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death and burial

CHAPTER

Death and Burial
Our snarl' ah (Islamic Law), than k Allah. is SO perfecl an d comprehensive
that it
all mans arrJirs ubtw to his
as wel l as hu do:ath. Among
the iSSUd that our Shllrl 'Qh
are the rulings OIl deathbW and death,
starting from ones last ill ness aoo dath, until one's burial. Our Sharl 'nlr
also
the ruli ngs on visiting a dying perwn and instructing him 10 "y,
u no deity bUI lI/1alr." washing the body of the dectas.ed, enshrouding
his body, )l<'rforming the Funeral Prayer over h im, burying him, settling his
debts, carryi ng out his will, dIstributing his properties legally, and ass uming
guardianship over hi. young chil d ren.
lmlm Ibnul -Qayyim (may Allah ha"" mercy on him) $aid:

s..muu. of the Proplu-I (PBUH) rrgarding sick and dying fWOpk
;J the 11105/ perf«1 one, whifh is diJ/nm1from /hill ()f 1111 01 her /lation ..
5.",,,,," ill tlris rrgtlrd i"duda the follow ing:


• Showing servitude and submissiven($< to Allah, Exalted Ix
perfectly as poSlibk

as


",

11: PRAYER

• Giving the dying and deceal«! person the kindes! treatment. that
benefits him in his grave and on the day wh en he is resurrected.
Such a kind treatment indudrs many acts. such"" visi ting the
dying person, instructing him

tQ

Uller

is no deity but Allah'

bdore bral hing hislas!. Kind tn:atmmt also includes purifying the
deceuW by WlI.hing his body nd prq>aring him for mttting Allah.
Exalted be He, in his besl form and m ,le, standing in rows whil e
performi ng the Funeral Prayer over him, praisi ng Allah and n tollin g

Him while praying ovu the deceased, and asking Allah to confe r
His blt";ng upon the Prophet (PBU H) IQ
the deceaKd, 10
mm:r upon him and p;ardon his sins. Among tM acts of the
Sunnah is funding on the side of the deceased person's grave asking
steadfastness for him (when questionni by the Two Angds), visi tin g
his grave. invoking Allah for him, bei ng good 10 hi5 family and
rel.tive$, and 50 on." I
It is worlh .mnlioning that it i, an acl of the $u,,,,aJr 10 mention death

I"" ("mlawfully acqlLired) rightS to their rightful

owners. and hastening to do



good dffiis lest one dies unexpectedly, The Prophet (PBUH) ">id:
"Mention the pleasure destroyer (i. t . death) jrtquemly.·
(Related by the Five Compilers of Had!lh' with au thentk chains of
transmiUen, and dttmed
(authentic ) bDdlth by Ibn HibMn,
Al-.w.ldm, and otMrcompllers of fladith )
MOreQ\Tr, AI ·Tirmidhl and other co mpilers of Hadith related on the
authority of Ibn Mas 'i1d the following marf.. · (traceable) hadith:

Messenger (PBUH) sa ,'d, 'Show due bashfu lness to Allah.'
We (the
said, '0 Messenger of Allah! We $how
INuhfulntn, ,hank Allah.' He (PBUH) said, 'I' iJ "0' ,hal (Qj)"'u
,hi""). Trlle bashfll/nm 10 Allah is 10 kup the head and wh"t ;1
cOI1laillS (i.t. to kup Ihe eyes. ears. lo"pe, ttc" "way from sillS)
""d to leeep Ihe abdomen (away fro m unlawful food) and whal is
rd"/td to it (i.e. 10 kup tht privalt P<'rls and
legs, elc" away
from (ommilting what is prohibited), and 10 n m eml1er dmth and
and
steks Iht Hereafttr Jhould abandon
decay
tht Ildomme,,'s of Iht worldly lift. Wh.,......,. dot$.J() will M Iht 0I1t
showing dut bashfulness 10 Allnh.'·'


Firstly: Rulings on Sickness and Dying
oroe Is affIiclnl with an illn<=., one should btar il paliendy hoping
for divine reward and should 001 "" impalienl Or
with
and
Divine Decree. Yet. One is allowed 10 lell olhers about one's illness .nd its kind,
provided olle is
with AlIah·s predestination. Also, complaining of
one's illneu to Allah and asking Him for recovery don by no mean s contradict
patience; on IIt.e contrary, il is desirable and highly recommended in Islam 10
complain (10 Allah ) and ask Him for recovt'I')'. Prophel AyylIb (Job; P8UH).
for exampl e, called 10 his Lord, as
by Allah in the Qur'an, saying:

/"'/""d, adw rsity Ita, 10.., cited me, and Y0 '" a re I/,e Mrn/ Merc/ful
(Q urln: AI- Anbiy.\': 83)

of l it"

there is 00 harm in m;eiving Iilwful medical trealment; some
scholars strongly l"e"Co mmend resoning 10 lawfu l mnlicalion 10 IIt.e degrtt
tha t il ,«rns to be obligatory. This is because th ere are many bndllhs stressing
adopting reaso nable means to reac h an end and seekill g medica l t...,atment
when n«esury, for th is does not contr.>dict Otte's ...,Iiance on Allah and tru St
in Him. It is just liM satisfyi ng hunger and thi rst by means of food and d rink.

