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5 Steps to a 5 - AP US Gov (2008-2009)


5 STEPS TO A

5

AP U.S. Government
and Politics


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5 STEPS TO A

5

AP U.S. Government
and Politics
2008–2009
Pamela K. Lamb
Revised by Peggy J. Martin

MCGRAW-HILL
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Copyright © 2008, 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted
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DOI: 10.1036/0071497986


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CONTENTS
Preface, ix
Acknowledgments, xi
About the Authors, xiii
Introduction: The Five-Step Program, xv

STEP 1 Set Up Your Study Program, 1
1 What You Need to Know About the AP U.S. Government and Politics Exam, 3
Background of the Advanced Placement Program, 3
Some Frequently Asked Questions About the AP
U.S. Government and Politics Exam, 4
2 How to Plan Your Time, 9
Three Approaches to Preparing for the AP U.S. Government and Politics Exam, 9
Calendar for Each Plan, 11
STEP 2 Determine Your Test Readiness, 15
3 Take a Diagnostic Exam, 17
Diagnostic Exam: U.S. Government and Politics, 21
Answers and Explanations, 31
Rubrics for Free-Response Essays, 36
STEP 3 Develop Strategies for Success, 37
4 Section I of the Exam: How to Approach the Multiple-Choice Questions, 39
Introduction to the Multiple-Choice Section of the Exam, 39
Types of Multiple-Choice Questions, 40
Strategies for Answering the Multiple-Choice Questions, 40
Scoring the Multiple-Choice Section, 41
U.S. Government and Politics, 45
Answers and Explanations, 56
5 Section II of the Exam: How to Approach the Free-Response Essay, 63
Introduction to the Free-Response Essay, 63
Types of Free-Response Prompts, 65
Developing the Free-Response Essay, 65
Rubrics for the Free-Response Essay, 66
Final Comments—Some Helpful Hints, 66
U.S. Government and Politics, 68
Rubrics for Free-Response Essays, 72
STEP 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High, 73
6 Architecture and Development of U.S. Government, 75
Principles of Government, 76
Origins of American Government, 77
The United States Constitution, 82
❮ v


vi ❯ Contents

7

8

9

10

11

12

Review Questions, 86
Answers and Explanations, 87
Rapid Review, 88
Federalism, 89
The Constitutional Basis of Federalism, 90
Federalism in Practice, 90
Establishing National Supremacy, 91
Federalism Today, 92
Review Questions, 94
Answers and Explanations, 96
Rapid Review, 97
Political Culture, 99
American Democratic Values, 99
Political Socialization, 100
Public Opinion, 100
Review Questions, 102
Answers and Explanations, 103
Rapid Review, 104
Political Parties, 105
Roles of Political Parties, 105
Party Systems, 106
What Do Political Parties Do?, 106
Party Identification and Membership, 106
The Two-Party Tradition in America, 107
Third or Minor Parties, 109
Structure and Organization of Political Parties, 109
Future of Political Parties, 110
Review Questions, 111
Answers and Explanations, 113
Rapid Review, 114
Voting and Elections, 115
Participation and Voting, 115
Types of Elections, 118
Campaign Finance, 120
Review Questions, 122
Answers and Explanations, 124
Rapid Review, 125
Interest Groups and the Mass Media, 127
Interest Groups, 127
Mass Media, 129
Biases in the Media, 132
Review Questions, 133
Answers and Explanations, 135
Rapid Review, 136
The Legislative Branch, 137
Structure of Congress, 138
Organization of Congress, 138
Election to Congress, 138
Leadership of Congress, 139


