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THE NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS V02

:

THE

NATURAL HISTORY
OF

PLANTS.
BY

H. BAILLON,
PEESIDENT OF THE LINN^AN SOCIETY OP PABIS,
PROrBSSOB OP MEDICAL NATITRAI. HISTOBY AND DIBECTOR OP THE BOTANICAL GABDBN
OP THE PACULIY OP MEDICINE OP PABIS.

TRANSLATED BY

MA EC US

M.


HAETOa,

B.

Sc. (Lond.).

SCHOLAB OP TBINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.

VOL. n.

CONNABACBiE, LEGUMINOSiE-MIMOSE^, LEGUMINOSiE-

C^SALPmiB^, LEGUMINOS^-PAPILIONACE^, PEOTEACE^,
LAURACB^, ELiEAGNACE^, AND MYJJISTICACE.^.

LONDON
L.

REEVE &

CO.,

6,

HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN.
1872.


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PBIHTDRS, CHANDOS BTKIiBT,

COTEKT OAEDES.


TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.

In bringing

this

second volume of Professor Baillon's Histoire

des Plantes before the English reader, I think it well to say a

on what I have held to be the duty of the
I have attempted to

marized

:

and how

shortly sum-

book as the Author might have done had he

This I have tried to carry out by striving in

written in English.
all cases to

The former may be very

fulfil it.

to present the

translator,

word

master the sense accurately in the

first

instance

;

in the

few cases where the text was ambiguous or obscure I have consulted
other authorities.

"Where the sense "of an English writer

have given or condensed the

French

text.

Many

necessary, corrected

is

given I

plan of the

original, following the

of the references have been collated and, where
;

while I have added a

number

referring to

Vol. II. of Professor Oliver's Flora of Tropical Africa, and Vol. V.
of Mr. Bentham's

Mora

since the issue of the

In

this

Numa.
to

French

edition.

my brother

He- translated the " genera" of Connaracea, LeguminoscB (up
Pafiilionaceee),

M^agnacece, Mgristicaeece, and the

few of ProteacecB and Lauracece.

heavy press of academic work,
this task,

which have been published

volume I have again to acknowledge the aid of

No. 393 of

first

Australiensis,

he,

To

free

me

partially for a

with rare kindness, undertook

which was stopped by his

fatal illness.

I cannot refrain


TBANSLATOB'S PBEFAOE.

vi

from mentioning how much. I have always owed to his unfailing
brotherly love and sympathy.
feelings,

But words

and I have no right to say more here on this matter; so

much I could not

omit.

One word on the unfortunate delay
volume.

are powerless to express

It

is

appearance of this

in the

may mention

due to various causes, whereof I

domestic losses, and heavy examination work
strike caused- still

more

next volume,, which

is

delay,

now

;

whUe

severe

the printers'

I trust this wiU not occur with the

fairly in

hand.

Marcus M. Hartog.
TEnriTY CoiLEGE, Cambeidqe,
September, 1872.


NATUEAL HISTORY OF PLANTS.
VII.

CONNAKACEiE.
I.

Connarus^

(figs.

CONNAEUS

SEEIES.

1-8) has regular hermaplirodite flowers.

tacle is convex, or sligMly concave at tlie apex,
Connams {OmpTialobimn)

Fig.

'

ii.

L., Gen., n.

343.— J.,

VOL.

II.

and bears successively

Patrisii.

1.— Habit.

830.—Adans., Fcm. des PL,
453.—Lamk., Diet.,

Gen., 369, 452,

Its recep-

ii.

94; Snppl.,

ii.

So. Nat., ser. 1,

343; III, t. 612.— K., in Am.
359.— B. Bb., Congo, 433 ;

ii.

2


——





NATUBAL EISTOBY OF PLANTS.
quincuncially imbricated in the bud, and a
in the bud.
corolla of five alternating petals,' also free and imbricated
by the
cohering
The androceum consists of two whorls of stamens,
part of the
bases of the filaments, which are then free for the greater

a calyx: of

five free sepals/

Comiarus (Omphalolium) Patrisii.

FlQ.

Fi&. 4.

2.

Lonijitudinal section of flower.

Flower.

Fio.

Fia.

3.

Diagram.

length, and bear introrse two-celled anthers dehiscing

tudinal

clefts.

The

five

6.

Longitudinal section of frnit.

by two

longi-

stamens superposed to the petals have

usually shorter filaments and smaller anthers than in the alterni-

petalous stamens, and their anthers
is

no true

disk.'

The gynseceum





even become

sterile.

There

consists of five free oppositipetalous^

Misc. Worlcs, ed. Benn., i. 113. DC, Mem.
sur les Connarus et Omphalobium, ou sw les
Connwracees Sarcoloiees (^in Mem. Soo. Hist.
Nat. de Par., ii. 383, 1. 16, IV) j Prodr., ii. 84.
Ekdi., Gen., n. 5948.— B. H., Gen., 432,
1001, n. 5.
H. lilt, in Ann. de la Soo. lAwn.
de Maine-et-Loire, ix. 57; Adansoma, vii. 233.
Tapomana Adans., loc. cit. Omphalohium
Gjektn., Priwt., i. 217, t. 46.— DC, loc. cit.,
Santaloides L.,
386.
Enbi., Gen., n. 5949.
Malbrancia Neck., Mem.,
Fl. Zeyl., 11. 408 ?
Erythrosiigma Hassk., in Bot. Zeit.,
1171.
XXV. Beibl., ii. 45; Cat. ITort. Bogor., 24S.
Anisostemon TuECZ., in Pull. Mosc. (1847), ii.



may







152.
'
They are elongated, usually thickened, and
becoming more or less succulent at the base.
There is often a projecting dorsal rib.
2 They are narrow and elongated, contracted
near the base, and thinning off at the edges, by

which they often

They

stick together at the points of

always longer than the
and usually extend a good way beyond
them. They are almost always sprinkled with
irregular blackish or dark purple spots.
Sometimes these are of very unequal size, and the
limb of the petal looks like " chin^ " stuff. In
several of our herbarium species, collectors have
remarked that the corolla is very odoriferous,
and that its scent attracts numbers of insects.
* What has been described as such is procontact.

are

sepals,

bably the circular swelling of the base of the
androceum, which is so well marked in certain
African species, especially in our C. Dtipargwetiaims (see Adamsonia, loc. cit., 236, note 1).
*
R. Beown thought that the fertile carpel of
Omphalobium was superposed to a sepal, not a
petal.
But we have shown that there is in this
respect no difference between the two types (see
Adansonia, loc. cit., 233).


— —





CONNAEAOE^.
more of which may abort when
Each carpel is formed of a

carpels of unequal development, one or

the flower has attained a variable age.'

one- celled ovary, tapering above into a style of variable length, which

In the ventral angle

dilates at the tip into a stigmatiferous head.''

of the ovary-ceU, and somewhere near

base, is seen a placenta

its

bearing two collateral ascending ovules, which are orthotropous, or
nearly so,* so that the micropyle is quite superior. The fruit, which

may

be accompanied by the remains of the non-accrescent calyx,*

consists of only a single fertile follicle

which

is stipitate,

with a more or

(figs.

less

and

5

8),

Conna/ns africanus.

elongated dry

coriaceous pericarp,* dehiscing over a variable extent,

beginning at the ventral angle.

It contains a single

whose
of variable form

erect orthotropous or suborthotropous seed,^ at

base

is

and size

a lobed fleshy umbilical aril
(figs.