Yet. it is nol permissible to use proh ibited things for medical t...,atment
according to what is related in Sablb.AI-8..,kMrf (A/-BukMrls A..,th£nt;, Book
of Hadirh) that Ibn Mal· (td (may Allah be pleased with him) said:

"Allah hm never made your remedy ill M·hat He has prohibited
fiar yo"'. "
Besides, AhiI
and other com pilers of Hadirh related tbe following
marf" . (tracu bl e) badith on the authority Ab(t Hurayrnh:

or

"Tlte Prophet (P/lUH) SIlid, IIl1ah has sellt dowlI ""rh disease
and CUrt, and He has appointed a cure for Cwt' y
so treat
yo..,rnlves mmi,al/y. b..,t use nothing prol!ibilm:
In addition. it is stated in Sablb. Muslim (MI,slim"s Authtnti, Book of lJ.adith)
that when the Proph<'l (PBUH) wa. a,kehe replied, "It;s nor Il ...,medy:;t is a ma/ady.'"
Likewise, it is proh ibited to use whatever might affecl the
of one's
as a remedy, $Ueh as wearing amulrts containIng poIytheisti,
words, superstitious nam es, nonsensical writings, and the like. It is also
prohibited to wear "". d" strings, earrings, or pendant s on onc's
upper
arm,orelsewhere, believing that they ne muns ofpmtKlion apinst lhe evU


11: PRAYER

'"

eye and amiction. The idea
prohibiting su,h things i. that one's heart
would be anached to them
of Allah, seeking the ir aid and protection
again st harm, which a kind of polytheism or onc of its caus ing faclOrs. The

same prohibition appli<'S
rrmffly th rough rtSOrting 10 son:trm,
witchdoctors. shamans. clairvoyants, and those employing the jinn, as a
Muslim's

morr important 10 him Ihall his health.

Allah, Exa lted be He. has appoinlffl lawful me.ns of re medy which are

useful to on e's body. mind and creed. the first of which are the Glorious

the kgill Qur'anlc incantations, and the legal inyocat ions. Ibnu1·Qayyim uid:
"The bot of rrmtdy is p"!Urming good d«ds, rrmtmbering Allah,
J"pp/iell/ing /lnd imploring Him. and turning /0 Him in rrFnlollCe,

Iheefftcts of which all' much grrnltr Ihon medicine. Yel,lhtir tff«u
deptnd "n ho'" much all.
'" Allah and
accq>tollct af

""' $fUPf licari",,:
n..,re is 11(1 harm ill rectiYing m.roicaltreatmenl. al hospilals Or
al
It.. hands of qualif.ed doclors ,,-00 know how 10
m d lreal lhtm.
It is an acl of the Sum",h (Prophetic Tradition) to visit Ihe skk and the

dyinE. for the Prophtl (PBUH). as Slated in Ih.- Two Sa&las ••t=sed Ihat lhere
are five duties of e""ry Mu slim toward hi s fellow Mu slim. among which is
visiling him when sick' . When nne visits a sick pcrson. o ne shou ld
him
about his health. as the Prophet (PBVH) u",d to come close 10 the
person
he visiled and ask him aboul his hn lth.
One should vis;ttht sick person evtT)' two Of Ihree da)'1. unless Ihe sick person
wanb one \0 visit him daily. On the other hand, one should not slay long with the
sick P<'rson unless it is his will . When visiting the sick person. o ne should say 10
him, "Do 1101 worry. it (your iI/IICJ3) i$ a means o/purificatioll (from your sim).
ifAllnh wills."' He should also Iry 10 ma ke him happy. invoke Allah \0 cure him.
and r«ile ltgal QUr"anic i0C3nlalions for him. particularly the Sura of AI-Fdtibilh
(w Optning Otap'" of
Qura .. , . the Sun of AI·/kh/At (Sincerity of Faith ):
and AI-Mu ·awwidl"ndn. namely cll(" Suru o{ A/·Falaq (v"ybrea.l/' and AII ·Mb
(Mankind)" .
It is also an acl of Ih .. S"n",,1I for th . sick person to
.. alh som r or his
mon ey 10
given in charily. He should also determ ine in hi' will how his
money $hould be divided; tM
10 be fulfilled. the debt.! to be settkd. lit<
deposits and lrusts 10 be returned 10 lheir owners. Even healthy people should
do the SOIITM! and wrile their wills
forlhe Prophet (PBV H) said:


