiidte, or Thresher-sharks.
Family Pseudotriakidce. — Family Lamnidoe. — Man-eating Sharks. — Family
Cetorhinidae, or Basking Sharks. — Family Rhineodontid^e. — The Carcharioid
Sharks, or Requins. — Family Sphyrnidae, or Hammer-head Sharks. —The
Tectospondyli. — Suborder Cyclospondyli. — Family Squalidae.
Order
Family Dalatiidae. — Family Echinorhinidas. — Suborder Rhinae. — Family

Order Notidani.

Asterospondyli.
tus

its Allies.

of

Pristiophoridae, or

Saw-sharks.

— Suborder

Batoidei, or Rays.

— Pristidida;,

— Rhinobatida?, or Guitar-fishes. — Rajidae, or Skates. — Narcoor Torpedoes. — Petalodontida;. — Dasyatidce, or Sting-rays. —
Myliobatidae. — Family Psammodontids. — Family Mobulidae
or Sawfishes.
batidce,

523

CHAPTER XXXI.
THE HOLOCEPHALI, OR CHIMERAS.
The Chimaeras.

— Relationship

of

Chimeras.— Family Chimajridte.— Rhino-

chimaerida;.— E.xtinct Chima-roids.^Ichthyodorulites

CHAPTER

561

XXXII.

THE CLASS OSTRACOPHORI.
Ostracophores.— Nature of Ostracophores.— Orders of Ostracophores.— Order
Heterostraci.— Order Osteostraci.— Order Antiarcha.— Order Anaspida. ... 568

CHAPTER

XXXIII.

,'\RTHRODIRr:S.

The Arthrodires.— Occurrence

of Arthrodires.— .Arthrognathi.— Anarthrodira.—

Stegothalami.—Arthrodira.—Temnothoraci.—Arthrothoraci.— Relations

of


Contents

xvi

PAGE
Arthrodires.

— Suborder

dylus.

— Views

quair,

1S90.

Dawson,

— Pakeospondylus. — Gill

as to the Relationships of

Traquair, 1893.

1893.

well, 1897.

Cyclic.

Gill,

1S96.

Gegcnbaur, 1898.

on PaLtosponPalfeospondylus: Huxley, Tra-

Traquair, 1S97.

Dean, 1S96.

Smith Woodward, 1892.
Parker & Has-

Dean, 1S98.

— Relationships of PaL-eospondylus

581

CHAPTER XXXIV.
THE CROSSOPTERYGII.

— Subclass Crossopterygii. — Order of Amphibians. — The Fins
— Orders of Crossopterygians. —Haplistia. — Rhipidistia.
— Mcgalichthyida;. — Order Actinistia. — Order Cladistia. — The Polypte-

Class Teleostomi.

of Crossopterygians.

ridK

598

CHAPTER XXXV.
SUBCLASS DIPNEUSTI, OR LUNGFISHES.

— Classification of Dipnoans. — Order Ctenodipterini. — Order
— Family CeratodontidK. — Development of Neoceratodus. — Lepidosirenidce. — Kerr on the Habits of Lepidosiren

The

Lungfishes.

Sirenoidei.

609


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
VOL.

I.

PAGE

Lepomis megalotis, Long-eared Sunfish
Lepomis megalotis, Long-eared Sunfish
Eupomotis

Common

gibbosiis,

2

4

Sunfish

y

Ozorthe dictyogramma, a Japanese Blenny

Common

Eupomotis gibbosus,

g

Sunfish

13

Monocentris japonicus, Pine-cone Fish

16

Diodon

17

hystrix, Porcupine-fish

Nemichthys

avocetta,

Hippocampus

Thread-eel

liudso?iii(s,

17

Sea-horse

17

Pepnlus paru, Harvest-fish
Lophius

lilidon,

Epmephelus

Anko

18

or Fishing-frog

adscensionis,

18

Rock-hind or Cabra Mora

20

Scales of Acanthoessus bronni

21

Cycloid Scale!