6

and

7).

Within the seed

coats is a large

fleshy exalbuminous embryo, with a superior radicle

and thick plano-convex cotyledons. The genus Connarus
consists of half a hundred species of trees and shrubs
from the tropical parts of America,' Africa,* and Asia,"
and, in a few rare cases, Oceania.'"
Their branches, which are sometimes sarmentose, bear persistent alternate exstipulate leaves, impari-

more rarely trifoliolate. The flowers are in racemes, simple
or with cymose ramifications these racemes, usually many-flowered,

pinnate, or

;

are axLUary to the leaves, or terminate the branches.
' On this
character alone was founded the
genus OmpTialobium, whose flowers have often,
though not constantly, only a single well-developed carpel at anthesis, and have normally
but one capsule in the ripe fi'uit.
Some fruits
of Cotmarus Patrisii are however exceptional,
and consist of two carpels (flg. 1).
' In this genus, as in several others, the form
sometimes
of this dilatation is very variable
regular and subcircular, sometimes flattened and
turned outwards, here entire, there more or less
deeply two-lobed.
' The hilum is not constantly basilar, and
diametrically opposed to the micropyle; but is



often some

way up the

side of the ovule, looking

towards the ventral angle of the ovary. The
first step towards the incomplete anatropy of
the ovule, which we shall find in several genera ;
and this shows how little real value should be
attached to this character of orthotropy which,
we shall see, is not absolute, in all the

as

genera of this order, and of several others.
* When the calyx persists, as is usually the

are pretty closely applied to th^

case, its leaves

stalk of the fruit it surrounds.

Iways slightly oblique and nnsymmetrical

*

when we get

its exact profile, looking at it so
that the midrib of the pericarp is on the one
side, and the ventral angle on the other.
^ The hilum varies in situation just like the

ovule.
' Pi., in

Brit.

137.
'

W.

Lirmaa,

— H. Bn.,
ScHUM.

Diet.,

ii.

xxiii.

429.

Gbiseb., Fl.

228.— Kaest., Fl. CoTmnb.,
in Adcmsoma, ix. 151, u. 25.

Ind.,

&

Thonn., Beskr., 299.

95.— GuiLl. & Peeb.,

—H^

Fl.

Lamk.,
Seneg.,

Adansonia, vii. 235.
Bakee, in Olit. Fl. Trap. Afric., i. 456.
9 W., Sfec, iii. 692.— G^etn.,
Fruct.,
Tent., 156.

t.

,Bn., in

i.



Cat., Dissert., vii. 375.^ Pi., loc. cit,
425.— Thw., Fntim. Fl. Zeyl., 80.
'» Bl., Mus. Bot. Imgd.-Bat., 266.— MiQ.,
27.

Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. 2, 662; Suppl., i. 529.—
A. Geay, in Unit. States Fxpl. Fxpd. Bot.,
375, t. 45.— Walp., Ann., ii. 300 ; iv. 451.

B 2


——

—— — ——





——

NATURAL SISTOBY OF PLANTS.

4

formerly confounded with Connarus,

Agelcsai^

from

by characters of very

it

always

trifoliolate

the calyx persists around the

;

only distinguished

slight importance.

being closely applied, as in Connarus, to

ever,

is

The

its foot,

which

even quite wanting. The petals and stamens

shorter, or

and

variations in form

leaves are

without, how-

fruit,

here

is

offer several

size.

the genus AgelcBa botanists are generally agreed in adding

To

Hemiandrina^ which consists of plants from India and the Indian
Archipelago, whose flowers are usually trimerous or tetramerous, and
only rarely pentamerous, with the petals narrow and elongated, and

Thus

the sepals valvate, or scarcely imbricate in the bud.^

consti-

from the

tuted, the genus Agelcea consists of half a score species*

of the Old "World, namely, Gruinea, Madagascar,
and the Indian Archipelago. They are bushy shrubs, erect
or climbing, with trifoliolate leaves, whose lateral leaflets are unsymmetrical, and with usually numerous flowers in axiUary or lateral

tropical regions

India,

ramified racemes of cymes.

Boured'

(Fr., Bourelle),

from

differs

with

all

the floral characters of Connarus,

in the two following points

it

number, which go to form the

:

—The

fruit, are sessile

carpels, variable in

instead of possessing

a slender foot; and the calyx begins enlarging around

moment

the fruit

About two

sets,

species are

score

more or

so as to hide it

known,

or

trees

them from the

less completely.

shrubs (sometimes

The

climbing) from tropical Asia," Africa,' and America.'

' SoiAND., ex
Pl., in lAmuBa, xxiii. 437.
B. H., Gen., 432, n. 3. H. Elf., in Adwnsonia,



297.

vii.
2

Hook.
28.

t.

Suppl.,
88.



'

F., in Trans. Linn. Soc, xxiii. 171,
Troostvryckia MlQ., Fl. Ind.-Bat.,



i.

531

Ann. Mus. iMgd.-Bai.,

in

;

iii.

B. H., Gen., 434, n. 12.
J. HooKEE has made nse of these variable

up Agelma

characters to split
characterized as

iSlamina 5

Stamina

follows:

libera inchtsa.

10



hasi

into five sections,

"'\.Pelala
2. Petala



breviter

.connata

libera.
libera.

exsevta.

Petala leviter connata.
Stamina
10 basi connata exserta. Ovaria 5, 4. Petala
libera. Stamina 5 libera; Jilamenfis scepe apice
recunis ; ani/ierancm loculis deniwm confluent
Ovaria 3-5. 5. Petala libera.
Siatibus.

Ovaria

5.

3.





mina 10 libera; antheris

rec.irvis

extrorsum

DC,

Select.,

iii.

Frodr.,
35,

t.

ii.

58.

86.

— Deless.,

Nat.,

276.

t.

Icon.,

Tuep., in Diet, des

Ann.,

-Waip.,

305.

ii.

H. Bu., loc. eii., 240. Bakee, loa. cit., 453.
5 Sowrea AuBl., Ghiian., i. 467, t. 187.
J., O-en., 369.— Lamk., Diet., vi. 317.
B. H.,
Qen., 432, n. 4.
H. Bn., in Adansonia, vii.







228.
Sobergia Soheeb., Gen., 309. Canicidia
Vblloz., FL Fhim., iv. t. 129. Uowreopsis
Pl., in Linncea, xxiii. 423.

Frodr.,
?

ii.

85.

— Enbl.,

Santaloides h., Fl.
^

Vahl., 81/mb:,

— Conma/ri
Gen.,

Zei/l., a.
iii.

87.

spec.

n.

DC,

5948.

iOS.

WiaHT & Aen.

Frodr., 144.
Hook. & Aiw., Bot. Beech. Voy,,
179.
MiQ., ii'i. /neZ.-^af., i. p. 2, 657; Suppl.,
i, 528.
Bl., op. cit., 262.



'

Pal. Beaut., Fl. Ow. et Ben.,

H, Bn.,

loc. cit.,

230-232



viii.

i.

98

198.

t.

60.

Bakee

loc.
455.
See also for the species of
different countries, Pl., in iimMtsa, xxiii. 413.
cit.,

Walp., Ann.,

speetanlibus (Hemiandrina)."
*

So.

leaves are

^
cit.,

ii. 295.
Gkisee., Fl. Brit. W. Ind., 228.
Pl., loc.
iii.
H. Bn., in .^iZoasowa, ix. 149, n. 23.