Contents ❮ vii

The Committee System, 140
Congressional Staff and Support, 141
Roles of Members of Congress, 141
Privileges of Members of Congress, 141
Powers of Congress, 141
The Lawmaking Process, 142
Legislative Tactics, 143
Influences on Congress, 143
Review Questions, 145
Answers and Explanations, 147
Rapid Review, 148
13 The Executive Branch and the Bureaucracy, 149
Constitutional Origins of the Presidency, 149
The Road to the White House, 151
The Vice Presidency, 151
Presidential Powers, 152
Limitations on Presidential Powers, 153
Presidential Character, 153
The Bureaucracy, 154
The Executive Office of the President (EOP), 155
Executive Departments, 156
Review Questions, 157
Answers and Explanations, 159
Rapid Review, 160
14 The National Judiciary, 161
The Federal Court System, 161
Structure of the Judicial System, 162
Judicial Selection, 163
The Court at Work, 164
Courts as Policymakers, 165
Judicial Philosophy, 166
Review Questions, 167
Answers and Explanations, 169
Rapid Review, 170
15 Civil Liberties and Civil Rights, 171
Civil Liberties, 171
Freedom of Religion, 172
Freedom of Speech, 173
Freedom of the Press, 174
Freedom of Assembly and Petition, 175
Property Rights, 175
Right to Privacy, 176
Rights of the Accused, 176
Civil Rights, 177
The Civil Rights Movement, 177
Other Minorities, 178
Affirmative Action, 180
Review Questions, 181
Answers and Explanations, 182
Rapid Review, 183


viii ❯ Contents
16 The Politics and Public Policymaking, 185
The Policymaking Process, 185
Domestic Policy, 186
Economic Policy, 188
Foreign and Defense Policy, 189
Review Questions, 191
Answers and Explanations, 193
Rapid Review, 194
STEP 5 Build Your Test-Taking Confidence, 195
AP U.S. Government and Politics Practice Exam 1, 199
Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions, 211
Answers and Explanations, 212
Rubrics for Free-Response Essays, 217
AP U.S. Government and Politics Practice Exam 2, 221
Answers to Multiple-Choice Questions, 231
Answers and Explanations, 232
Rubrics for Free-Response Essays, 237
Appendix, 239
Web Sites Related to the Advanced Placement Exam, 241
Glossary of Terms, 242


PREFACE
Welcome to AP U.S. Government and Politics. I am, first and foremost, a teacher who has
taught advanced placement to many students who have successfully taken the AP exam. I am
also a table leader and reader—one of those crazy teachers who spends a week in the summer reading thousands of student free-response essays. With this guide I hope to share with
you what I know, including what I have learned from students and other AP teachers, to
help you be successful on the exam.
The second edition of this manual includes two diagnostic exams to allow you additional
practice of your knowledge and skills in AP U.S. Government and Politics. The multiplechoice section of the second diagnostic exam appears in Chapter 4, while the free-response
questions appear in Chapter 5. The content of Chapter 6 through Chapter 16 is updated to
reflect acts of Congress and Supreme Court cases that affect U.S. government since the publication of the first edition. Complete answers and explanations, both to the chapter review
questions and the multiple-choice sections of the diagnostic and practice exams, are now
provided to broaden your understanding of correct responses and explain why wrong answer
choices are incorrect.
My philosophy is not to teach only for the AP exam. Instead, my goal is to help students
develop skills and abilities that lead to advanced levels of aptitude in government and politics.
These are the same skills that will enable you to do well on the AP U.S. Government and
Politics exam. My aim is to remove your nervousness and to improve your comfort level with
the test. I believe that you are already motivated to succeed; otherwise, you would not have
come this far. And obviously, you would not have purchased this prep book.
Since you have taken or are already taking a government and politics class, this book is
going to supplement your course readings, writing, and analysis. I am going to give you the
opportunity to practice the skills and techniques that I know from experience really work!
I am confident that if you apply the techniques and processes presented in this book, you can
succeed.
Let’s begin.

