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Wudhu and Gushul and its related matters by Shaykh Fawzan


Anah, Exalted be He, says:

"0)"''' who haw Iulieved, when you rise'" {pert".m )
wash your factJ and your jonarnu 10 Ihe dbows and wipe over
)'(IlIr /lead$ and wash ,..,UT feM III the ankles...


AI·M;l'idah: 6)

states that performing ablution whenever rising to prayer

is obligatory, and tells us which Dcgan. should b<' washe

should wiped during ablution, and spN:ifies what part of the m should he
washed or wiped. Then, the Prophet (P BUH ), through his sayings (nadir"s)
and has dearly the way ablution is to be performed.

Every Muslim should know that ablution has artain conditions, obligatory
acts, and practices of the S"mmh to be observed while performing it. Both
conditions and obligatory acts must be fulfilled as much as possible in order to


enSure the validity of ablution. As for the acts of the Sunnah related to ablution,
they are considered ry that guarantee the of
ablution . Observing these acts of the SIInna/, during ablution in creasel ones
reward, yet abandoning them does not affect the validity of ablution.

The Conditions of Ablution
There are eight condition, of ablution:
I-Being a Mui li m
2- Being men tally sound
3- Having discrlt ion
4- Having the intention of pcr(onni ng ablut ion
According to aforementioncd four conditions, ablution is invalid if
performed by a di,beli""cT, an a young child who
not diltinguish right ""d wrong), Or one who not have
the intention of .blutin" (upon performing it), such as Jl"rforming it as
a way of refreshment in a hot weather, or as a means of .:leaning on. ,
body organs or certain impurities or the
5- Usin g pure water: Water used for performing ablution must hi" pure,
SO impure water is inadequate for performing ablu1ion.
6- Using legally-obtained water: If the waler used for ablution i.
unlawfully acquired, Or taken by ablution will not be valid.
7- Being preceded by istinjll' or istijlllmentioned).
8- Removing what m ay prevent water from reaching skin of th e
ablution organs: That i." the one performing ablution ha, to remove
anything covering the organ. of ablulion, such as mud, dough, wax,
accumulated dirt , thick paint, ete ., in ordu to .lIow water to reach the
skin of the organ without hindrance.

The Obligatory Acts of Ablution
There are six obligatory acb, rdated to the organs of ablution:
I -Washing the w hole face: Washing the whole faee involves rinsing
the mouth and the nose with water. Accordingly, one's ablution is void
if one w.she$ One·, face wit hout rinsing 'both' the mouth and the nose

bclons to the face,

with This is because the mouth and tile

and Allah. Exalt..:! be He. say. (regarding ••. . Wa.h
Jam;, .•" AI ·Ma'id ah: 6) Thus, Al lah commands washing the
face du ri ng ablution. '" who.:ver dis regards wa,hing any pan
of the face is considered 10 be disobedi ent to the Command o f Allah .
Exalted bc He. lhe l'ropht1 (PB UH) used to hismoulh
and nose " ';Ih water " 'hile ablution .
2-Washing Ih e forur ms incl uding th e d bows: Allah, Exahed
be He, says • .... . A"d Y<'ur Iht cllo ........• (Q ur'iln: Al Ml'idah: 6). i, e. washing then' including the d bows, a5 the Prophtl
(PBUH) used 10 do according 10 alIaditlt narrated in this regard ', 11
i. also Slated in another b.adlrh that the Prophet (PBUH) ", .. wa,hed
his haMds (during "bl", II'M) "",il hr reach rd "pprr arms· ' This
indicates that the elbows are inclu dcd when washi ng the arms
during ablut ion.


3-Wiping o\'cr th e whole head : Wiping owr tl>c head incl udes the
en s. for Allah. Exalted be He. says. ... .. And wipe owr your /read. ...
(Quran: 6) Moreo-....,-. the Proph et (PBUH) said. " The tan
art ''''and other compil ers of J;imJirh)' Therefore, it is in , orre,t to abandon
wiping over the cars, for il is i nsumcient to wi pe ovcr OM part of the
head and another during ablut ion.
4-Wuhing the (eel induding t he ankles: During ablution. the fnt
must be washed includ ing the ankles. (or Allah, Exalt ed be He. says.
•....... nd IWlSh your /nl'o ,h, .. nkl......· (Qu ..l n : 6 ) Here.
the preposition 'to' means 'with' according to the b/ld;"" pointing out
how ablution is performed, and through whi.:h it is Slated that the
whole feet must I>e washed 'including' the ankles.
S-Sequence: Th e decrCi:d sequence has to be observed while pt'rforming
ablution. To d ari fy. onc with washing the face. followed by th e
hands.. then wipes over the head. and fina lly washes Ihe (n l. as dearly
shown in the verse; Allah. Euhed be He. says:

"0 you who h""", bdlewd, ... /re n}'Ou riH f" {perform/ •
..... sh your f..us .. Md rour forearms fo fhe elbo,.,. ..nd wipe o,'er
your 1,£lUis and ",.. ,h you r fuf 10 fh t "nklts....

t I'Ul(lflCAnON

The Prophet (PBUH) used to follow Ihat order while performing
ablution, saying:
"This is an ablution without which Allah does not accept any pmyrr··

This is as rdated by AM! Dow(ld and other compilers of Jjadith.