——



—— —



;

GONNABAOEM.
alternate imparipinnate,'

5

and the flowers are

axillary to the leaves,

as in Gonnarus.

A

genus has been made of Byrsocarpus^ in which the

distinct

calyx, instead of being

closely

applied to the base of the

diverges more or less, or even becomes spreading at maturity.
this character is often ill-marked,'

value that

it

and

moreover, of so very

is,

fruit,

But
little

will only allow us to consider Byrsocarpus as a section

of the genus Bourea, of which
tive organs/

This

it

has altogether the

and vege-

floral

group contains seven or eight African

little

some from the west
and Madagascar/
So we have been unable
species,

coast,'

and others from the

east coast

from the genus Bourea

to exclude

the Brazilian species Bernardinia fluminensis,^ in which the calyx
falls off"

before the fruit

ripe/

is

Thus we admit

three sections"

by these

in the genus Bourea, often difficult of clear discrimination
characters

drawn from the

II.
Cnestis^" (figs.

calyx.

CNESTIS SEEIES.

9-11) has hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers.

In the former the

receptacle is the

same

The

as in Gonnarus.

calyx

consists of five free sepals, valvate in the bud, while the alternating
petals, of the

same number

Sometimes reduced to three

'

leaflets,

to a single one; these variations

as the sepals but usually shorter," have

or even

may be met

with on one and the same plant, as indicated by
the specific name of M. heterophylla.
* SCHUM. & Thonn., Seslcr., 226.
B. H.,





Oen., 431, n. 1.
H. Bn., in Adaasonia, vii.
229.
^ " In the series of species from Madagascar

we

find

*

229.)

And

again,

we have

observed,

"If Byrso-

carpus were considered as a section of the genus
Bourea, it would be very difficult to separate
this section from Mirourea, which would contain
^

290.

Bowrea proper."
Pi.,

Linneea,

in

Bakbb,

loo. cit.,

412.
452.

294.
6

the calyx thus comes off from the base of the
fruit, ftom the rest of the genus.
'

H. Bn.,

loc. cit.,

230-234.

Hook., Niger.,
Waip., Ann., ii.

I. Uitrotirea,

2.

Syrsocarpus,

3.

Semdr-

dinia.

'"J.,

every intermediate stage in this respect

between the Bengal species of Byrsocarpus, with
spreading sepals, and those mimosoid Sonreas
from Tropical Africa, w^here the calyx is more or
less markedly constricted."
(See H. Bn., loo.
cit.,



' Pl., in Linncea, xxiii. 412.
B. H., &en.,
Walp., Arm., ii. 295.
431, n. 2.
° See Adansonia, vii. 232.
It is not usual
to separate those species of Coimams in which

Suppl.,

G^en.,
ii.

828 ;

374.
III.,

423; Misc. Worlcs,



Lamk.,
t.

ed.

387.

Diet.,

— R.

Benn.,

Ann.

i.

iii.

23 ;

Bb., Congo,
113.
DC,



Nat. ser. 1,
Enbl., Gen., n. 5950.— B. H., Gen,.,
ii. 359.
H. Bn., in Adansonia, vii. 240.,
433, n. 8.
" Their breadth is often nearly equal to their
length, and the apex is rounded or emarginate,
but in some species they are more elongated
In C. corniculata Lamk. (Diet.,
like ribbons.
Agelaa pruriens Soland., herb.
iii. 23, n. 3 ;
Spondioidts pruriens Smeatum., herb.), the
petals may exceed the sepals in length by a
variable extent. So too iu C. polypM/lla Lamk.
Prod/r.,

86.

ii.

K., in





{Diet., loc.

cit., n. 2).

8c.




NATURAL EISTOBY OF PLANTS.

6

may

in C. glabra^ they are valvate, or

Thus

a variable prsefloration.

even not touch at

all

by

their edges in the very

young bud

In other species, such as C.femginea^ they are narrowly
The androceum consists of
imbricated, or more rarely contorted.
ten stamens, five superposed to the sepals, and five, smaller, to the
petals
for a short distance they are all united by the base of their
filaments, which then become free, and bear an introrse two-celled
11).

(fig.

;

anther dehiscing longitudinally.'

On

the expansion of the flower

Cnestis glabra.

Fia. 10.
Longitudinal section of flower.

much

the

elongated apex of the filament

is

reflexed

outwards,

The gynseceum
whose ovaries are sessile,
each surmounted by a usually short style, truncate or more or less
dilated and stigmatiferous at the apex.
In each ovary we find two

inverting the anther so as to

make

it

extrorse.

consists of five oppositipetalous carpels,

collateral ascending orlhotropous or suborthotropous ovules, inserted

towards the base of the ovary

may

calyx

but

by

Lamk.,

'

fig. 1.

may

long, rigid, stinging hairs.*

— DC,

loc.

Diet., loc.
Frod/r.,

cit.,

Smeathm.,

'In

their micropyles are superior.

u.

cit.,

1.

n.

440.

1 ; lU., t. 38V,
Sarmienta cavli285.

ii. ii.

3.— C. fraterna

— Spondioides

ferruginea

such as

femgmea

lierb.

certain

species

C.

DC,

each anther-cell is prolonged downwards
into a sort of point which is turned up when the
anther is reversed so as to he extrorse.
^

The

hairs have

fruit of Cnestis.

in

certain

two

sessile

species)

is

in

C

where they are stinging, which
the

name Agelaa

erect seed,

fact accounts for

prvriens, given to that species

by SoiANBEK. Under a sufficient magnifying
power they appear simple, unicellular, and tapering to a long point. Around the base are seen
a large number of younger hairs, projecting but
slightly, though similar in form; besides prominent conical ohovate or clavate nucleated cells
containing a coloured fluid.
On the whole of
the inner surface of the pericarp all the species

seats in the

possess similar pointed unicellular hairs in great

abundance and closely pressed together j in some
may he counted by thousands.
These also sting, we are told, in the fresh state.
This property has given the names of Orattelier

found on

pericarp.

They contain an

of hair (only found

difierent

One kind

epidermis of the
developed

greatly

The
fruit,

often tapering at the base, covered with velvety down, and

flora SlEB., Fl. Mawr. Fxs., p.
2 DC,
Frodr., ii. 87, n.
I'L.,

;

not be persistent, often reflexed around the

never accrescent; the fruit consists of one or more

it is

follicles,

lined

or

the

The

exterior

hairs

are

corniculaia Lamk.,

pericarps they






GONNABAOEM.
within whose coats

7

found a fleshy albumen, at whose apex is a
its radicle superior.
Sometimes the seed
has no aril sometimes on the contrary th|g organ is represented by
a sort of fleshy frUl near the hilum, with its superior edge irreguis

pretty long embryo, with
;

Cnestis consists of bushy shrubs, often sarmentose,
with alternate, imparipinnate, exstipulate leaves; the flowers are

larly divided.'

in racemes, simple or composed of cymes, axiUary or terminal, or

more rarely grouped in numbers on peculiar short woody branches.
About a dozen species are known, natives of tropical Asia* and
Africa,' the Indian Archipelago, the Mascarene Islands, and Madagascar and the neighbouring islands.''
Cnestidium!' is a New World type,- closely analogous to
The perianth and androceum are nearly the same, but the

Cnestis.

valvate

The

calyx has sometimes only three or four sepals instead of

five."

petals are longer than the sepals, tapering at the base

and imbri-

cated in the bud.