m
'/1 is ",,1 permissible for allY Uusli"l who has something 'a dlXlare
jll ttstimony to stay for tWhis (last) will
wrilltn and kept ready wil/, him:
by Al·BukMrl and MU$!im)"
"Two nigh/." in th..
Jpldith is no!
short period oflime. That is 10 say, 11 is impermissibk

but it refers t o any
for. MU$lim, who has
somt1hing 10 write down in a will. to s'ay - even fur a shon
of time
d(l(:$ nO!
- without having his will Wrilten and kept muly with him. for
know w .... n
A lid, person must think highly of AII.h, .. nd N confident of His mercy.
as Allah says in a Qudsl (Divine) badlth":

"r am just as My urwHlI IMnks of Me, (i.t .1 am Able IQ dq for him
what he thinks I Clln do fo r him;:"
ThaI muSl br the {edillS of evrry Muslim. opeciallY.I dtalh5 door, when
he is .boor to med his Lord

11 is an act of th" Sun",,/r for visitors 10 mau the dyi ng perwn
of
Allah's mercy rather than being afraid of His punis.l1ment, for he may be<:omidesperate. However, when One is heal! hy. One should be both deJirous of Allah's
mercy and afraid of His punishment. Both hope and fear are n«ded for the
healthy because being just overcome by fear of Allah', punishmem makes one
8ivt up IlOpe (in Allah. Mercy). On the other hand, being overwhelmed by
hope in Allah's Mercy, without fearing His punishment, make$one feel secure
from Allah, and thus [...,1 n<:I

When the dying person is brtathing his ];>st, it is an act of the SlInnah to
erllort him 10 say, "'fMrt is no deify bill A llah," for the Propllet (PBUH) .... id:

"&horl lhe dying among)'Ou 111 my, 'Therr is no deify bUI Allah."
(Related by lmam Muslim)"
The id ... behind that is \0 make ',he"" is n" deify bUI ,A,/I"h- his last .....ords:
in I marfi<' (traceabl e) hadfth, Mu'Adh Ibn Jabal narrated that the Prophet
(PBUH) ",id:
'Wltoevcr his IRstoovrds "no 'ther!' is no deity bUI Allah' ",ill enln"
pil,."dise""

It is imp<:>rtant to bear in mind that instructing the dying person I" say so

should be done gently so IS not to annoy or eMilust him while he is breathing
his lut.


11: rRAYER
It is also an act of the
to makt the dying pt"non face the qi"'llh
(directio n of prayer), and to recite the Sura of Y(PBUH) said:

-Recite tht Sura of Y
dying mnong you:

(Rtbt.-d by Ab
(authentic) by Ibn U ibbln)
It is worth mentioning that the Qur'ln is to be r«itnl.
the dying, not
the dead.. as the latter case is bid'lllt (a matta innov:ated in rdigion) whereas
the former case is an act of the SUMnah. Accordingly, reciting t he Qu r" n at
fu nerals or grn,," over the dead is .mong the innovated acts in religion that
have nev .. bttn rev.:aled or pcrmined by Allah. Therefore, Muslim s should
stick to the Sunnal, of the Prophet (PBUH) and give 01'
innovated act s
in religion.

Secondly: Rulings on the Deceased
Onu a penon d in, it is dtsirable for the atteBdant one to
his (the
de.::...-d) eyes, for the Prophet (PBUH) did the same to Aim SaLamah when
he died, and said:

·Whtn the $Cui is taken away, the sight follows it. 5.J. do not pray
for the
for anything but good (in the presence of a dyillg
angels
i'm,,,' to whot you
(Rdaled by ImAm Muslim) "
Tt is aim an act o(the Su..nah to CO\'tT the body ofthe de.:eased immediately
after his may Allah be

pleased with her) narnted:

·Wh£n Iht Prophtl (PBUH) died, hr was (overtd with a decQTIlted
garment made of lintll (or cotton),"
(Relat.d by Al ·BukhArl and MU$hm)'"
Muslims should hasten in preparing
corpse of th e d«tasM for burial
they
about his
for the Prophd said:
"The rorf'U of a Mwlim shou/J not ,.,main
famity (withoul king burird):

among his

(Relatw by Abo. DtwOd)"
MorO'Ovu, hastening in buryi ll Blb. d.c.asw is intended to ovoid waittng
un l it the corpse changes
odor). hn A,u Ahmad Ibn Hanbal $oid,