22

Ponchthys porosissimus, Singing-fish

23

Apomotis cyanellus, Blue-green Sunfish

27

Chiasmodon
Jaws of a

niger,

Black Swallower

Parrot-fish,

29

Sparisoma aurojrenatum

30

Archosargus probatocephaliis, Sheepshead

31

Campostojna anomalum, Stone-roller

^2>

Roccus lineatus. Striped Ba=s

35

Roccus lineatus.

Lateral View of Cranium

36

Roccus lineatus.

Superior View of Cranium

37

Roccus lineatus.

Inferior

View of Cranium
View of Cranium
Face-bones, Shoulder and Pelvic

38

Roccus lineatus.

Posterior

Roccus lineatus.

Lower Jaw

of

Amia

Roccus lineatus.

calva,

40
Girdles,

and Hyoid Arch.

showing Gular Plate

Branchial Arches

.

.

42
43
46

Phar}-ngeal Bone and Teeth of European Chub, Leuciscus cephalus
Upper Pharyngeals of Parrot-fish, Scarus strongylocephalus
Lower Phar)'ngeal Teeth of Parrot-fish, Scarus strongylocephalus
Pharyngeals of Italian Parrot-fish, Spansoma cretense
Roccus lineatus, Vertebral Column and Appendages

47

Basal Bone of Dorsal Fin, Holoptyclnus leplopterus

49

Inner View of Shoulder-girdle of Buffalo-fish, Ictiobus bubalus

51

47
47

48
48


List of Illustrations

xviii

PAGE

S^

Pterophryne tumida, Sargassum-fish
Shoulder-girdle of Sebastolohus alascanus

5^

Cranium
Lower Jaw and Palate of Sebastolohus alascanus
Maxillary and Pre-maxillary of Sehastolohus alascanus

S3

of Sebastolohus alascanus

54
SS

Part of Skeleton of Selene vomer

55

Hyostilic Skull of Chiloscyllium indicim, a Scyliorhinoid Shark

56

Skull of Heptrancltias indicus, a Notidanoid Shark

56

Basal Bones of Pectoral Fin of jNIonkfish, Squalina

56

Pectoral Fin of Heterodontus philippi

57

Pectoral Fin of Heplranchias indicus

57

Shoulder-girdle of a Flounder, Paralichthys calijornieus

58

Shoulder-girdle of a Toadfish, Batrachoides pacifiei

jg

Shoulder-girdle of a Garfish, Tylosiirus jodiator

^g

Shoulder-girdle of a Hake, ilcrhiceins productus

69

Cladoselaclie jyleri, Restored

Fold-like Pectoral

(,-

and Ventral Fins of Cladosclacbe

jyleri

gr

Pectoral Fin of a Shark, Chiloscyllium

66

Skull and Shoulder-girdle of Neoceratodus jorsteri, showing archipterygium ...

63

Acanthoessus u'ardi

6q

Shoulder-girdle of Acanthoessus

gn

Pectoral Fin of Plcuracanthus

6q

Shoulder-girdle of Polypterus bichir

Arm

of a

jq

Frog

^j

Plcuracanthus dechcni

-.

Embr)-os of Heterodontus japonicus, a Cestraciont Shark

yr

Polypterus coni;icus, a Crossopterygian Fish with External Gills

78

Heterocercal Tail of Sturgeon, Acipcnser slurio

ga

Heterocercal Tail of Bowfin,

Amia

calva

Heterocercal Tail of Garpike, Lepisostcus osseus

Corypha'noides carapinus, showing Leptocercal Tail
Heterocercal Tail of

Young Trout,

Salnio jario

Isocercal Tail of Hake, Mcrluccius productus
Homocercal Tail of a Flounder, Paralichthys calijornieus
Gephyrocercal Tail of Mola niola

Shoulder-girdle of

Amia

calva

g2
82
g,

g,
g.
gi
g.

gg

Shoulder-girdle of a Sea-catfish, Selcnaspis dowi

g6

Clavicles of a Sea-catfish, Selcnaspis doici

g-

Shoulder-girdle of a Batfish. Ogcocephalus radiatus
Shoulder-girdle of a Threadfin, Polydactylus appro.ximaus
Gill-basket of

gg

gq

Lamprev

Wcberian Apparatus and Air-bladder of Carp
Brain of a Shark, Sgiiatina squalina
Brain of Chimeera monstrosa
.