There are ten stamens, of which the five oppositithey all cohere at the base into a very

petalous are the smaller

;

short ring, above which the slender filaments become free and taper

towards the reflexed apex, ending in introrse two-celled anthers,
also finally reflexed.

in Cnestis

;

The

but the style

is

carpels are sessile, the ovaries being as

long, slender

and

reflexed,

or two-lobed, dilated, stigmatiferous head.

velvety outside, glabrous within

Only one

with an entire

fruit is

leaflets

sessile,

the seed possesses a fleshy arU.

;

species of this genus is known,' a tree from

the north of Colombia.
the

The

Mexico and

It has velvety imparipinnate leaves, with

symmetrical at the base

the flowers are numerous, in

;

multiple ramified racemes of cymes, axillary to the leaves or termi-

nating the branches.*
and PoiZo^j-oWer to several species of C»e«fi», such
C glabra Lame., from Bourbon and Mauritius j
it appears to be due not only to the mechanical
action of the hair, which easily comes off and
as

remains sticking in the skin, but perhaps also to a
brownish liquid which it contains and which fills
its cavity more or less completely in the dry
herbarium specimens.
'
In C. polyphylla Lamk., for instance, this
frill surrounds the lowest quarter of the seed,

which tapers iu this part. Thus botanists are
wrong in characterizing Cnestis as exarillate.
2 R0XBT7E&H (Cat.
Sort. Calc, 34) only
describes a single species in this country ; namely
C. monadelpha (DC, n. 5) ; but the genus is
certainly represented by other species in India
and the neighbouring countries.



Bbnth.,

Niger, 290.
Px., in Xdnncea,
Bn., he. cit,, 242, not. 1.
Bakee, in Oliv. M. Trop. Jfr., i. 460. Walp.,
Arm., ii. 306.
^ H. Bn., loe. eit, 244, not. 1.
* Pi., in lAnnaea, xxiii. 438.
B. H., Oen.,
^

xxiii.

440.

—H.



433, n. 7.

ii.

°

And

'

0. rufescens' Pl.,

in that case they are often unequal.
loo.

cit.

—Walp.,

Awn.,

305.

^ The genus TceniocMcena (Hook. F., &en,.,
433, n. 10) comes extremely near to Cnestidittm
Cfeerfjs, and we doubt whether it ought to
be separated from the latter genus. It is distinguished chiefly by the three following cha1st. The form of its floral receptacle,
racters.
which is nearly hemispherical, owing to the

and




NATURAL EI8T0BT OF PLANTS.
Manotes,"^

maphrodite flowers
sisting
corolla,

analogous to

closely
;

around the

Cnestis,

has

her-

pentamerous

the calyx consists of five valvate sepals perthe
fruit, though without any increase in size
;

of five longer imbricated caducous petals.

But a

little

while before the flower expands, the receptacle elongates above the
perianth into a column with a thickened base, bearing on

its

apex

with ten stamens inserted close below
The staminal filaments are free, with subintrorse two-

five oppositipetalous carpels,

their ovaries.

Manoies Oriffoniama.

Pig. 13.

Fia. 12.

Longitudinal section of seed.

Fruit.

The

celled anthers dehiscing longitudinally.

ovaries are one-celled,

tapering at the apex into a slender reflexed style, which ends in a
capitate stigma.

two

In the ventral angle of the ovary are inserted

collateral descending subanatropous^ ovules,

look upwards and outwards.

The

sudden swelling of the pedicel as it passes into
2ndly. The form of the petals, which are

it

;

long ligulate glahrous straps ; 3rdly. The state
of the interior surface of the pericarp which is
said to he very glahrous.
The flower has a calyx
of five valvate sepals reflexed after antliesis and
during maturation; ten stamens (of Cnestis)
with filaments slightly united at the bases with
short anthers reflexed after anthesis; and five
carpels each with a hiovulate ovary, a short style
and a dilated stigma. The fruit consists of one
or several sessile capsules, pubescent externally
and containing a single arillate seed with a
smooth testa. The only known species of this
is T. OriffUMi Hook. P., a nearly sarmentose shrub from Malaysia, with rounded

grown

Its leaves are glabrous

glabrous branches.

imparipinnate
leaflets,

with

more or

sessile

loss bifid

coriaceous

and

obtuse

at the apex.

flowers are in axillary racemes of cymes.

The
As

regards the form and dimensions of TcBtdoehlcena,
we should hear in mind that in certain species of

whose micropyles

fruit (fig. 12) consists of a variable

Cnestis proper, such as C. corniculata Lam?;., the
petals

form narrow tongues longer than the

we must not treat
more than relative value
note 11 ; also Adansonia vii.

sepals at anthesis, so that
this character as of
(see above,

p. 5,

241).
' SoLAND., ex Pl., in Idmitea, xxiii. 438.
B. H., Gen., 433, n. 6.
H. Bn., in Adcmsonia,



vii.

244.

^ More or less anatropous according to the
height on the ventral angle at which their
umbilicus is inserted.
Thus it is sometimes

when the ovule becomes nearly
But in M. Oriffonicma H. Bn.

close to the base,

orthotropous.

{Adcmsonia, loc. cit., note 1), the attachment of
the ovule is high up, and close to the micropyle. It
is, however, near the middle of the upper edge of
the ovule at anthesis, and rises gradually after fecundation. At the same time the chalazal end of
the ovule tapers to a point, and insinuates itself
into the narrow part of the cell of the ovary
corresponding with the foot of the carpel.


G0NNABA0H2E1.

number

of free

tapering at the base, tben swelling out,

follicles,

and tipped by a

Each follicle opens at
we may then easily distinguish
the rather fleshy pericarp from the woody endocarp, which is a little
shorter ventrally than the rest of the pericarp.' Hence it gapes on
maturity along

this side

ventral angle,

and parts from the contained seed a

The

pyle.

reflexed apiculus.

little

its

seed

(fig.

free in the

little

above

its

micro-

endocarp,^ incloses in

its

horny albumen, in whose axis is a long green
cotyledons and a superior radicle. The whole

coats a copious, nearly

embryo with

now

13),

flattened

of the outer surface of the seed consists of a fleshy tissue, which,
as in Magnolia, represents the external coat thus modified through-

out

may

it

;

be viewed

as

an

aril,

generalized in Manotes, but

Connams and its allies. Three species of Manotes are
known, all natives of the west of tropical Africa.^
In Tricholobtts* (fig. 14) we find the habit and foliage of Connarus,
with flowers whose perianth and androceura resemble those of Manotes;

specialized in

the five sepals are valvate

;

the five longer alter

nating petals are imbricated or twisted in the

Tricholobus cocMnchinensis.

and the monadelphous androceum consists
often stamens, whose filaments are free above,
and bear introrse two-celled anthers dehiscing

bud

;

The

longitudinally.

five

stamens superposed to

the petals are the shorter, and

may

even become

But the gynseceum never at
more than one carpel, whose
one-celled ovary is surmounted by a style of

altogether sterile.

any age
free

consists of

variable length, dilated at the tip into a stig-

matiferous head.
tate pod,*

The

fruit is a sessile or stipi-

surrounded at

Pia. 14.

by the non-

the- base-

Fruit, right valve removed.

accrescent calyx, and containing within a pericarp

of variable

somewhat

irregularly-lobed

albuminous embryo, with
'

2

This
aril,

it

is

describe

which Pianchon described as

also

Ademsoma, loc. cit., 246).
' Bakee, loc. cit., 459.

Bl., Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat.,
Gen., 433, n. 9.