m
"A sign d«ttlud is 10
his
Yet. th ere is no hnn
in wait ing until the com in g of the deceased>. guardian or anyone else (whose
presence Is necessary) pro vided he is near and there is nO (ear that the wrpse
of the de<:eased might un dergo cha nge.
Bnides, it i<
to an nounce tit.: death of a Muuim for the purpose
of gathering pwple 10 prepare him for burial. anend his funeral .
the
Funeral
pray loAllah for him. Yd.an nO\lndng50meonc's
death by w:ollingand lammtation. 11$ wdl uenumerating his good qualities. is a
miromavior b.elonging to tit.: Pre-Islamic
of Ignorance (the Jthe same gors for fun e,.,.! orations and funeral ceremonies.
It is desirable 10 hasten in carrying out the dead
will: Allah, Exalted
be He, has called for ca rrying out the deceased's will prior 10 senl ing his dd>ts,
enjoining people to taU an
in writing will! and carrying them out.
The debts of tht, dKeased should $l'ttled as fast as possible, whdhtr they
dut to Allah or to people, The debts due to Allah include unpaid ZtlltAh.
unperformed Hajj. unfulfilled vows of wonh ip. and unfulfilled expiil.tion.
Howtvtr, thaSl' due to people include trusts, ill-goften tllings or gains, loans
and borrowed things, arrears, and the like. Such debts are to
settlffl on
behalf of the
whether stated in his will or 110t. This i.
the
Prophet (PBUH) said:

"T/tt soul of a (dead) believer is susptndtd to his debt until it (tht
dtbt) is setlkd."

(Rtlalffl by
Abmad and At-Tirmidhl; the laller dttms it a
p n (good) /JiJdilh)u
Thus, Ihedeceascl person's $QuI iJ asked 10 pay ofThis debt and is
until the debt is sell led. Therefore, the Prophet (PBUH ) urges us 10 hasten in
sCllling the debt of the dece ased; thi s is when the money left by the deceased i.
enough to IoCttle his debts. As for one who does not
enough money to pay
off his debts, and dies while havi ng the imemion of Killing them, Allah will
SC'U lelhem fnr him as ind iOllffl in many hadiths_

Thirdly; Rulings on Washing the Body of the Deceased
Washing
deceased is obligatory for those acquainted wilh the rulings
and conditions of w.shing • deceas-ed person and able to perform it. To illustrate, when th e Prophet (I'U UH) wu informed of a
who fell down from


11: PRAYER

lOO

the back ofhis camt! and broke his neck and died, ht (PIl UH) said. •... _sIt
him with wafer alld sill•.. :" {Rdat....t by AI-BukhM lod Muslim)'" Wuhing
deceased is reported \0 have been
enjoined and
by
the Prophet (PBUH)" . Momwer. the body of th e Prophet (PBUH) him sdf,

the

and purifieof other Mullims?

Washing the d«eaKd is a ooUtttive duty o n those acquainted with his
(and able 10
it ). Besides. washing the body of a de<:rasrd man
should be
by a man (a nd Ihal of a
woman by a ""011\10).
In a ddition. it is bene. and highly rn:ommendcd lha\ the washer should be
a trustworthy pellOn who is wdJ-acquainted with Ihe rulings on washing
a d"ceased person. This is because such a kin d of washing is a legal ruling
that ltas a special way of application and
and only tho,," well infonnM about it (an perform it in
proper,
way.
If 0""
in
will to br wuhtd by a « n ain person when onc
dirs, thm that per$On $hould be gi'"nI prioriry in washing one, pr()Yided hoe Is I
fair, 100stworthypenon. This is becomo: Abo. Bakr (may Allah be pleased wilh
him) staled in
will 10 bt:
his death) by Asma' Bint ' Umays,
his wifl'. Thu ., il i. permissible for a woman 10
Ihe body
deceased
and for a
10 wash hi . decea"'Allah be plea"'(aftt'r his death) by Muhammad Ibn Sirin.
The one statoo in the dead pt"l"SOn's will has the priority to wash him: after
him comes tht' fat hn. as a father i. thoe worthi"t pt'r5On ofwa$h ing hi. son.
Thi . i. also becouse of a father'. d«p affection. tender",,5$, and sympathy for
his son. After the decea"'as he has the same ;Ifftcfion for thc deceased, then comC5 tht'
dosest kin, the do..,r, and I<) on . The closest person OUl$ide the family comes
nex t in this
and then COme last thou unerlatcd to the
It is
important to poim out that such pri oritization of washers is t o br applitd
if they are aware of the rulings o n such washing and claim it; o thnwift.
prio rity should bt: given to those acquainttd with its ruli ngs over those
unOlcq uaintM.
As for femaln, a body

of a deceased female is to be washed by a

Priority he er is also given to the onc scaled in the will of the decca"'In other words, a woman determined in thc wi ll is to be given p",ference in
washing
over anybody else,