Bram

anneetcns
of Proloptcrus
'

no
no


List of Illustrations

XIX
PAGE

Brain of a Perch, Perca flavescens

Petromyzon marinus

iinicolor.

Chologasler cormtlus,

Head

j j

of

Lake Lamprey, showing Pineal Body

Dismal-swamp Fish

j

1 1

jjg

Typhlichthys subterraneus, Blind Cave-iish

j

Anableps dovii, Four-eyed Fish

jj-

Ipnops mitrrayi

jg

jjg

,

Boleophthalmus chinensis, Pond-skipper

i

j3

Lampeira wilderi, Brook Lamprey

j2o

Branchiostoma lanceolatum, European Lancelet
Pseudupeneus macidalus, Goatfish

120

Xiphophonis

helleri,

Sword-tail

122

Minnow

124

Cymatogaster aggregatiis, White Surf-fish, Viviparous, with

Goodea

liiitpoldi,

Egg
Egg
Egg

CaUorhynchus

of

Young

a Viviparous Fish

125

126

antarclicus, the Bottle-nosed Chimasra

127

of the Hagfish, Myxiitc limosa

127

of Port Jackson Shark, Heterodontus philippi

128

Development

of Sea-bass, Centroprisks strialus

i^j

Centroprisies striatus, Sea-bass

127

Xiphias gladius, Young Swordfish

j

^n

Xiphias gladius, Swordfish

i

og

Larva

of the Sailfish, htiophonis, Verj'

Lan'a of Brook Lamprey, Lampeira
Anguilla chrisypa.

Larva of

Larva

Common

Common

Young

140

wilderi, before

Transformation

Eel

Eel, Anguilla chrisypa, called Lepiocephalus grassii

of Sturgeon, Acipenser sturio

Mola
Mola
Mola
Mola

141
141

Larva of Chcetodon sedentarius

Chxlodon

140

140

142

capistratus. Butterfly -fish

142

mola. Very Early Larval Stage of Headfish, called Ce)tlaiirus boops

143

mola. Early Lan'al Stage called Molacanihus nummularis

144

mola,

Advanced Lan'al Stage

144

mola, Headfish, Adult

146

Transformation of Ladyfish from Larva
Development of the Horsehead-fish, Selene vomer
Albula vulpes.

to

Young

147
148

Salanx hyalocranius, Icefish

149

Dallia pectoralis, Alaska Elackfish

149

Ophiocephalus barca. Snake-headed China-fish

150

Carassius aiiratus. Monstrous Goldfish

151

Jaws of Nemichlhys avocetia

156

Cypselurus calijornicus, Flying-fish

157

Ammocrypta

158

clara.

Sand-darter

Fierasjer acus, Pearlfish, issuing from a Holocanthurian

159

Gobiomorus gronovii, Portuguese Man-of-war Fish

160

Tide Pools of Misaki

i6r

Plvchochcilus oregonensis, Squawfish
Ptychocheilus grandis, Squawfish, Stranded as the

162

Water

Falls

164


XX

List of Illustrations
PAGE

Larval Stages of Plalophrys podas, a Flounder of the Mediterranean, showing

i74

Migration of Eye
Plalophrys lunalus, the Wide-eyed Flounder

i75

Young Flounder

I7S

Just Hatched, with Symmetrical Eyes

Pseiidoplciironecles americanus, Larval

Flounder

176

Pseudopleuronecles americanus, Larval Flounder (more advanced stage)

176

Face View of Recently-hatched Flounder

Emmydrichlhys

177

Mad-Tom

Schilbiosjis juriosus,

Black

viilcanus,

ryg

Nohu

180

or Poison-fish

Brown Tang

Peiithis bahianus,

Slephanolepis liispidus,

Common

181

182

Filefish

Telraodon mcleagris

183

Balisles carolinensis, the Trigger-fish

184

Numbfish

185

Electric Catfish

186

Star-gazer

187

Narcine

brasiliensis,

Torpedo

eleclriciis,

Astroscopus
Ailhoprora

giiltalus.