This

*

tail

follicle.

mistaking the lower hard contracted part of the endocarp for a funicle (see

an

seed,*

aril,

its radicle superior.

The woody endocarp sends a long hard

into the stalk of the

which possesses a
and a thick, fleshy, ex-

an ascending

consistency
lateral,

is

it,

the only

name which can be used

as it opens

by two longitudinal

to

clefts

two valves, which are altogether free from
each other and only adhere to the receptacle
by their bases. One of these valves has been
detached in fig. 14, where we only see its

into

cicatrix.
i.

236.— B.H.,

' Its

in

attachment

may be

T. coclimchmensis

altogether basilar as

H. Bn.

But, as in

Con-




;

NATURAL SI8T0BY OF PLANTS.

10

Tricholobm consists of trees from the Indian Archipelago' and
Cocliin China,^ with alternate imparipinnate, glabrous or hairy leaves
the flowers are in axillary or terminal racemes of cymes. As yet
;

three species are known.

As

in the genus Bourea, with the

possessing plurifoliolate leaves,
are unifoliolate

Malaysia, to

;

so in

some

we

find

greater

some

number of

species

which they
from India and

species in

species of Tricholobus

which the name EUipantlius^ has been given,

leaves have only a single leaflet

flower and fruit are identical,

the genus Tricholobus.

Four

:

but as

we

the

the essential characters of

all

make

can only

this a section of

known, natives of India

species are

and Malaysia."
This small order, as we have just studied

it,

dates no great

way

in putting

A. L. de Jussieu' followed
Omphalobium, and Cnestis, the only genera of the order
then known, in Terehinthacem. It was E. Bkown who, in his celebrated work on the plants of western tropical Africa,* proposed in
1818 to found an order Connaracem, which should include the three
He considered that the
genera Connarus, Cnestis, and B,ourea.
insertion of the stamens was only doubtfully hypogynous
but that
the most important character of the group lay in the attachment of
the collateral ovules by a basilar or subbasHar hilum Ivhile, in the
seed the radicle of the embryo was superior. Thus, he distinguished
Connaracece sharply from Terebinthacece, making the ovule and seed
orthotropous in the former, and anatropous in the latter.
Kunth'
back.

predecessors

his

Connarus,

;

;

in

1824 simply followed Brown, admitting Connaracece without

comment

as a distinct order just like Juglandece,

Amyridece, &c.

including the three genera given by R. Bkown, and adding Brunellid'

and Brucea

&c., it may be much higher.
Ibis 13 the case in T. fulms Bi., whose ovule
In
has hence been described as anatropous.
this species the micropyle tips the very long
tapering conical apex of the ovule, and is quite
superior, while the attachment of the ovule is at
nearly one-third its length from its base. Hence
the anatropy is very incomplete, and especially
less complete than in certain species of Mcmotes.
' Bl., loo. cii.
MiQ., Fl. Ind.-Bat., i. p. 2,
Walp., Ann., ii. 304.
666.

nams, Manotes,



2

5

Endlicher" retained the

as "genera Connaraceis affinia."

H. Bif., in Adamowia, ix, 150,
Hook. F., Cren., 434, n. 11.

n. 24.

*

Wail., Cat., n. 8551 {Connarus monoThw., Enum. Fl. Zeyl., 80, 410

phyllus).



(C. tmifoliatm).



369.
(1789),
De
84) also made Conmarace(B
a tribe (seventh) of his TereimthacecB.
^ Congo, 431 ; Misc. Worlcs, ed. Benn., i.
*

0-enera

Candolie

Flantantm

(Prodr.,

ii.

112.
? Saying however of this genus, " Diosmeis
propior."
" In Ann. Sc. Nat., s&. 1, ii. 359.
" Genera
Flanta/rvm
(1836-1840), 1139,

Ordo

coxlvii.




CONNABAOE^.

11

bat unfortunately added' Thysanus, Murycoma, Suriana, Cneorum,
and Heterodendron. Lindlbt'' only retained the first two of these
genera, and that doubtfully.
In 1850 Planchon' undertook the
revision of the whole of the order, from which he finally excluded
order,

the genera Eurycoma,

Cneorum, Suriana, Heterodendron, Brunellia,

and Ailanthus.
At the
Solander's genera Manotes and

Brucea,

same

time

he included both

and created three new
and
Bernardinia (also referred by us to Bourea).
In the same year
Bl^me* created his genus Tricholobm for some plants from the Indian
Archipelago.
The genera proposed latterly are due to J. Hooker,
and to MiQDEii
to the former belong Hemiandrind' (later on
restored by him to Agelcea), Tceniochlcena, and EUipanthus,^ which last
generic types

Agelcea,

Cnestidium, Boureopsis (which is only a Bourea),

;

we only make a
which does not
organization

is

section of Tricholobus
differ

discussion.

—Endlicher^ has well summed up the
by previous authors that we cannot do better than
very words — " Anacardiaceis, mediante Buchanania,

Affinities.

recognised

quote his

to the latter Troostwyckia,

imperfectly known, and whose natural relations are

moment under

even at this

;

from Hemiandrina, and Nothocnestis,^ whose

so

et

:

Zanthoxyleis per Brunelliam propius accedunt,
diverse, hinc

minosis

aflSnities

all

embryone antitropo

per Cnestin, mediante Averhoa, Oxalideis,

Detarieis,

vix

nisi

ovariorum

numero,

illinc

embryonis

Legusitu

et

In fact, Buchanania, with
and diplostemonous androceum, only differs from Con-

stipularum defectu distinguendis, accedunt!'^
its free carpels

'

'

Only as genera affinia, it is true.
Veg. Kingd, (1846), 468, Ordo clxxv.

'

In Linncea,

*

Mua. Imgd.Sat.,

xxiii.

412.
i. 236.

In rj-flTM.XMSK. Soc,

xxiii. 171, t. 28 (1860).
Qen., 433, 434, n. 10, 11 (1862).
' The Sumatran
plant which is the only
member of this genus, belongs according to
'

^

BEHTHAai

& HooKEE

(

Gen., 431) not

naracem but to Legvminosece.

to Con-

MlQTJEl.
who established the genus in 1861, in the Flor.
Ind.-Bat., Suppl., i. 531, in 1867, still maintained
in the Ann. Mm. Lugd.-Bat., iii. 88, that it
should be left in the former order, and made
Still

some corrections in his original description. We
can pronounce no opinion on this subject, having
been unable to study the very imperfect specimens
in the herbarium of Leyden.
We only know
through MiQTjEii, that JT. smnatrcma is a tree
with simple entire leaves and pentandrous flowers,

whose partite calyx is in part persistent about
the fruit ; there is an annular disk, around which
are inserted the stamens, five (?) in number, and
a fruit of a solitary central follicle whose dorsal
and ventral sutures project both outside and
inside, but especially inside, to form a very
incomplete spurious dissepiment. The unilateral
dehiscence of this fruit frees a seed inserted
somewhat obliquely on a basilar placenta, almost
entirely enveloped in a succulent membranous
aril, and containing an embryo surrounded by a
thin layer of albumen.
* Op. cit., 1139.
' Agaedh
on the whole admits the same
affinities, considering as he does {Theor. Syst.
Flant., 229) that the Comtaraceee by the form of
their fruits form a transition between ZeguminosiB and TerehinthacecB, and that Detariem,
as they possess a corolla, are a more perfect form of
ConnaracecB.



;

NATURAL HI8T0BY OF PLANTS.