comes nnl1he dosal female

""so

to the dKeasro. then the closer. and

on and so fonh .
In gelltn1., body of a dKeas«! W<)man is 10 be washed by 3 woma n , and
that of a man by a man, in the afornaid
Slill. i\
for
a husband to wuh Ihe body of hi. dead wife and vice versa, for Abii Bakr
(may Allah N pleased with hi m), a, men t ioned above.
in hi. wHl to be
by his wi fe. In add ition .. Ali Jbn Abill1lib (ma y Anah be plcased with

him) washed the body of Hlimah (his wife)"'. The same is also reported 10
have been done by many other Companio ns " .
Besides. it is pumissible for men and women to wuh the body of a young

fUrs, whether male or
Ib nu l_Mundhir u id, "MI
sclrohlrs, III
hlmd. W\'.' Ir.. w l("rnl, ummimOllsiyagru that it i, pnm ;:<:for the worn"'I/O wo:uh lite bodyof" young boy"- This is mausc nothing of the
child under

young boy's body · who is
i$l'..g:orded as 'awroh " in his life, so
Wloold
,,.,... after his death also. To illustrate, tl>t body ofIbr.ihim.
It... baby son of tl>t Prophet (PBUH), ""as washfd by women when he died.
However, is Im l>frmissible for a woman 10 wash Ihe body of a deceased
:;even-year-old boy o r upwards, and for a man to wash
body of a deceased
seven-year-c ld girl or upwards.
It is also impe rmissible for a Muslim to wash the dead body of a disbeliever,

carry his ,0fflO to the grave, enshroud his body. perform the Funeral P rayer
over him. or aucnd his funeral procnsion. This is b«au$.C Allah, Exalted be

He, says;
"0)'011 wit .. lID.... IJdjeroed, do " .. t IrNlb IIl1ia of 0 people wit"
wlwm MlDh Iuubecome ""Pr"'- (Qurln: AI ·Mumlahinah: Il)

The general
is prohibited to wash II>t
bodyof .deceased disbeliever. arry his coffin. or follow his funeral p'""«ssion_
In
Allah. Enlted be He, says:
-"lid do lIot proy (the FUlle,.,,1 Prayer, 0 Mub.llmmad,j over allY
of them who haJ dit d - ever - or .ralld at hi. grllVt, Indu d, Ihey
In Allah,.,"
(Q ur'An: At·Tawbah: 84 )

Allah also says:

RfI J.

"0' fo, fht

Prophtl and Iho"

/orKi ....neufor Ihe po/ythtisb ...-

who ha", Inliewd t .. ask
(Qur'An: At ·Tawbah: 11})


11, PRAYER

Thus, it is impermissible for Muslims to bury the body of a disbdiever, yet
if there is no fellow disbeliever to bury him, a Muslim should throw his body
into a hole so that it causes no harm to oth e... That was don e by the Muslims
to the bodies of the polytheists killed in the Battle of Badr, when they threw
them into the well of Al -Qalib. The same applies to apostates, like one who
abandoned prayer intentionally and one who innovated a bid 'ah (a matter
innovated in religion) that leads to disbelief.
That should always be the Muslim's attitude toward a disbdiever, which
indicates denial and hatred. Reponing the story of Prophet Ibr:.\him (Abraham)
and those who believed with him, Allah reveals:

When Ihty $from you and from ",hol. ,.,." you worship olher Ihan Allah. W.
have d.niM you, and Ihere hM appeAred I>etWttn ns and you
until you ""'ieve in Allah Alone.. :
onimosily and hatred
H •• •

(Qur'an: Al-Mumtabinah: 4)
Allah, halted be He, also say"'

Hr,," will notfind a people who

in Allah and
Last Day
having affictionfor Ihou who oppose Allah and His M....eng.r,
even if they were their fathe .. or Iheir sons ar their brolhe .. or
tlleir kindred .. ,"
(Qur'an: AI -MujMilah: 22)
This is because of the enmity
t>etween faith and disbelief, and because
of that hatred bom by the disbelievers toward Allah. His Messengers (peace be
upon them all). and His Religion . Thereupon, it is impermissible for Muslims
to support the disbelievers, whether alive or dead. We invoke Allah to make our
hearts firm in sticking to the truth, and to guide us to His straight path.
On the other hand, when washing the body of a
Muslim the water
used must be pure and legally permis,ible, and it is bettu to be cool. Yet, there
is no harm in using hot wato r to remove any dirt from th e body of th e deceased,
Or in Case of extremely cold weather. Besides, wa,hing the deceased must be
carried "ut in a sheltered, roofed place so that the de<:eased cannot be &«n by
others (except the washer), such as a house, a tent Or the like, if possible.
It is obligatory to cover the parts between the navel and the knees of the
deceased body before washing, then the whule body is to be uncovered (except
the aforementioned parts). After that, the deceased is to be laid down in a
s)"ping position o n the washing (wooden) bed so that water and whatever
comes out of the d..,eased·s body flows down.