6-Successio n: This means to wash the organs successively without any
interval between washing Iwo organs. the organs must be washed
successively wilhout pau,e. as much as possible.
Theseare the obligatory acts of ablulion that must
by Allah in His Ever-Glorious Rook, the Qur'an.

fulfilled a,commanded

Scholars di"'gree concerning the ruling on lasmirah' upon starting
ablution; they differ whether it is an act of the Sunnah or an obligatory practice
of .blution. At any rate, according to a!! Muslim scholars, it is permissibl e to
start ablution with lasmiyah and it should not abandoned.
The reason - Allah knows best - behind specifying those four organs for
ablution (i.e. the face. hands, head, and the feet) may they are the
commonest bodily parts related to sins, ro their physical purification may be
an indication of spiritual purification (from the sin. committed by them).
The Prophet (PRUH) has stated that whenever a Muslim wash..-s one of these
organs (during ablution), the committed through it are remitted,
and that such fall and vanish with the now of the water used for
washing th.t organ, until the last drop of it. In addition, the Prophet (PBUH)
enjoined "'ring the Two Testifications of Faith following washing these organs
(i.e. following ablution) as a sign of combining both physical and spiritual
purity. The physical purity is achieved through washing those organs in the
way preS\:rit>ed i;.y Allah in His Ever·Glorious Book, the As for the
spiritual purity, it is achieved by the Two Testifications of Faith that
purify one from polytheism and disbetief.
In the last pan of the aforesaid verse related to ablution. Allah. Exalted be
He, says:
"... Allah don not intend 10 mau difficulty f" r you, I...t He
intmdJ to purify you and romp/de Hisfavor upon y"" that you
may gmt.,ful.H
(Qur'ln: AI-MA'idah: 6)

Thu,. gentle reader, every Muslim has to know that Allah has dec...,ed
ablution in ordu to purify them from sins, and 10 com plete His favor upon

o,'ptthem. Likewise, if you con template the opening of the Same verse, «0 you who
haYe belie ved.•." you will find that it is a generous, gentle call through which
Allah, Glorified be He, addresses those who have faith, as they are the ones
who will listen 10, obey, ab ide byand benefit from what Allah says and enjoins_
That was ..... hy the Prophet (PBUH) said:

"No On" /reeps being in" s/ate of

except ti,e believer....

The Acts of the Sunnah to Be O b se rve d during Ablution
Whatever acts done in add ition to the above· mentioned obligatory acts of
ablution an deemed desirable; he who observes them will be reward ed and
there will be no blame upon him who refrains from observing them. Hence,
s<:holars call such acts as the acts of the S"",,,rlah to be observed during ablution,
or the desirabk practices of ablution.
Those acts are.s follows:
1- Using siwdk (tooth·stick) durin g ablution: The virtues and the
way of using siwJk have been previously clarified. In particular, siwdk
is to be used while rinsing the mouth with water during ab lution,
in order 10 ensure the cleanness of the mouth and to be ready for
worshipping Allah. reciting His Ever·Glorious Book. Qur'an. and
invoking Him, Almighty and Ever·Majestic be He.
2· Startin g ablution with washing the hands three times, before
washing the face, as enjoined in various lJadiths. This is also because
the hands are the meanS Ihrough which One dips out water and washes
the other organs, so washing the hands is regarded as insurance and a
prerequisite for the purity of all t he other parts of ablution.
3- Start ing with rinsin g the mouth a nd the n ose before washing
the face. as stated in various /:1adiths. Wh en one 1.\ not in a state
of fasting, one should rinse them inside and out (making wat er
spr ead all through the mout h , and sniffing water when rinsing
the nose).
4- Inserting one's wet fingers into on e's (thick) beard. ensuring
that water reaches all its parts, and washing one's fingers and well,
especially between them.
S· Starting with the right organs before the left (as in washing the
hands and the feet).

6- Washin g the fact , hands and feel up to th ree times Instead of once.
Thus. we h ave tackled the conditions, the obligatory acts, an d the acts of
the Sunnnh to be observed d uring a blut ion. $0, you, gentle read er, should learn
thom. and keop observing them whenever you perform ablution to ensure the
legal ptrfectio n a nd va lidity of your ablutio n as well as the ",ware! for it.
We ask Allah to gran t us all more beneficial knowledge and gu ide uS to the
righ teous deeds.

I Ad . Dloraqulnt (268 ) ! t/86] and AI . Bayh_ql (256) ! 1/93].
2 Muslim (246).
) Abii DlwUd (134) [I/nl . AI·Tirmidhi (37) [1/531. Ibn MAj_b (444) 111262j.nd AdD1raq ulnl (53) 1111081.
4 H," MIoj.ah (419) [1/250j. Abii Y. ' Lt (5598) and Ad . Dloraqulnl (257) 11/831.
5 r",mi)'6 Ah"",d (22429) 15/355J and Ibn Ml jah (278) [1/t781.