Headlight-fish

liicida,

Corynolophus

188

showing Luminous Bulb

rcinjiardli,

Elmoplertis hicijer

188

189

Argyropeleeiis oljersi

190

Luminous Organs and Lateral Line

Midshipman, Porichthys nolalns
192
Ventral Phosphorescent Organ of Midshipman, Porichthvs

Cross-section of

of

notalus

in.

Deeper Portion of Phosphorescent Organ, Porichthys nolalns
Lepleeheneis naucrales, Sucking-fish or Pegador
Section of

194

Caidarchus mxandricus, Clingfish

197
jng

Polistotrema slouli, Hagfish

jqq

Indian Sawfish

Prislis zysron,

200

Prisliophorus japonicus, Saw-shark

201

Skeleton of Pike, Esox Indus

203

Skeleton of

Red

Rockfish, Sebaslodes miniatus

Skeleton of a Spiny-rayed Fish of the Tropics, Holacanthus ciliaris
Skeleton of the Cowfish, Laclophrys tricornis

214

214
21c

Cryslallias matsushimcB, Liparid

o

Sebaslichlhys maliger, Yellow-backed Rockfish

218

Myoxocephalus scorpius, European Sculpin
Hemilripterus americanus, Sea-raven
Cycloplerus htm pus, Lumpfish
Psychrolules paradoxus, Sleek Sculpin

Pallasina barbala, Agonoid-fish

Amblxopsis

spcla;us, Blindfish of the

^

Mammoth Cave

Lucijuea subterraiica. Blind Brotula
'

'

'^

Jlypsypops rubicunda, Garibaldi
Synanceia verrucosa, Gofu or Poison-fish
-'

.

.

'

.

Alliens saliens. Lizard-skipper
'
'

'

,

222
^^

229

230


List of Illustrations

xxi
PAGE

Etheostoma camurum, Blue-breasted Darter

231

Liiiramis semicintus and Chlci>asks colubrinus, Snake-eels

233

Coral Reef at Apia

234

Rudarius

241

ercodes,

Japanese Filefish

Tetraodon setosus, Globefish

244

Dasyates sabina, Sting-ray

246

Diplesion blennioides, Green-sided Darter

247

Hippocampus mohnikei, Japanese Sea-horse

250

Archoplites interruptus, Sacramento Perch

258

Map

270

of the Continents,

Eocene Time

Catdophryne jordani, Deep-sea Fish of Gulf Stream

276

Exerpes asper, Fish of Rock-pools, Mexico

276

Xenocys

279
280

jessice

Iclaliirus piinctatus, Channel Catfish
Drawing the Net on the Beach of Hilo, Hawaii
Semotilns atromacidatits, Horned Dace

Leiiciscus lineatus,

Chub of

the Great Easin

281

285
287

288

Melletes papilio, Butterfly Sculpin

Scartichihys enosima, a Fish of the Rock-pools of the Sacred Island of Eno-

shima, Japan

Halichares

294

bivittatus, the Slippery

Dick

Peristedion miniatiim

Outlet of

297

299

Lake Bonneville

303

Hypocrilichthys analis, Silver Surf-fish

309

Chub-sucker

315

Thaleichthys pretiosus, Eulachon or Ulchen

320

Erimyzon

sucetta, Creekfish or

Plecoglossus altivelis, the Japanese

Ayu

321

Coregonus clupeijormis, the Whitetish

321

Mullus auratus, the Golden Surmullet

322

Scomberomorus macidalus, the Spanish "Mackerel
Lampris luna, the Opah or Moonfish