Ch'pt.,3O, Dc.th .nd Buti,l
deceased must be a!tended only by the washer
Washing the body of
and those assisting him; it is detestable for anyone else to attend the washing.
The washer should raise tile head of the deceased that th e latter becomes in a
semi-sitting position. Then . he passes his hand Over the deceased's abdomen
pressing it gently to allow anything withheld therein (such as excrements)
to come out. While so doi ng, he should pour much water over the body to
overflow and remove such excrements coming out (if any). After that, the
washer wraps his hand with a coarse piece of doth and cleans the stool and
urine exits and the anus of the deceased with water.
After that, the washer declares his intention of washing the deceased . says
tasmiyah (saying. «Bismillclh" i.e. "In the Name of
and purifies the
dead person with the ablut ion performed for prayer. As for rinsing the mouth
and the nose with water, it is sufficient to wipe over Ihe teeth and no,trils with
two wet fingers or paS.! a wet piec" of cloth ove r them wit houtletting any water
enter th. dead person·s mouth or nostrils. Then. the washer washes the head
and beard ofthe d«eased with sid," or soap. The washer then starts wash ing
th . decea..,d·s body begin n ing with the right parts; h. should firSI wash the
right part of his neck, his right hand and shoulder, the right half of his chest,
the right thigh, the right ieg, and the right foot. After th at, the washer rolls th e
deceased body to its left side and washes Ihe right side of his back Then the
washer rolls him on his right side and washes the left side of his back in th .
same way.
During washing the de<:eased, Ihe washer is to use 5idr or .oap, and it is
desirable to wrap his hand at this time with a pi""e of cloth. It is obligatory to
wash the decea..,d at least once, provided his body is ther eby well purified, bUI
it is desirable to wash him thrice. If the body of the deceased is still impure, it is
permissible to wash him up till seven times. It is also desirable to use camphor
in the last wash, as it
the body stiff, frngrnnt. and cool. Besides, camphor
is to be used at the last wa.s.h so that its effect remains.
Afterwards, the washer dries the body with a garment or the like, then cuts
the moustache and clips the nails, if long. and removes the hairQfthe armpits,
bearing in mind to keep all the cuI hair and clipped nails to b e put with the
deceased in his shroud. As for a deceased woman, her hair is to b e braided into
thrtt braids falling down backwards.
Sometimes it is dim,ul t to wash the deceased because water is unavailable
or for fear thal his body WQuld be torn apart beeau.., of washing, such as the
cases when the deceased is a leper. or one killed by fire, or a wOman whose
husband is not present to wash her. Or a man whose wife is nOI present to


11: PRAYER

wash him . In such cases, tayammum (p"rforming dry ablution with dean
earth) is to be p"rformed for the deceased, wiping over the deceaseds face
and two palms with d ean earth, using a piece of cloth or the like to hinder Ih e
washers di rect contact with the deceased's body. However. if it is difficult to
wash onlyeerlain parts of the deceased's body. the washer then is to wash what
is available and perform tayammwm for those unwashed parts. It is desirable
for the washer to ha"" a ritual bathing following washing the deceased, yet it
is not obligatory to do so.

Fourthly: Rulings on Shrollding
After washing and drying the body of the deceased, it i, to be put in a
,hroud that must cover all his body. It is desimble 10 use a white clean shroud,
whether new - which is better · or not. The obligatory size of Ih e shroud ;s that
which covers the whole body of the deceased.
It is desirable to

the deceased man in three shrouds of cloth and
Ihe woman in five pieces of cloth: a loincloth. a yeil, a shirt, and two shrouds.
As for deceased children, a boy is to be shrouded in one shroud. yet three
are permissible, and a girl in on c shirt and two shrouds. It is also des irable to
subj oxt the shroud to a censer. after being sprinkled with rose water orthe like.
so that the scent of incense would remain in the shroud.
The man is 10 be shrouded by spreading the three shrouds over each other.
and then he is to be brought covered with a garment or the like as i t is obligatory
to be covered, and to be put lying with his face upwards on Ihe thre<: shrouds.
of cotton is to be put between Ihe buttocks covering
Then a perfumed
anUS of the deceased and fastened by tying a pie," of cloth. Other similar
prrfumed cotton pieces are to be put on Ihe eyes, nostrils, mouth, ears, the
parts of prostration (i.e. the forehead and the nose, both hands, both knees,
and the bottom of the toes), under Ihe armpits, tht inner parts of the kn«s,
and on (ht navel. The washer should also apply some perfume betw«n th t
shrouds and to the head.
After that, th e washer wraps the left sid e of the upper shroud (on which
the deceased is lying face up) over Ihe right side and ilS right side over his left
Then the s.me is to be done with the second and the third shrouds: Ihe
supernuous parts of the shrouds should be longer toward the head than the
feet. Then such remaining parts toward the head are to be gathered and put
over his face and
toward his feet over his feet. Afterwards, belts of cloth
are tied around the shrouds so as not to unwrap or loosen in the grave.