Way of Performing Ablution
Since you are now acquainted with the conditions, the obligatory acts,
and the acts of the S"",11l1r 10 be observro during ablution. then you ;rn,
aWflrt of the way ablution is performed. which is an application of
the loovc-menl ioned ruli ngs. PUI differently, the perfect way of performing

ablution is achieved by observing

obligalary acts, and

of which arc derived from th e texts of Sharl'oh (Islamic Law).
So, every Muslim has to spare no effort in observing them once he kn ew

them, Allah willing.

The Way of Performing Ablution


1·lntention, To intend perfonning ablution for
aets of wt:>!'Ship for
which ablution is such as prayer and the like
l -Tasmiyah: To uy "8i$mill
3-To wash th e hand. th r« timet


4-To rinse the mouth three times and th en to rinse the nose three
times (by sniffing water and then blowing it out using the left hand)
5-To wash the face three times, from the upper part of the forehead
(the beginning of the normal hairline) to the lower parts of the
jaws lengthwise, and from one ear to the other widthwise (without
washing the ears, as they are treated as part of the head, not the face, as
previously mentioned). The beard. as well, must be washed; ifthe hair
of the beard is not thick, one has to wash it internally and externally.
But if it is thick. it has to be washed from the outside, and it is desirable
to insert We-! fingers washing it internally, as mentioned above.
6-Towash th e hands up totheelbows three times; each band isto be
washed from the parts of the fingers and nails to the beginning
of the upper arm. Moreover. one has to remon whatever sticks to the
hands or the fingernails (such as dough, mud or thick paint) before
washing them, so as to allow water to reach such parts.
7-To wipe over the whol e head only once, including the ears, with
wet hands (provid ed the water used for wiping over them is fresh one,
unlike that remaining from waihing hands). The proper way of wiping
over the head is to be by putting one's wet hands on the upper part of
the forehead and let them pass backwards till they reach ones nape,
then ,..,turn them forwards to the starting point. After that, one is to
iniert ones two wet forefingers in the holes of th e ea ... whil e wiping
over their outer parts with one·s two thumbs.
8-To wash the feet three times including the ankles. As for one
whose hand or foot is amputated. such one is to wash what i.left of the
arm or the feet. To clarify, if the arm i, amputated from the joint of the
elbow, one is to wash. the front part uflhe upper arm , and if the foot is
amputated from ankles, one i, to wash the tip of th e (amputated) leg:
Allah , Exalted be He,
"So feo.r Allo.h as much 0.. Jlou o.re o.hl<' •• .
(Qur'an; At-TaghAbun; 16)

Similarly, the Proph et (PB UH) ,aid:

"If I command you 10 do something. thm do (of) it as much as you ca"."'
Accordingly, if a per,on wa,hes what i, left of an amputated limb. it
will be sufficient as onc tbus does what one can.

Ch.pter 7: w'Y of P" rform ing Ablu,;oll

9- After finishing performing ablution, in with the
above stated form, one may raise one', sight towards the heaven and
invoke Allah with some of the invocations of the Prophet (PIlUH) in
this regard, such as saying:
"/ tesrify that rilere is no deiry bur AloIIC, with no partner, alld
I testify Mub.ammad is Hi$ &rvanl and His Messenger. 0
me ammlg those wlro Me conwmtly and me
among those who purify themselves:'

Or Saying:
"Exalted are You,

0 "If praise !J.,


YOlj .

IINtify rhallhert is nO

deiry but You. I ask You for forgivelless alld turn to You in repelltallce:'
reason behind mentioning dhikr ' and invocation following

ablution is to rombine both physical and spiritual purity. for ablut ion
is a means of physical purity. whereas dl,ikrand invocatinn (implying
monotheism and are signs of spiritual purity. In this
way, one becomes in the most perfect state of purity (co mbining
both physical and spiritu.l purity), and becomes pure enough to be
admitted to stand before Allah (in praye r), imploring Him humbly
and submissively.
By the ...ablution.
Every Muslim ha.! to know that abl ution should be performed p erfectly,
ensuring t hat water reaches all parts of the organ' washed during "blution,
without negligence. To illustrate, when the Prophet (PRUH) saw" man who
had left a spot on his foot, as small a.! a fingernail, unwashed (after ablution),
he (PBUH) said to him. "Go back and pe:rfonH Morrover, some
of the Pmphefs Companions reported that whell the Prophet (PBUH) a
man offer;ng prayer while there was on the back of his foot a small part equal
to the spac. of a dirham (an Arab coin) which was not washed, i.e. water did
not reach it, he (PRUH) commanded him to both ablution and
prayer '. In addition. the Prophet (PRU H ) said:
· Woe to tile h.e/5 (if 1I0t ",aliled during nblrJtion) from rhe Fire! ·r