12

naraceoB in

tlie

complete anatropy of

its ovule,

and we now know of

The
Connaracets in which this anatropy is, as it were, sketched out.
same may be said oiRutacem and Simarubece, groups to which Brunellia
has been successively referred, though they are usually characterized
either by glands with odoriferous essential oil, or the marked bitterness of all the parts while Averrhoa, among Oxalidece, is now most
;

through Connaropsis, which would be a
Cnestis were its carpels but free instead of being united into a fivecelled ovary.
As for the Detariea and Copaiferece, they are so close
closely allied to Connaracece^

and to Tric/iolobus, where the carpel is also solitary, that there is no collection
where the two groups are not to be found intermixed. There are
really two points in which these reduced Leguminosa differ from
to the unicarpellary species of Connarus {Omphalobium),

Connaracece ; they possess stipules and a completely reflexed ovule
all

other characters

being similar, there

between the two groups.
out

—that between

Nothing can bear

One more

this Order

a very close affinity

is

alliance remains to be pointed

and the

series

Spirceem of Bosacece.

closer resemblance to certain plants of this series

with biovulate carpels than do Agelcea, Manotes, and several other
the perianth, the diplostemonous androceum, the five

Cnestideos;

free biovulate carpels, are all identical

;

and as these

last are often

nearly anatropous in Manotes, which moreover -possesses alternate

pinnate leaves and a panicled inflorescence,
separate the

two types

is

all

that

we have

left to

that certain Spircsem have stipules and that

their seeds are usually exalbuminous.

But

as these

two features are

not even constant, the reasons which have led us to place Connaracece

between Mosaceoe and LeguminostB will

easily

be understood.

What

then are the characters by help of which we can subdivide
Connaracea? What characters are constant in this small order?

by no means without importance
the independence of the carpels, their number (never greater
than that of the petals), and the number of ovules in each,

Of the

latter there are several,

upturning of the micropyle, the consistency of the pericarp
(always dry and finally dehiscent), the true diplostemony of the
androceum, the alternation of the leaves, the absence of stipules.
the

'

Its affinities

with which were long since demonstrated by E.

Beown.


OOmTABAOEM.
and the woody consistency of the stem.
both very valuable and nearly constant

13

Other characters again are

—namely, the pinnate

leaves,

the orthotropous or nearly orthotropous ovules, the seeds possessing
an aril of variable thickness and localized or generalized. In the
third place

come two

characters, each present in about half the

Order and absent in the rest

—a valvate calyx

and an albuminous

To these, however, an unequal value has been assigned, as we
shall now see.
The character of the prsefloration of the calyx has been held of
sufficient importance to serve to divide all the known Connaracece

seed.

into

two

tribes or series

:

the one, Connareee, in which the sepals are

imbricated in the bud, the other, Cnestideee, in which they are valvate.

If this clear demarcation came out in accordance with the
this division of course

have retained

would be most convenient in practice

for its

it

by the

fact that Troostvoickya

among
exactly

and we

But we cannot regard

convenience.

This position

as being also absolutely natural.

;

facts,

may

it

be illustrated

was placed by Bbntham and Hooker

now this name is
genus now suppressed, and

Cnestidea, because of its valvate calyx

synonymous with Hemiandrina, a

;

rightly considered a mere section of Agelcea, whose calyx

Again,

imbricated, as befits the Connarecs.

many

is

usually

species of Tricho-

have altogether the flower of Omjphalobium or Connarus, with the
gynseceum finally unicarpellary and a large number of them have

lobus

;

also the

same vegetative organs

allied in all their characters,

;

of these

still,

two

types, so closely

Tricholohus is referred for its valvate

calyx to Cnestidece, and Omphalohium, for

its

imbricate

calyx,

to

Never was there artificial classification more convenient, we must allow; but at the same time, never was there
Connare
one that took

The

less

account of the generality of

character derived from the

True, albumen

is

albumen

never found in any

is

common

characters.

of even less import.

known member of the

ConnarecB;

but while in half the genera of Cnestideae the seeds possess albumen,
in the other half they lack

it.

The other characters serve only to distinguish the several genera.
They are as follows: 1. The prolongation of the receptacle above



the perianth into a column bearing the sexual organs this pecu2. The stalk to the base of each
liarity occurs only in Manotes.
:

The absolute
wanting in Bourea, present in Connarus.
number of elements to the gynseceum the specimens of Tricholohus
carpel;

:


NATURAL HISTORY OF PLANTS.

14

which we have been able to study have only one carpel at all ages,
while in the other types, whose fruit is unicarpellary when
adult, there was a larger number of carpels at some earlier period.
4.

The

state of the interior surface of the pericarp

with peculiar hairs in

Cnestis,

:

this is covered

but remains glabrous in the neighAs regards the per-

bouring genera Cnestidium and Tmniochlcsna.

sistence or precocious fall of the calyx, the degree of closeness

with

which it embraces the base of the fruit, the presence or absence of
an aril in our eyes these characters are not even of generic value,
inconstant as they are: in certain genera which our predecessors
have regarded as perfectly homogeneous. Thus several authors have
held Bourea generically distinct from Byrsocarpus and Bernardinia,



in that its calyx persists, closely applied to the base of the fruit,

while in the other two

it

diverges from

it,

even falling off after

But we have shown' that " in the series of
from Madagascar we find every transition from the Senegal
of Byrsocarptis with spreading sepals, and those of the mimo-

anthesis in Bernardinia.
species
.

species

soid Boureas from tropical Africa in

most marked.
" it

is

.

.

"

In

impossible to lay

which the appressed calyx

is

fact this is only a question of degree, so that

down

the law, at what point in this series of

species the calyx ceases to be that of a Byrsocarpus,

and becomes

The non-persistent calyx of Bernardinia is
make it a distinct genus from Bourea, for in

that of a true Bourea"
equally insufficient to

the genus Connarus

itself,

to others with caducoas
differences to

species with persistent sepals, are united

sepals,

without our being able to use these

found even distinct sections ; these two characters can
This will not apply

then afford no acceptable generic distinctions.

it is sufi&cient to separate Bourea
and Connarus, which genera we have already seen are perfectly distinguished by another character.

to the accrescence of the calyx, for

no wide zone of latitude, but are
degree
of
longitude in all the warm regions
almost
every
under
found
of the globe. Not one species it is true has been found in tropical
ConnaracecB are distributed^ over

and only one in the Islands of the Pacific. But the
hundred and fifty described species are nearly equally distributed
over the whole of the warm districts of Asia, Africa, and tropical
Australia,



Adam^onia,

vi.

228

(see above, p. 5, note 3).

^

Lindl., Veg, Kingd., 468.


,

CONNABAOHM.
America.

15

TncJiolohus, TceniocMmna, Manotes,

and Agelma are found
Old World, Cnestidium only in the New. Manotes has
only been found in the west of tropical Africa.
Connarus and
Bourea belong to both Worlds. The order does not extend beyond
only in

tlie

25° N.

The

lat.,

or 30° S.

uses of Connaracece are not very numerous.

They generally
contain in their tissues a certain amount of resinous balsamic matter
hence certain species are used as tonics or astringents. This is the
case with several of the genus Connarus, especially C. africanus Cav.,
the infused bark of which
burns,'

ment

and

by the negroes

to wounds and
whose bark is employed in India in the treatBourea hirsuta has a tonic balsamic bark. Agclcsa
is

applied

C. pinnattts,

of aphthae.^

We

Lamarckii Pl., passes for a powerful astringent in Madagascar.

are also told, it is true, that if abused, this drug produces very severe

dysentery, but

The red

still

value

its

recognised in several discharges.^

is

or orange fruits of very

many

plants highly ornamental, according to
scent of their
edidis^

C.

flowers.''