❮ ix
Copyright © 2008, 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
My love and appreciation to Mark H. Lamb for his constant support, encouragement, and
belief in my abilities and in me. Without his collaboration, this book would never have been
completed. Special thanks to Frances New for her suggestions and encouragement.
To Derek James (DJ) New: May this book someday help you in your studies. To my AP
Government and Politics colleagues and friends: Thanks for all the ideas you have shared over
the years—I’ll see you at the reading. To my students, past, present, and future: Thank you
for the inspiration you give to all teachers.

❮ xi
Copyright © 2008, 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Pamela K. Lamb teaches AP U.S. Government and Politics at Del Rio High School in
Del Rio, Texas. She is a College Board consultant as well as a longtime reader, table leader,
and question leader of AP tests in U.S. Government and Politics.
Peggy J. Martin teaches AP World History at Del Rio High School in Del Rio, Texas. She
has served as a consultant for the College Board and as a reader for AP World History since
the inaugural reading in 2002.

❮ xiii
Copyright © 2008, 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


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INTRODUCTION: THE
FIVE-STEP PROGRAM
The Basics
Not too long ago, you decided to enroll in AP U.S. Government and Politics. Maybe you
have always been interested in political affairs, or maybe a respected teacher encouraged you
and you accepted the challenge. Either way, you find yourself here, flipping through a book
that promises to help you culminate your efforts with the highest of honors, a 5 in AP U.S.
Government and Politics. Can it be done without this book? Sure, there are some students
out there every year who achieve a 5 on the strength of classwork alone. But I am here to tell
you that, for the majority of students in your shoes, using this book is a smart way to make
sure you’re ready for this difficult exam.

Introducing the Five-Step Preparation Program
This book is organized as a five-step program to prepare you for success on the exam. These
steps are designed to provide you with the skills and strategies vital to the exam and the practice that can lead you to that perfect 5. Each of the five steps will provide you with the opportunity to get closer and closer to that prize trophy 5. Here are the five steps.

Step 1: Set Up Your Study Program
In this step you’ll read a brief overview of the AP U.S. Government and Politics exam, including an outline of topics and the approximate percentage of the exam that will test knowledge
of each topic. You will also follow a process to help determine which of the following preparation programs is right for you:




Full school year: September through May.
One semester: January through May.
Six weeks: Basic training for the exam.

Step 2: Determine Your Test Readiness
In this step you’ll take a diagnostic exam in AP U.S. Government and Politics. This pretest
should give you an idea of how prepared you are to take the real exam before beginning to
study for it.




Go through the diagnostic exam step by step and question by question to build your
confidence level.
Review the correct answers and explanations so that you see what you do and do not yet
fully understand.

❮ xv
Copyright © 2008, 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


xvi ❯ Introduction: The Five-Step Program

Step 3: Develop Strategies for Success
In this step you will learn strategies that will help you do your best on the exam. These strategies cover both the multiple-choice and free-response sections of the exam. Some of these tips
are based upon my understanding of how the questions are designed, and others have
been gleaned from my years of experience reading (grading) the AP U.S. Government and
Politics exam.




Learn to read multiple-choice questions.
Learn how to answer multiple-choice questions, including whether or not to guess.
Learn how to plan and write the free-response questions.

Step 4: Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
In this step you will learn or review the material you need to know for the test. This review
takes up the bulk of this book. It contains:




A comprehensive review of the themes and concepts of AP U.S. Government and Politics.
Key terms.
Rapid reviews of the main ideas of each chapter.

Step 5: Build Your Test-Taking Confidence
In this step you will complete your preparation by testing yourself on practice exams. This
book provides you with two complete exams, answers, explanations, and rubrics. Be aware
that these practice exams are not reproduced questions from actual AP U.S. Government
and Politics exams, but they mirror both the material tested by AP and the way in which it
is tested.
Finally, at the back of this book you will find additional resources to aid your participation.
These include:



A list of Web sites related to the AP U.S. Government and Politics exam.
A glossary of terms related to the AP U.S. Government and Politics exam.