This is because one might be so reltIC!ant concerning washing them that
one washe, them carelessly and water can hardly reach one·s ankles during
ablution and SOme spots remain un ...in the Hellfire. Furthermore. in the badilh related by AbO DlW{)d and other
compil ers of Hndith, the Prophet (PR UH) said:


"The prayerofanyofyou is nOI camplele u"til he performs ablution
perfectly, as AI/ah, E;o:alted be He, has ordered him, He should wash
J.i$faCt and hands up to the dlm",s, wipe over his head and (wash)
hisfeel up 10 lire aIrkles..: '
However, Muslims should know that the perfection of ablution is nO! to
a lot of but it means to let water reach all parts of organ b"ing
washed. In foct, mere over-use of watu is regarded as prohibitw wastefulness
of water. Also, one may pour water wastefully during ablution without
performing it perfectly; the perfection of ablution with little water is exactly
what is legally enjoined. 11 is stated in the Two that the Prophet (PBUH)
used to perform ablution wilh one "'udd' and 10 tnke a bath with one 1<1 up
to five mudds ".
The Prophet (PBUH) also forbad e wastefulness of water; once he (PBUH)
passed by Sa'd while the latter was performing ablution and said to him:

"Whyare you wasting all tl!is water?" Sa 'd Sijid, "Ts tllere wastefulness
even in performing ablulio,,?" The Prophet (PBUH) replied, "Ye.<,
even if you were performing it from a river of run"ing
1nisb.adill! was relatw by Ahmad .nd lbn MAjah, and supported by other
narrations". The Prophet (PBUH) also slated that there would b" .ome people
of the Muslim nation who would the limi lS in purification, i. e. who
would purify them.dve. exc"Ssiveiy, wastefully ond having unsubstantiated
doubt ".He (PBUH) also said:

"There is I! demon of IIblution mlled AI· Wa/Mn, so be on your
gUllrd ag!!i",! insinuation i" "blution:"
Excessiveness in pouring water, which is considered wastefulness, leads to
other illegal, detestabl e consequence" such as:
Incomplete purifi cati on: One may depend On using water in abundance
during ablution and so does not mah sure that water reacbes all parts
of the organs. Consequently. some spots may remain unwash ed whil .
one is unawue. Hence, one's ablution b,,:come. incomplete and thus
one perform' prayer without purification.
Excessiveness in wo rsbip: Ablution is an act of wOrllhip. and if any act
of wOrllhip is excessively performed, it become. void.

] , W.y of Performing Ablmion

In sinuation in purification: One may get insinuation and b<: doubtful
purification to excessiveness in using water
perfonning ablution.
In fact, the best way to the .foresaid is to follow in the
Prophet. footstep. and abide by hi. SUMMah, for the most evil of (religious)
matters are those newly innovated. May Allah guide us all to thO! which He
likes and to what pleases Him.
To sum up, you have, genlle reader. 10 b<: keen to ensure that your
ablution and all the other "cts of worship are legally and perfectly observed,
with neither nOr negligence. for both extremes are dispraised,
and is the best of all matters. Negligence in of wor,hip makes
them imperfect, and excessiveness makes them subject to religious innovations;
following the example of the Prophet (PBUH) and abiding by his Sunnah is the
optimum way to perform acts of worship with due perfection. 0 Allah, make
uS know what is right and guide uS to fo!low it, make uS know what is wrong
and guide us to avoid it, and do not make th ings obscu re for us, lest we may
go astray,

1 AI· BLlkhirl (7288) 11313081 and Mu.>Jim (6066) 18Ij()8).
2 At· Tirmidhl (55) I t 1771. M u,;im (552) 1211121. Aoo Dliwild (t 69) ! 1I89j, An_Na,I.'1
(J48) IJllOOjood Ibn Mlj.h (470) 1(1273).
3 Set Ibnu. · Suno\", '/trnal AI· ...rn "",'·IAy/oh, p.ll.
4 Dhi'r. Invocations irnplyin!\ ",rnS Mu,lim (575) 12/1261·
6 Abii D1"i1d (175) ! 1/921.
7 AI · BukMrl (165) {113>Oj, (60) .nd Mu, lim (572) 1211 25 1. (>69) 1211231.
8 AbLi D;\wild (85-8) I 1/3761. ( 11 JS) III S741. Ibn Ml jah (460) r1/268 1: .1",
At·Tim, idhl (302) {2/l0l].
9 Mudd: A standard m" • • ur< , h.t .quals 543 gram ..
10 Sol', A ".ndard m" 'ur< th.t 11 (201)) tlJ98j.nJ Mu,;im (735) 1212331.
12 Ahm. d (7062) )21291] and Ihn Mlj. h (425) )112 54)
13 Abmad (16778) 14/123 1 aod Aba (96) 111591.
14 At· Tirmidhl (57) 11184) and Ibn Mljah (421) r112521.



Wiping over the Khuffs'
Islam is a religion of easiness and simplicity, not difficulty and strictness;
it decrees suitable rulings for each case, which ensure fulfilling legal purposes
and duties with no difficulty.