Boxburghii

The

W. &

of the species render these

Wight, who

also extols the

aril is

sometimes edible, as in Connarus

Arn.

&

C.

The

Lambertii.^

inside of

may be rich in oil, as in C. pinnatus DC, C. Lambertii, &c.
The embryo of Cnestis ferruginea DC. tastes like the hazel nut.
The fruits of most species of the last genus are coated inside and

the seed

We

even outside with irritant hairs, sometimes stinging severely.'

may

cite

the Oboqui of the Graboon (C.

corniculata Lamk.),' the

Bourbon and Madagascar (C. glabra Lamk. & C.polyphglla Lamk.),' which cause very smart itching, and are used like
the true cowhage {polls a gratter) furnished by Mucuna pruriens and
several other Leguminosa.
One variety of Ageleea Lamarckii, from
Gratteliers of

Madagascar, we have called emetica^" because it is used in that
country as an emetic. It is generally admitted after Schomburgk,"
that the zebra wood (bois de zebre) so highly prized by cabinet makers
is

a Connarus from Gruyana, namely C. {Omphalobium) Lambertii, men-

tioned above.
1

^

Dttoh., Eeperi., 289,
RoSBltTH., %». Plant. Diaphor., 868.

See Adansonia, vii. 239. It is the Soandron or Cephan-mahi of the Malagasy.

This scent resembles that of the Lilac (see
LiNDL., Veg. Kingd., 468). Pebviile has ob'^

served this in the flowers of Agelaa

Adansonia vii. 239).
Endi., Plnchvr., 605.

also (see
'

LamarckU

*

C.

gumttensia

Lamb.,

mss.,

ex

Om/phaloimm Lamhertii DC, Prodr.,

Pi.



n. 4.

See Adansonia, vii. 243.
Spondioides prwriem Smeathm. Agelaa
prwriem SoiiA:fD. (See above, p. 5, note 11.)
'



^

'

Diet., n. 1, 2.

" The Malagasy

call

it

Vahe-mainti (see

Adansonia, vii. 240).
" LrNDL., loc. eii.— RoSbnth., op.

ait.,

869.


;;

NATURAL EI8T0BY OF PLANTS.

16

GENERA.
I.

Connarus L.

1.

CONNAEEtE.

—Flowers hermaphrodite;

slightly depressed at apex.
sistent or deciduous.

ting with them,

sitipetalous

Petals

5,

imbricated in aestivation, per-

longer than the sepals, and alterna-

5,

sometimes cohering by the margins, imbricated

free,

10, 5 longer alternipetalous, 5 shorter oppo-

Stamens

in aestivation.

Sepals

filaments connate close to

;.

receptacle conical, or

more

disciform base, monadelphous, later free filiform

anthers 2-celled

;

dehiscing longitudinally, finally reflexed or versatile;

introrse,

oppositipetalous stamens, sometimes sterile or wanting.
oppositipetalous
fertile

and

or less thickened

ovary

1-4 usually smaller, sooner or

;

basilar

;

inserted

collateral,

2,

less

lateral;

;

micropyle superior.

variable

umbilicus
Fruit dry

calyx either persistent, not accrescent, embrac-

stalk, or deciduous, its position

marked by

scars

;

pericarp

oblique oblong, obtuse or slightly apiculate, coriaceous, dehiscing
1 -seeded.

ventral suture,
less

shining

embryo inverted exalbuminous

amygdaloid
scandent

;

;

lobed aril;

radicle short, superior.

much branched

Sea Islands).

See

externally

—Trees

or shrubs, often sub-

more

rarely 3-foliolate,

;

cymiferous racemes;

pedicels usually articu-

and Asia, Indian Archipelago, South

p. 1.

Agelsea Soland.

—Flowers

hermaphrodite, either altogether

similar to or scarcely differing from those of Connarus

more

rarely 3, 4-partite

Petals
late, or

5,

or

more rarely

more

;

3,

;

calyx

5-,

or

sepals imbricated, subvalvate or valvate.

3, 4, free

or connate, either oblong or lanceo-

rarely ligulate long filiform.

5 or more rarely

smooth

cotyledons thick, fleshy

flowers minute crowded in simple or oftener

lated (Tropical America Africa

2.

testa
;

leaves alternate imparipinnate, or

evergreen exstipulat6

very

fleshy

lateral

by

Seed suberect, furnished at base with a

more or
;

5,

aborting

at a

orthotropous or suborthotropous

cell,

more or

or

capsular stipitate

ing the

Ovules

apex.

distance from base of

Carpels

later

tapering into a terminal style, with dilated

1 -celled,

stigmatiferous

in

Stamens 10

4 alternipetalous, often

(of Connarus)

sterile or antherless

;

fila-


;;;

CONNABAOE^.

17

ments connate or more rarely almost free at base, usually reflexed at
apex anthers introrse. Carpels 3-5 (of Connarus) style slender
;

;

apex dilated stigmatiferous, simple or 2-lobed.
rarely 4, 5, sessile or shortly stipitate,

embracing base of
ing shrubs

Seed of Connarus.

fruit.

Capsules 1-3, more

-seeded; calyx persistent, not

leaves alternate 3-foliolate

Africa, Madagascar, Tropical

(Tropical

See

;

1

—Trees or

erect or climb-

inflorescence of Connarus

;

India, Indian

Archipelago).

p. 4.



3.

erect,

Rourea Aubl. Flowers hermaphrodite (of Connarus) calyx
much imbricated, either accrescent and finally embracing base
;

of sessile fruit {Buroured), or more or less spreading and not closely

embracing capsule {Byrsocarpus), or more rarely deciduous {Bernardinia).
Other characters of Connarus. Small trees or shrubs, some-



times climbing

leaves pinnate or very rarely 3-foliolate, persistent

;

more often compound, cymiferous, axillary or
terminal racemes {Tropical America, Asia, and Africa, Madagascar).
flowers in simple or

See

p. 4.

II.

Cnestis J.

4.

CNESTIDE^.

—Flowers hermaphrodite

5,

alternate, often shorter

than

or polygamous

sepals, valvate or

Stamens 10; filaments connate

vation.

;

receptacle

Calyx 5-partite valvate. Petals

shortly conical or depressed at apex.

imbricated in

aesti-

close to base or free;

5

oppositipetalous reflexed at apex; anthers 2-celled introrse, finally
extrorse, 2-rimose.

Carpels

5,

oppositipetalous sessile

apices obtuse or capitellate, stigmatiferous

1-5, surrounded at

Capsules

base by

;

;

styles short

ovules 2 (of Connarus).

spreading

persistent non-

accrescent calyx, velvety or pilose outside, covered with close

stinging hairs within.

albumen fleshy
short superior.

pinnate

;

;

Seed erect or suberect,

embryo inverted

— Shrubs

or small

;

cotyledons foliaceous

trees

;

See

and

vo

ii-

;

Indian Archi-

p. 5;



3

impari-

alternate

Africa,

Cnestidium Pl. Flowers hermaphrodite (of
Calyx
or more rarely unequally 3-, 4-partite.

5.

5-

leaves

radicle

;

flowers in simple or cymiferous, usually axillary, racemes

pedicels often articulated (Tropical Asia
pelago).

stifij

arillate or exarillate

Cnestis); perianth

Corolla

valvate.