Introduction to the Graphics Used in This Book
To emphasize particular skills and strategies, we use several icons throughout this book. An
icon in the margin will alert you that you should pay particular attention to the accompanying text. We use three icons:
This icon points out a very important concept or fact that you should not pass over.

This icon calls your attention to a strategy that you may want to try.


Introduction: The Five-Step Program ❮ xvii

This icon indicates a tip that you might find useful.

Boldfaced words indicate terms that are included in the glossary at the end of this book.


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5 STEPS TO A

5

AP U.S. Government
and Politics


This page intentionally left blank


STEP

1

Set Up Your Study Program
CHAPTER

1

CHAPTER 2

What You Need to Know About the AP U.S. Government
and Politics Exam
How to Plan Your Time

Copyright © 2008, 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


This page intentionally left blank


CHAPTER

1

What You Need to Know About
the AP U.S. Government and
Politics Exam
IN THIS CHAPTER
Summary: Learn what topics are tested, how the test is scored, and basic

test-taking information.
Key Ideas

✪ Many colleges will award credit for a score of 3 or above.
✪ Multiple-choice questions count as one-half of your total score.
✪ One quarter of a point is deducted for each wrong answer on
multiple-choice questions.
✪ Free-response questions count for one-half of your total score.
✪ Your composite score on the two test sections is converted to a score on
the 1-to-5 scale.

Background of the Advanced Placement Program
The Advanced Placement program was begun by the College Board in 1955 to construct
standard achievement exams that would allow highly motivated high school students the opportunity to be awarded advanced placement as first-year students in colleges and universities in
the United States. Today, there are 37 courses and exams with more than 1,000,000 students
from every state in the nation, and from foreign countries, taking the annual exams in May.
❮ 3
Copyright © 2008, 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.


4 ❯ Step 1. Set Up Your Study Program
The AP programs are designed for high school students who wish to take college-level
courses. In our case, the AP U.S. Government and Politics course and exam are designed to
involve high school students in college-level studies in political science.

Some Frequently Asked Questions About the AP
U.S. Government and Politics Exam
What Is the Format of the AP U.S. Government and Politics Exam?
The following table summarizes the format of the AP U.S. Government and Politics exam.
AP U.S. Government and Politics
SECTION

I. Multiple-Choice Questions
II. Free-Response Questions

NUMBER OF
QUESTIONS

TIME LIMIT

60

Total Time: 45 minutes

4

Total Time: 100 minutes

Why Take the AP U.S. Government and Politics Exam?
Most students take the exam because they are seeking college credit. The majority of
colleges and universities will accept a 4 or 5 as acceptable credit for their introductory
U.S. Government and Politics course. Some schools will accept a 3 on the exam. This means
you are one course closer to graduation before you even attend your first class. Even if you
do not score high enough to earn college credit, the fact that you elected to enroll in AP
courses tells admission committees that you are a high achiever and serious about your
education.

Who Writes the AP U.S. Government and Politics Exam?
Development of each AP exam is a multi-year effort that involves many education and testing professionals and students. At the heart of the effort is the AP U.S. Government and
Politics Test Development Committee, a group of college and high school government teachers who are typically asked to serve for three years. The committee creates a large pool of
multiple-choice questions. With the help of the testing experts at Educational Testing Service
(ETS), these questions are then pretested with college students enrolled in introductory U.S.
Government and Politics classes for accuracy, appropriateness, clarity, and assurance that
there is only one possible answer. The results of this pretesting allow these questions to be
categorized as easy, average, or difficult. After more months of development and refinement,
Section I of the exam is ready to be administered.
The free-response essay questions that make up Section II go through a similar process
of creation, modification, pretesting, and final refinement so that the questions cover the
necessary areas of material and are at an appropriate level of difficulty and clarity. The committee also makes a great effort to construct a free-response exam that will allow for clear and
equitable grading by the AP readers.
At the conclusion of each AP reading and scoring of exams, the exam itself and the
results are thoroughly evaluated by the committee and by ETS. In this way, the


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