This aFplies to the rulings on abll.ltion decreed by Allah. To illustrate,
somrlimes there is something covering the organs washed during ablution
which is hard 10 remove and maybe needed as a means of protectiOll, either
for th e feet (such as khufft and the like) , or for the head (such as turbans and
the liko). or for protecting wounds o r the lih (such as splints, bandages, etc. It
is permissible for the one performing ablution to just wipe over such
covorings instead of removing them and washing what is underneath. This
is the easiness made by Allah , Glorified and Exalted He, for His
rdkving them from difficulty and strictness,
As for the perm issibility of wiping over the khufft (and their likes. such as
socks) during ablution, instead of removing them and wa.\hing underneath, it


is in many mutawJtir,' ,ahih' badith. Ihat Ihe Prophet (PBUH) used 10
wipt: over them whether al home Or on a journey; he (PBUH) enjoined doing
the same,
A, regards the legal proofs of the pennissibility of wip ing over the khliffi;,
AI-Hasan said, "/ was told by sevenly of Ihe o,mpanions of AI/ahs Messe'lger

(PBUH) that he "sed /0 over his kllUffs (with his wel Ilonds during ablution)." '
Moreover, An-Nawilwl said, "J1,e pcrmis.reporled by innumerable Companions." lmam Ahmad also said, "There is not
a shadow of doubt in my mind concern ing 1110 legality of wiping over Ihe khuffs,
as there are forty harlil/'S of 1/,. Prophet (PBUH) i"dicaring its permis.In addition, Ibnul -Mubarak and others slated that there WaS
among the Companions concerning the permissibility of wiping ov.. the
khuffs during ablution', Likewise, Ihnul-Mundhir and others reported the
scholars' COnSensus on the pt:rmis.addition, the Adherents of the Sunnah and Muslim Community unanimously
agree on its permissibility, unlike those innovators in religion who do not
deem it pt:nnissibk

Wiping over the Khuffs during Ablution
This act is permitted and observing it is beller than taking offthe khuffs and
washing the feet, as the former is a sign of making use of the legal permission
made by Allah, Almighly Ever·Majestic be He, following th e example
of the Prophet (PBUH), and contradicting the religious innovators. Wiping
over the khuffs is a spiritual removal of the impurities undnneath, Also, the
Prophet (PBUH) never changed the condition of his feet to pt:rform ablution;
ifhe (PBUH) was wearing two klouffs, he used to wipe over them, and if not, he
used to wash his feet. Therefore, it is impermissible to put on klwffs just before
ablution in order to wipe over them while performing ablution.

The Duration of the Validity of Wiping over
the Khuffs without Taking Them off
It is permissible for a resident (i. •. not a trawler) 10 keep weari ng khuffs
and wipe OVeT th em during ablution for a period of one day and night. As
for a tTav.ler whose journey legally allow, shorTening prayer (i,e. when the
destination is far enough), Ihe period of permissibi lity is three days and night"
according to the bad/th related by lmlm Muslim, whkh states that the Prophet
(PBUH) specified three days (during which one can wipe over his khuffs) for

a tnlvdtr and one day and night fo.- a resident'. For both (the resident and
the tn"eler), th e period of permis,sibility (of wiping OVeT the khlllfs) starts
from the time of being in a state of ritual impurity (causcd by pas,sing urine,
stool or wind) after wearing the /chuffs, as ritual impu rity necessitates ablution
(for pn)'ef). Still, some scholars that Ihe du n 1ion begins from tne first
ablution afur be ing in a state of ritual iml'tlrity.

The Conditions of Wiping O\'e!' the Khuffs, the Socks, and the Like
I· To in


of ritual purity (i .e. a state of ablution) upon wearing

them , for it is Slated in th e Two Sall/hs' and other books of Jiadilh tha t
the Prophet (PRUH) said to the o nc who ""'nted to help him (ie. the
Prop""t) in taking his khuffs off to perform ablution:
"Ledw Ihem liS I hUll pl4llhem after for/arming ablulio" .. ..
It is also narntrd that ,safw;!.n lbn . As.s;\1said:

"We arr cOlH mandM (by Ihe Prophet) to wipt over Ihe k/uifft if ..... put
them on while being in a Slale of ritlla/ purity (j.e. after
Thus, it is quite obvioo$ that the rulin g is depe ndent On being in a
state of ritual purity when putting th e khuffs on, so if one is in a state
of rilual impurity when putting them on, it is in' perm i.ssible for onc
10 wipe over them.
2· The khuffs must be lawfully acquirrd, gottcn, and made. To clarify, if
they arr taun by f01"(( . or made of silk (for men), it is imIXrm issible
to wipe OYff them du ring ablution . In a word,a legal is not
to what is illegal.
3· The khuffi and their mwt completely cO\'er the feet up to the
ankles. One cannot wipe over unlfSS they are thick enoogh and
coveri ng the pamofthe fut which a", to be wuhed. Thus. are
too short to cover th e fett up to th e ankles. or arr not thick enough to
conceal underneath, it is imperm issible to wipe O'o·e, them.
Since it is permissible 10 wipe oVff lhe khufJi it is IXrmissible 10 wipe over
any fOOl covering.!. such as socks made of wool or s\"hlike mat eri.l. whi ch
a", thick enough to cover underneath. Th nt '" due to the fact thal th e Prophet
IUs ro.:ks and hi. shoes while performing ablution, as
(PBUH ) wiped