322

Pomatomus

sallairix, the Bluefish

Centropomus undecimalis the Robalo
,

CImtodipterus jaber, the Spadefish

Mkropkrus

dotomieu, the Small-mouthed Black Bass

323

324
3^4
325

325

Salvelinus fontinalis, the Speckled Trout

326

Salmo ^airdnen, the Stee'head Trout
Salvelinus oquassa, the Rangeley Trout
Salmo rivularis, the Steelhead Trout

326

Salmo henshawi, the Tahoe Trout
Salvelinus malma, the Dolly Varden Trout

3^7

Thymallus

Esox

signifer, the

liicius,

Alaska Grayling

the Pike

Pleurogrammus monopterygius, the Atka-fish
Chirosioma humboldlianum, the Pescado bianco

3^6
3^7

3^7
32S
3-8
328

329


List of Illustrations

xxii

PAGE
Goatfish

3^9

Pseudoscariis guacamaia, Great Parrot-fish

H'-'

Mtigil cephalus, Striped Mullet

i?P

Lulianus analis, Mutton-snapper
Clupea harcngiis, Herring

33'^

Pseiidupeneus maculalus, the

Red

33^

Gadiis callarias, Codfish

33^

Scomber scomhrus, Mackerel

33^

Hippoglossus hippoglossus, Halibut

Ayu

Fishing for

332

with Cormorants

Emptying Pouch
Tokyo Bay
tyrannus, Menhaden

Fishing for Ayu.

2>33

of

Cormorant

335

Fishing for Tai,

338

Brevooriia

340

Exonautes imicolor, Australian Flying-fish

341

Rhinichthys aironasus, Black-nosed Dace

342

Notropis hudsonius, Wiite Shiner

343

Ameiurus

catus,

White Catfish

344

Catostomus ardcns, Sucker

348

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, Quinnat Salmon

354

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, Young Male
Amejurus nebidosus. Cat shes

358

"Le Monstre Marin en Habit de Moine"
"Le Monstre Marin en Habit d'Eveque"

361

Regalccus russeUi, Garfish

362

Rcgalccus

gles?ie,

Ncmichthys

Glesnaes Garfish

avocctta.

Thread-eel

Lactophrys tricorms, Horned Trunkfish
Ostracion cornutum,

Horned Trunkfish

355

360

363
365
^-jt^

376

Lactophrys bicaudalis, Spotted Trunkfish

377

Lactophrys bicaudalis, Spotted Trunkfish (Face)

377

Lactoplirys triqueler. Spineless Trunkfish

378

Lactophrys

trigoniis.

Hornless Trunkfish

378

Lactophrys

Irigoniis,

Hornless Trunkfish (Face)

379

Bernard Germain de Lacepede

3gQ

Georges Dagobert Cuvier

999

Louis Agassiz

,00

Johannes Miiller

^nq

Albert Gijnther

.q-i

Franz Steindachner

40,

George Albert Boulenger

.q-,

Robert CoUett

,q,

Spencer FuUerton Baird

,q-

Edward Drinker Cope
Theodore Nicholas Gill
George Brown Goode
Johann Reinhardt

.q_

„_
__

409


List of Illustrations

xxiii
PAGE

Edward Waller Claypole

-og

Carlos Berg

^^^

Edgar R. Waite
Felipe Poey y Aloy

^^^

L^on Vaillant

.j,

Louis

, j

DoUo

.J,

Decio Vinciguerra

.

j

Bashford Dean

.j-

Kakichi Mitsukuri

.j-

Carl H.

Eigenmann

.^j

Franz Hilgendorf

.j-

David Starr Jordan

.21

Herbert Edson Copeland

^21

Charles Henry Gilbert

^21

Barton Warren Evermann

421

Ramsay Heatley Traquair

425

Arthur Smith
Karl A.

Woodward

425

Zittel

Charles R.