Ch' p''' 3!} J:o..,h . nJ lluri, l

As for a
woman, as mentioned above. she is to be shroud ed in
flve pieces of cloth: a loincloth , a shirt. a veil. and two shrouds ,

Fifthly: Rulings on the Funeral Prayer
After washing and shrouding the deceased, the Funeral Prayer is to be
performed over him, Ab .. Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated:

':4.lIah$ Messenger (PBUH) said, 'Wh aever altends the funeral
prlXt$.SiOn urllil he performs Ihe
Prayer jor it will
reward
to one qiraJ, and whoewr accompanies it until burial wiilget a
reward equal to two
11 was askrd, 'What are two
He (the
Prophet) replied, '(They are) like Iwo h"gc mountains (of reward),'·
(Rolated by Al -Bukhdr! and Muslim)"
Performing the Funeral Prayer over the deceased is a collective duty; if
perfor med by some of those in the neighborhood of the de<:eased. the rest of
them will not be accountable for it; it is st ill an act of the Sunllah (Prophetic
Tradition) to be observed by the rest of th em. Yet, if all abandoned it, it will be
a sin upon t hem .IL
The cOlldi(ions of the Funeral Praye r:
1·lnten tion; one must have the intention of performing it.
2-Fac ing the qibla/,
3-Concealing one's 'awrah when performing it
4-The rilual purity of both the o ne p erforming it and the deceased
5-Avoidance of any physical impurity
6-Both the one p erforming it and the deceas.-d must be Muslims.
7-Atttnding the funeral procession after offering the Fun eral Prayer if
ther are in the neighborhood
g-S. in g legally accountable
T he integral parts of th e Fune ral Prayer:
I-Standing upright
2-Saying four takbirs"
] -Reci ting the Sura of Al-FJtiuah (the Opening

of the Qurlln)


11: PRAYER

4-Asking Allah to confer His blessing upon the Prophet (PBUH)
5-Praying for the deceased
6-Performing these integral pa"s in sequence
7-End ing the prayer with tmUm"

The acts of the Sunnah observed in the Funeral Prayer:
I· Raising the hands upon saying each

{akMr

2-Seeking refuge with Allah (from the accursed Satan) befo", ..,.;:iting

AI-FMilIah
3-Tnvoking Allah for oneself nnd for all Muslims
4 -Being quiet while reciting

S-Having a sho" pause after the fourth takMr and

lasllm

6-Puning one's right hand over the left wilh both on the chest following
each takbir
7-Turning to the right when saying ras/fm

The Way the Funeral Prayer is Performed
T he Fun eral Prayer is 10
performed in the following way: The imdm
(th e on e who leads th e congregational prayer), Or one performing it alone Over
a deceased
should stand toward the chest of lhe deceased if a man and
townrd her middle if a woman. As for those led in prayer, they
stand
the imdm, and il is an act of the Sunnah 10 stand in
row •. On.
with ",ying the opening Mkbir and then
refuge with Allah (from
Satan) directly following saying takMr - without saying the opening invocation
- then one recites Brumalah'" and the Sura of AI-Fsay th e _'(cond rakbir and ask Allah to confer His blessings upon th e Prophet
(PBUH) just as it is ""dted in
Then. one is 10 ",y the third takbir
and pray
for the deceas. d with the invocations repo".d to have
observed by the Prophet (PB UH ) in Ihis "'gard; the following is deri""d from
.uch Prophetic invocation,:
·0 AI/ah! Forgive those of I'S who are liv;,rg and those of us who are
dead. those of uS who are present and those of uS who are absent,

yoomg and our old. mid Our male and our female. Verily. You
know Our return and our residence mid You are over all things

our


."
O",njpoltnr. 0 AII/lh! To

us

r(lU

lifo, grllnt him

life as " follower oils/am. and whomsoel'er of us You
dealh,
eaUSf him death as a btliel'er. 0 Allah! Do nOI withhold from uS
the reward (jor sllOwing pMi'"'' upon his demh) (wd do 110/ leave
II.l t" go Ilstray aflU him (i.e. o.flt . his deo.th )". 0 AI/IlII! Forgive
him. lIaw mercy upon him. giw him /H'QU, pardon him. rrcnve
him wilh hanor, mak.. his grave spDdous (lnd wash him wilh """n;
iet Imd mow. Ckonu him from sillS and taults as
is

from impurity. Requite him with un ,,!lode thal U more

txctlkn/ than his aOOdt and wilh Il mate benef Ihan his malt .
Admit him to Paradiu. and pro/ut him from rhe lorlu re of the
gra"" (or 'the torment of/lit Fi ... Q,cording /Q allQtller narmtioll), ""
and make his grave ,pacio"'. and grant him light therei" ,""
If lh .. deceased is a female, the invocation will be th us, "0 Iollllh! Forgiw
Mr... •• nferring to her in the whole invocation.