lute i/lh.ib (autMnt k) by At·Tirm ldhl". Wiping 0Vff such things during
ablution is valid uMil the legal period of pnmission ends rq;ardJcss of the
frequency oftaking tMm off and puUi ng them on.
As regards the it is p"rmissibl e to wip" over it on two conditions.
The first is that the turban must be covering the area of the head which is
traditionally sec:ond condition is that the turban must be wnpped
round the jaw up to the head. onc or mo", than onc turn, (If 10 be with
a Mck lait.lt is slMro in many blldil/ts by more than Imlmi
that t he Prophet (PBUH) wiped over his turban during ablutio n. To ill ustrate.
·Urn a. Ibnul· Khanlb (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

"Ht who is no/ pur/jird by wiping om- IM lurb/ln (i.e. does nOI
dum il sufficient for wiping uvrr Ihe helld). lhtn may Allah nOI
It Is worth mentioning th at it is permissible to wipe on r the khujJs and
turbans only in caKofpurification from the 51ateo( minor ritual impurity. but
not major ritual impurity (e.g.jturban and wash undcmeath in the laller case.
A s fo r splints. bandages. and the

like, il is p"rmi ssible 10 wipe over them

during ablution (without ",mov ing them). Moreover.one is perm itt ed 10 wipe
plut(f$ that rovtr WOl,Lnds; all such coverings are permillcO to be wiped

provided they cover only the injured area or the necCSSMy p;arts which
nuclto be covered for tre.tmen!. However. if the splint, the bandage, or the
like, COVtrll than the inju red .ru the unneccs ... 'Y pariS
must be removed. In addition. it is p('rmis$ ib!e to wip(' over splints in both
Mala of ritual impurity (minor and major ritual impl,Lrity), an d Ihere is no
fiIrd period for tn. of wiping over them, In other words. il is
permlulbleto wifN' ovcrt he Spli nt until it is removed or tM broken !imbllcals.
In a nutshell, the permi ssibilily of wiping o,'er the splint dl,Lring pl,Lrificalion is
drpe ndtnt on the necessity of the
The proof of the perm issibility of wiping over the splint is the followi ng
h.adfth nar"lIed by Jibir (may Allah M pleased with him); he "'J'Orted:

"OIlel , we WtTe on a jo urney and one of UJ was /njurr:d in hi:!
htlld by a stont. Then man had companion:! saying. '1:1 it permiuiblt/or me to {!tT/arm layammutI!



(dry abltj/io" Willl dea " earth)?' ntty amwtred him sayi"g. 'We
d() nol 1« any Irgtll pumis$i()n for )'I'U So. the man had a ritual bolh ilfltT which he died , When we came
10 AI/aM (PH UHJ, 11" lsaid, 'n/ey killed him; may Allah kill/hem! Why did Illly m./ ask
...htn bling ignurant,f()r inquiry is Ihe tu".,for igrummcr? It omuld
havt bun sufficient fo r /,im to per/onn tayablution) and 10 his wound ...ilh a piea of clolh owr IInd
thn 10 ,we. it (tile piece of cloth).'·
(Related by Abtl DAwo.d and lbn Mlja h, and
tic) by lbnus-Sakan)"

laiJliJ (a uth en-

The Areas to Be Wiped over
Wiping is to be appli..:! to the upper part of th e kl,ujft or the socks. As for
the turban, most of it should be wiped over, tSp« ially its folds. Hown'er, the
$plint has 10 be wholly

The Way Wiping over the Khuffs is Performed
Wiping over the khu/Js (dur ing ablution ) Is to be by passing one's we, fingers
from one's toes towards on e's leg. The right fOOl is to be wiped over with Ih.
right hand, and via Also. one loould open OIleS fingers du ring wiping.
and soould nOl uptat wiping. May Allah gu ide us all to

I /Or.ujfs; Loath ... tods o.-.h.,.. or thtidik
! Mura"'n.,.,.,ton wh .... "8re<:"'011 t upoo telling. lie I, In.:onuh.. ble (lh i. m<1 in I"" .. d>O.in from I"" btginn ing 10 tl'" 00><1).

3 S<>hih {o"I""nl;,;) /lDdilh i•• /Jby lruly pious penon • ...no
b«n !mown for the;. upright""" lII.uch .Il->dilh is f.... from and bI.mltll.
4 Se. Ibnul·/>funJhl,'• .-1./·,1_1 11/430. -Illl. ... yIa· r. MI.I" A"IY)"h 1111621 .• rH!
A/· I"IJ", &!""""'id . Uno.!"r 11/6151.
S Stt .-I./-nl'" lIr!o"'6 S« AI·A""", 1114).1)_

7 1bid
8 M..,.,Jim (6J7) [21 1671.
9 1he Two :;.,bih"
Two Au'hentx: IlouU <>f Al·lll1kh l rl . nd Mudim.
10 AI·Buf.h.lrl (2()6) i1141}4] .nd Mur.lim (630) 1111
I1 Ab.maJ (l1lO1!) [4/HO].
n Ahmad (18167) I4/.WlJ. AbMijah (5)9) (1 /)4 1J.
Il AbQ DMId (l16)1 11I711; ... also AbO'! w...:.d (ID) Illm) onc! [bot MJph (S7l) [W11 J.