425

Eastman

425

Fragment of Sandstone from Ordovician Deposits
Fossil Fish Remains from Ordovician Rocks

435

Dipteriis valenciennesi

437

436

Hoplopteryx lewesiensis

438

Paratrachichthys prosthemius, Berycoid-fish

439

Cypsilurns heterurus, Flying-tish

440

Schoolmaster Snapper

440

Pleuronichlhys decurrens, Decurrent Flounder

441

LutianidcB,

Cephalaspis

lyelli,

Ostracophore

444

Dinichtkys intermedius, Arthrodire

445

Lamna

447
448

Raja

cornubica, Mackerel-shark or Salmon-shark

stellulata,

Star-spined

Ray

HarrioHa raleighiana, Deep-sea Chimaera

449

Dipterus valenciennesi, Extinct Dipnoan

449

Holoptychius giganieus. Extinct Crossopterygian

451

Platysomus gihbosus, Ancient Ganoid-fish

452

Gar

452

Lepisoslens platystomus. Short-nosed

Palceoniscum macropomum, Primitive Ganoid-fish

453

Diplomyslus humilis, Fossil Herring

453

Holcolepis lewesiensis

454

Elops saurus, Ten-pounder

4S4

Apogon semilineatus, Cardinal-fish
Pomolobus (BStivalis, Summer Herring

455

455

Bassozetus cate?ia

45^

Traduce phalus uranoscopns
CMarias breviceps, African Catfish

456
457


xxiv

List of Illustrations
PAGE

Notropis whipplii, Silver -fin

457

Gymnothorax moringa

45°

Seriola lalandi, Amber-fish

45°

Geological Distribution of the Families of Elasmobranchs

459
403

"Tornaria" Larva

of Clossobalanus

minutus

404

Clossobalamis minutus

Harrimania maculosa
Development of Larval Tunicate

Anatomy

405
to Fixed Condition

47i

47^

of Tunicate

Ascidia adherens

474

Styela yacutatensis

475

Styela grecleyi

47^
47^

Cynthia superba

Compound

Bolryllus magnus,

Ascidian

magnus

Botryllus

Botryllus magnus, a Single Zooid

Compound

Aplidiopsis jordani, a

Oikapleura, Adult Tunicate of

479
Ascidian

Group Larvacea

Branchiostoma calijorniense, California Lancelet
Gill-basket of

Lamprey

489

Pctromyzon marinus, Lamprey

Mouth Lake Lamprey
Brook Lamprey
Mouth Brook Lamprey

Petromyzon marinus

484
488

Hagfish

stoiiti,

479
480

485

Polygnathus dubium
Polistotrema

477

47^

iinicolor,

491

492

Lampetra

wilderi, Sea Larvae

492

Lampetra

wilderi,

492

Lampetra camtschalica, Kamchatka Lamprey
Enlosphenus

Lampetra

tridentatus,

ijuilderi,

Oregon Lamprey

Brook Lamprey

Fin-spine of Onchus tenuistriatus

495

496
505

509

Section of Vertebrae of Sharks, showing Calcification

510

Cladoselache jyleri

ji^

Cladoselache

Ventral View

jyleri.

Teeth of Cladoselache

jyleri

Acanthocssus wardi

jij
cjc
rjr

Diplacanthus crassissimus

cjy

Climatius

cj

sciitiger

Pleuracanthiis decheni

Pleuracanthus decheni. Restored

Head-bones and Teeth

jg

rjg

of Pleuracanthus decheni

C20
r2o

Teeth of Didymodus bohemicus

,-20

Shoulder-girdle and Pectoral Fins of Cladodus ncilsoni

1-21

Teeth

of

Cladodus

Hexanchus
Teeth

of

striatus

griseus, Griset or

-22

Cow-shark

Heptranchias indicus

C211

_^


List of Illustrations

xxv
PAGE

Chlamydoselachus angnineus, Frill-shark

525

Heterodontus jtancisci. Bullhead-shark

526

Lower Jaw

526

of Heterodontus philippi

Teeth of Cestraciont Sharks

527

Egg

527

of Port Jackson Shark, Heterodontus philippi

Hybodus delabcchei
Fin-spine of Hybodus basanus
Fin-spine of Hybodus reticulatiis
Fin-spine of Hybodus eanaliculatus

Tooth

of

528
.'