^


;

NATVEAL EI8T0BT OF PLANTS.

18

longer than calyx, valvate. Stamens 10 (of Cnestis) filaments connate close to base.
Carpels 5, oppositipetalous sessile style slender
;

;

elongated

Capsule

apex thickened, entire or 2-lobed, stigmatiferous.

;

solitary sessile velvety, glabrous

Seed furnished at base

within.

—A

with a fleshy adnate dimidiate aril.
shrub leaves alternate-imparipinnate
;

;

velvety-pubescent tree or

and terminal,

flowers axillary

in crowded branched many-flowered cymiferous racemes;

bracteate at base {Panama, Mexico).

6.

Tseniochlsena Hook. T.

—Calyx

small hemispherical or obconical

5 (of

7.

5-partite

sepals inserted

;

"Capsules 1-3

Cnestis).

supported on an adnate dimidiate

—A
;

aril

subscandent shrub;

imparipinnate quite glabrous
apex, coriaceous

Seed oblong, base

;

testa shining

flowers axillary cymoso-racemose

Manotes Soland.

—riowers hermaphrodite

leaves

oblong, 2-lobed at

leaflets subsessile

;

cotyledons

;

glabrous;

branches

inflorescence to-

;

mentose, shorter than the leaf; pedicels slender {Malaysia).

7.

fruit,

Stamens 10,
ovoid subcom-

sessile

pressed obtuse pubescent, quite glabrous within.

amygdaloid."

the

receptacle, revolute in

on a

Petals long ligulate glabrous.

valvate in aestivation.

and carpels

See p.

pedicels

;

See

p. 7.

receptacle conical,

produced beyond corolla into a slender erect column bearing carpels

Calyx 5-partite valvate.

at its apex.

longer than

sepals,

10, inserted

below

anthers introrse
petalous
reflexed

;

;

imbricated

Petals

finally

ovaries free, borne

on summit of column
;

ovules

either at base or at a variable height on

borne on a

common

subdrupaceous

much

;

stamens shorter;

Carpels

reflexed.

apices capitate stigmatiferous

orthotropous or subanatropous

micropyle

;

Stamens

in aestivation, caducous.

carpels, free, oppositipetalous

3-rimose,

alternate linear

5,

styles linear

;

2, collateral,

;

inserted

internal angle of ovary,
superior.

Capsules 1-5

stalk, separately stipitellate, reflexed

epicarp pubescent

oppositi-

5,

mesocarp thin

;

;

pericarp

endocarp woody,

shorter than mesocarp, finally dehiscing as a follicle ventrally.

Seed subanatropous descending external integument cellular even
albumen hard copious embryo green inverted radicle short superior
;

cotyledons foliaceous.

pinnate;

flowers

in

;

;

;

—Trees

or shrubs, pubescent

compound

;

leaves impari-

cymiferous, terminal

or

axillary

racemes; pedicels bracteolate articulated {Western Tropical Africa).
See

p. 8.


:

OONNAEAOEJE.

19



Tricholobus Bl. Mowers hermaphrodite
receptacle short
Calyx 5-partite valvate, not growing after anthesis. Petals
5, alternisepalous, longer than sepals, imbricated or contorted in
aestivation.
Stamens 10 (of Connarus) 5 oppositipetalous shorter,
with sterile anthers or antherless filament finally elongated, reflexed
8.

;

conical.

;

;

at apex.

Carpel 1

;

ovary

with dilated stigmatiferous apex.
or subanatropous

;

tapering into a terminal style,

sessile,

Ovules

micropyle superior.

2, collateral,

pericarp glabrous within, finally dehiscing longitudinally

Seed of Connarus, supported on a basilar
fleshy, thick

exalbuminous.



aril

;

by

of variable form

^Trees or shrubs

pinnate or 1-foliolate {Mlipanthus)

orthotropous

Fruit sessile or stipitate

;

2 sutures.
;

embryo

leaves alternate impari-

flowers in axillary or terminal,

simple or compound, racemes {India, Indian Archipelago, Malaysia,
Cochin-China).

See

p. 9.

c 2






LEGUMINOS^.

Yin.

Leguminosee^ are plants

legume (Fr., gousse

whose

fruit

nearly always a pod

or

also almost

Their gynseceum

Lat., legumen).

;

is

invariably consists of a single free excentric carpel, whose unilocular

ovary contains a pluriovulate, or more rarely nniovulate, parietal
placenta.
Most of the other characters are variable and have warranted the separation of this order into three suborders, received as

many

such by most authors, bnt by some considered as so

These three groups we

orders.

rately

;

we

shall therefore follow other botanists,

and

distinct

study sepa-

shall be compelled to

first

point out

the distinctive features of each.

I.

PAPiiiiONACE^.

—Flowers

with an irregular corolla

papilionaceous, the standard outside the other

Eeceptacle concave, of a single piece, and bearing on
perianth and androceum.
rarely very short

and

II. CiESALPiNiEffi.

known

in the

petals

its

as

bud.

edges the

Radicle of embryo inflexed, accumbent,

straight.

—Flowers with an imbricated

corolla,

the petal

corresponding to the standard overlapped
rarely
lateral

on both edges (more
on one only, or even imcovered) by the two neighbouring
petals.
Eeceptacle convex with hypogynous insertion, or

concave with perigynous

insertion

of perianth

and androceum.

Eadicle of embryo straight, rarely slightly oblique.

III.

or

MiMosE^.

—Flowers

regular, usually small, with a concave

Calyx valvate (rarely imbricate),

convex receptacle.

usually

gamosepalous, petals valvate, free or coherent to a variable height.

Embryo

usually straight.




1 Leguminosce
Gen., 345.
Gj2btn.,
J.,
Fniet; ii. 301.— DC, Mem. Legwm. (1825);
Bndi., Gen., 1253.
B. H.,
Frodr., ii. 93.
Fapilionaceai et Lomentacete L.,
Gen., 434.



JPralect.

ed.

GiES.,

415.



PapilionacecB

CeesalpinieiB R. Be., in J'Knd. Voy.,ii.

SwartziecB et

1323.

Mimosea Endl.,

JFabacecs LiNDL., Veg.

op.

cit.,

et

551.—
1321,

Kmgd., 544.






SUB-ORDER MIMOSE^.
ADENANTHEEA

I.

Adenantherd
flowers,

(Fr.,



Condori

^figs.

SEEIES.

15-19) has regular hermaphrodite

with a short, hollow, cornet-shaped receptacle, bearing a
Adenamihera pavonma (Red Scmdal-wood Tree).

Fia. 15.

calyx of


Diet,
^6
— Space,

GjEETif.,

ii.

;

446.

EwDi.,
n.

3178.

aen.,

L.,

n.

t.


— Lamk.,
— DC, Frodr.,

Suffon,


Fruct.,

III,

Habit.

valvate teeth, and a corolla of as

five^

Adentmthera

'

349.



334.

Suit,

6820.

a

ii.

526.
149.

— B.

i.

H.,

ii.

590,

" The flowers are exceptionally tetramerous.
The gynsecenm very rarely remains rudimentary,

61.

Gen.,

alternating

Stachychrysum BoJ., Hort.
109, 111, 112.
Maar., lU. G-onsii Bkam., ex At>ass„ Fam.
des PI., ii. 318 P

Q-en.,

J.,

many

ClypeaHa Eumph., Serb. Amb.,

iii.

t.



BO that the flowers are male.


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