Things Nullifying Ablution
that you ha"" become 1"10"' aware ofhow ablution is what
;15 conditions are, and what its obligatory practices and acts nfthe Su"nah :oK,
you n.ud now 10 know what causes ablut ion to be null ified. In this way,)"Ou
will avoid performing an act of worship (such as pr.!)'ffJ while your ablution

is null, and so will be tht3C1 ofwor5hip performed in that stale. Every Muslim
should know that are things that nullify ablution and that it becomes
completely null if any of them is done; in this case, one has to re-perform
ablution to do any act of worship n«e... itating ablution.
TM thIngs nullifyinll ablution tany of whi.:h makes it invalid) are cerlain
malte" idmt ified by the lawgi""r' to be affecting Ihe validity or ablutio n.

The Things Nullifying Ablution are of Two Types
1- Dirert nulliliers: They are the mallers that cause th e nullification of
ablut ion direclly. such as urine. stool, 3nd whatever comes OUI of Ih e
anus Ihe sexual orpn,


2- Indirect nulli fiers: a", the matters that nullifotalion
of ablution indi",ctly. or makes validity of ablution suspicious.
Such mallers include unconsciousness or similar slates like sl""ping,
fainling. insanity. etc. The reason i< that if one is in a state of un con·
sciousness, one h«omes unable to fed what COmeS out of onll body
o r what o ne does. ThUs, doubt in such is as an adUll
nullifying (actor.

For more clarification, we can classify the things nullifying
ablution as foll ows:
I) Whatever comes out of the s\ool and urine exits, such as stool. wind.

urine. sptrrn. fluid. and unusual menstrual blood. Stool
and urine are among the dirl'<:t things nullifying ablution, according
to the "'ligiou! tnts .nd jurislic consensus. as w!u,n Allah. Exalted be'
He, revealed thecastS that obligate ablution He .said:
":.. Or olle ofyou


lite ploce of Iti/lllelf. ..
(Qur'in: 6)

As for the (authentic) in this regard. and the juristic
consenSU5 "'ported by Ibnul·Mundhir a nd others'.
As "'@:ardls ;sti/JII/llllt,' it nullifies ablution according to the /yuIilh
by El.lima h Hillt Abii liubaysh mentioning that she was
affiicted wilh ;sli/JlluIlIt, and when she asked the I>rophet (PBUH)
about ils ruling. he ( PHU H) said to her:

-Perform IIb[ulioll

IIJ(n (rou

ellll) offer pmJ"r.for il is (dut only


Thi. iladilir wu by Abil mwild and Ad. D1roqu!nJ,' who said
that all the t ... Ilsmiltcrs of lhat truslwor1hy.
Liktwise. wind nullifies abl ut ion according to lIlwIJ
(authentic ) b.tu/illts nanated in thiJ regard . ., well as the ju rist ic
collsensu'. Fm example, Prophet (PIIUm said:
will "OII1C£'pl Ihe proye' of anyone of ro"
sloul or breaks wi",/ u"lillie perfom" ab/ldiQII:

if he pasus u,ine,


AiSQ, (PBUH ) u id rtgard ing 0""" ,,,,certai nly one had
brokn wind or not:

"One ,hould not proyer (to re·perform
round (ofbreaki,rg wind) or smells wmething." '

unless one hears

for what COnK$ OUt of one's body other than urine. slool, and the
aforesaid secretions, such as blood, vomit, nrunlttd and the 11".
scholars disagr« whdheT such things nullify ablution or nol. Yet, the
prq>ont ablution in ' his case 10 avoid such a ;uri"ic disagrtt·

menl. it will be. better.

2)Among the things nullifying ablut ion is mental unconsciousness eith er
due 10 insanity or due to sleeping, fainting and th e lih. Thus, the
ablution of one in SlIth. Slate i. d...,mnI lIull. a.s tllere is suspicion in
this case that something hucome oul of one's body (such as a drop of
urine, wind, or the liu) whik is Unaw;ll"C. Still, dOling is rrgardrd
as an exuptional case (Le. it does nOl null ify ablu tion) as the Prophefs
Compilflion.s (may Allah bf pkMcl with thtm) used 10 whik
waiting for III the mO$the nullification of ablut io n acco rding to the ample legal proofs.
J} Eating meat of camels, liUle or much, is al,o One of the things nullifyi ng