528
528
529

Teeth of Cestraciont Sharks

529

Edestus vorax, Supposed to be a Whorl of Teeth

529

Helicoprion bessonowi, Teeth of

530

Lower Jaw

531

of Cochliodus eontortus

Mitsukurina owstoni, Goblin-shark

Scapanorynchus

Tooth

of

Lamna

leuisi,

Under Side

53S
of Snout

cuspidata

Isuropsis dekayi, Mackerel-shark

Tooth of

Isuriis hastalis

Carcharodon megaodon

536
537
537
538

Cetorhinus maximus, Basking-shark

539
540

Caleus zyopterus, Soup-fin Shark

S4i

Careharias lamia, Cub-shark

S42

Teeth of Corax pristodontus

S43

Sphyrna zygana, Hammer-head Shark

S44

Squalas acanthias, Dogfish

54S

Etmopterus lucijer

S46

Brain of jMonkfish, Squatina squatina
Prisliophorus japonicus, Saw-shark

547
548

Pristis pectinatus, Sawfish

55°

Rhinobatus lentiginosus, Guitar-fish

55^

Raja erinacea,

Common

Skate

55^

Numbfish

553

Teeth of Janassa lingucejormis

554

Polyrhizodus radicans

555

Dasyatis sabina, Sting-ray

55^

Aetobatis narinari, Eagle-ray

55^

Narcine

Manta

brasiliensis,

birostris,

Skeleton of

Chimara

Devil-ray or Sea-devil

Chimara monstrosa

colliei,

Elephant-fish

559
5^4
505

Odontotodus schrencki, Ventral Side

57°

Odonlotodus schrencki, Dorsal Side
Head of Odonlotodus schrencki, from the Side

57°
57i

Lwiidus polyphemus, Horseshoe Crab

572

Lanarkia spinosia
Drepanaspis gmundenensis

5

+
'

575


xxvi

List of Illustrations
PAGE

Pteraspis rostrala

Cephalaspis

lyelli,

575
Restored

576

Cephalaspis dawsoni

577

Pterichthyodes testudinarius

578

Pterichthyodes testudinarius, Side

View

579

Birkenia elcgans
Lasianius problemalicits

579
580

Coccosteus cuspidatus, Restored

582

Jaws

of Dinichthys hertzeri

583

Dinichthys intermedins, an Arthrodire

584

Palceospondylus gunni

J91

Shoulder-girdle of Polyplenis bichir

Arm

of a

600

Frog

601

Polypterus congicus, a Crossopterygian Fish

602

Basal Bone of Dorsal Fin, Holoptychius leptopteriis

603

Gyroplychius microlepidotus

604

Calacanihus elegans, showing Air-bladder

604

Vndina

605
606

gtilo

Lower Jaw

of Polypterus bichir,

from Below

Polypterus congicus

607

Polypterus delhezi

607

Erpetoiclithys calabaricus

Shoulder -girdle of Neoceratodus

'

jorsleri

gog
gog

Phaneropleuron andersoni

gj.

Teeth of Ceratodus runcinatus

gj

Neoceratodus

gj^

jorsleri

Archiptery'gium of Neoceratodus jorsleri

.

gj

Upper Jaw of Neoceratodus jorsleri
gjc
Lower Jaw of Neoceratodus jorsleri
g^g
Adult Male of Lepidosiren paradoxa
gj_
Lepidosiren paradoxa.
Embryo Three Days before Hatching; Larva Thirteen
Days after Hatching
g^^
Larva of Lepidosiren paradoxa Forty Days after Hatching
(,2^
Lan-a of Lepidosiren paradoxa Thirty Days after Hatching
g2T
Larv'a of Lepidosiren paradoxa Three Months after Hatching
g2i
Prolopterus dolloi

g



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