ablution, accordin g to the up/i( it (authentic) had/rh of Allah's
Mrsscnger (PBUH) in th is regard ' . Im'm Ahma-d (may Allah
mercy on him) said thattherc arc fWOtab.ih (authentic) hadilhs o.scribed
to Allah', (PBU H) in this connection. Still, eating any lawful
mut other than that of nme4don nol nuse ablution to be null.
The,.., aT< some other issueson wh ich s.cholars dis,agree wh ether they nulli fy
ablution or not, such as touch ing one's penis, touchi ng a woman lustfully,
washing the body of a deceased person, and apostasy. Some s.cholars view that
uch of the above-menlionother, maintain that it does not . The ;$.Sue is sti ll controversial and subje<:tto
analogical deduClion, ablution in such ca$eS SO as to avoid
that juristic disagre<:menl will be helter.
There is namely the case when onc is certain about the validity of one's ablution, then
onc suspects that any of th e things nullifying ablution has taken place; what



should one do in Ihis case? It is slated thal the Prophel (PBUH), in Ihe l1adith
related by [mam Muslim on the :!ulhority of Abii Hurayrah {may Allah be
pleased with him),.aid,

•IfaMy One ofyou feds anyf1 mule nee ( while being in a state ofablut;o n)
and;s doubtful whether anytlting (like wind) has jSjuedfrom him or
not, he should notleavt the mosque (to re-perform ablution) unless
he hears a sound (of breaking wind) or pe"cives a smell:'
This honorabie hadith, as well as similar ones that state the same
meaning, indicates that if one who is certain about one', purity th en
doubts it, one should deem one,df pure (despite one's suspicion) and act
accordingly. ThL, is because Ihe original ruling is Ihal one is slili in a Slale
of purity, as purity is cerlain in I his cas e, and the null ification of ablUlion
here is based on mere suspicio n. Thus, certainty i, nOI to be: eliminaled
because of suspicion. This is. in faCI, a greal generic ruling 10 be applied in
all cases; namdy, Ihe original ruling is to remain applicable until otherwise
is verified. By comrast. if one is certain about the nullificat ion of one',
ablution and suspects its validity, one has to re. perform ablution, .. the
original cose here is one's minor r itu al impurity. which is not abrogat ed
due to mere suspicion.
OMuslim read er, you should keep yourself pure and verify your ablution
whenever you stand for prayer. and Care for the validity of your ablution as
much as you can, for prayer without valid abl ution is invalid. You should
also beware of i ,,,inuation and Satan's whispers thal cause you to doubt th e
validily of your ablution, making you in a state of doubt and confusion.
Therefore, you should seek refuge with Allah from the evil s and pay his
insi nuations no al1entinn. Moreover, you should ask Ihe people of ju rist j,
knowledge about whatever confuses you of the issues of purification and
purity, in order to art.in about your purity_ You shoutd .. Iso care for
the purity of your clothes So as to verify the validity of your prayer and
the perfection of the acts of worship you perform, fo r Allah , G lorified and
Exa lted be He, say"

";., Indeed, Allah love. Iho.e who
IOW'J thou who purify

con.tantly 'opentant and

(Qur'an: AI -Baqarah: 222)

May Allah guide us all 10 useful knowledge and righleous deeds.

Ch.ap«r 9: Thin!,;' Nullifying Abl"tion

I lhe Lawg ... , of (hlamk Law) i. Allah, F...IIM be He: In. torm u n . 1", «fe,
to In. Propbel (PBUH) •• h. n.,.r ordained but what was ,.,..,.IM 10 him by Allah,
2 S« ,1.1,,1."""1 [11134[,
3 hlillJdah: Vogin. 1bluJing oth.r Iban ,,,en.,ru.tion.
Abir D1wild (186) [ 111431, An ·N.d'l (J.60) [11203 ] and Ad·m. .. qujn; (778) [11213].
s AI- l\u kMrl (137) [11312 ] a nd Mu,lim (W2) [21272].
6 Mudim (833) [2/2%]

7 MUllim (SOO) [ lI27Ij;

al", Ahm.d (18495) [-11190[, AM Dolwild (184) [11961, AI-

Tirmidh! (81) 111122] .nd Ibn M1jah (494) [1 12831·

8 Mu,lim (803) 12/2721.


Ritual Bathing
You b«n introdU«d 10 the rulings on ablution. whkh is a
means of purification from mioor ritual impurity (OIUKt! by passing wind,
acnmenl a r urind, and tile things Ilullifying it. So, t he focus is now givr"
10 highlighting the rulings on purification from major ritual impurity, be it
menstruation. ()r postnatal bluding. This kind of purificatio n is
ca ll ed ritual bathing, during which one wash es onc:' whole body in a specific
way on which we will elaborate on below. The legal proof that ritual bathing is
obliptory in such cases is that Allah. wl!ed be He. Py':
w• •• And

if you ,n" ;11 .. ""Ie Df jantJbah, Ih,,, purify yourwlvn ...

Al ·M:I.'idah: 6 )

It is sa id that ritua l bia lhing from jQnAbllh was pract ice
disbelieve rs during the ldhiliyyand it was among the remaining leachings or lh e religion revea led 10
PrOphel rbr;\hlm (Abraham ) (P6UH).