On the other hand. if the deceased is a child. the invocation wiU be as follows:
"0 Iollllh! Mllke him pmtw) saved. gran' him (div;n.
ond make him an Q(uplrd
Imm:essor for Ill,,,,. 0 A/lall! Make thdr Kllles lIeavy (wilh good
duds) by him, Illld nlllke their ",waril grealer for (shcwing patience
for) him. and join hi'" with O, t righteous believer•. ,md It t hi", be
in tht {lJre of Ibrdhlm (Prophtl Abraham), Ilnd protefl 1I1n' with
Your Mm:y from
punlshmtnl of Ihe Fi", .. "'"

'''e

Aft(TW3.rd$.,
and wail a li n le lhen say one

tht
"""r the turning their
to Iht right.

,,,,/im.

As for the one who misses a part oflht
ht should )oin the
plllyer performing what is left t herei)[ with the congreg:lt ion led by the imam.
Then. when the imJm ends prayer with lasU",. one can perform the part on e
ha5 mislI(d in the sam e mann er
in thi s prayer. However. if one fnu
th at people may carry the cofl'm and leaw immedi ately afte r th. (Funeral)
Prayer and t.hus one miOll<'5 the fu neral procession. 011><' can just say the m i..sing
t.lkbfr$ slKcessi,..,ly. Silying nOlh lng in betwttn. then end the prayer with
/.u/im. On
OIher hand . if one misses performing the Funeral Praye r O\'er
the deceased before the burial, one ean perfomt it at his gra,..,. As for lhose
who are not present in
town of the deceased and a", informed of his d eath,
they are 10 perform the Absent Prayer with the intention of performing the
Funeral Prayer Over th e deceased.


11, PRAYER

As for" stillborn whose age is four monlhs upward, the FUlleral Prayer is
to be performed over it; if less, there will be no funeral Prayer Over it.

Sixthly: Funeral Procession and Burial
It is a collective duty upon Mu slim' who know about the death of a Muslim
W carry his coffin to the grave and bury him. lIurial is legaliled through
both the Qur'an and the Sumwli (Prophetic Tradition). Allah, Exalted he
He. say"

not mtlde the
detldr

a container
living and the
(Qur'An: AI- MursalAt: 25·26)

Allah. Exalted he He, also says:

"Then Ht cauJU h'J death and providu " grllve f or
(Qur'an: ' Abasa: 21)
Besides, there are numerous iladiths concern ing hurial, stat ing that it
is an act of devotion and dutifulness signifying honor and concern for the
deceased.
Tt is an act of the Sunnah to escort the deceased to his grave, as it is stated

in the Two Sahihs, as mentioned above, that the Prophet (PBUH) said:

· Whoever attentJj the funeral procession until he performs the
f'uneral Prayer for it will gel a reward equal 10 one q(rilt and
whoever accompanies il until burial will gel a reward equal to two
qiral': When he (PBUH) was asked, "What are two qlrills?" He
replied, "(They are) like Iwo huge mountai/IJ (of reward).""
There is another wording according to AI-Bukhari's narration of this
b.adilh which goes as follows:

·Whoever escorls Ihe deuased to tire grave ..•
However, the wording oflmam Muslim is:

"Whoever goes out accompa"yi"g a funeral from its house, offers
prayer for il (i_e. Ihe Funeral Prayer), aMd Ihen follows il (ils
proussion) untillhe deceased is buried .. :"
Thus, the different narrations of the
had/lh
Prophet (PBUH) enjoins u. to escort the
that the


Ch'pt< • .l(l: o..,h ,,,J But •• 1

It is an act of the SunM(!i! for those following the funeral prtake part in carrying the coffin of the deceased, if possible , There is nO harm
in carrying the coffin in a .:ar or on an animal, espedally when the graveyard
is distant

It is also an act of the SUMMai! to hurry up with the dead body during the
procession, This is because the Prophet (PBUH) said in a b.adirh related by AlBukh1r1 and Muslim,

"Hurry up with the dead bodyfor ifjt j5 riglltrou5, you art forwarding it to good, and if it is otherwise, thell you are pulling off an evil
tl'ing which is around your nech-"
However, th e funeral prcarrying the coffin and those following them should be in a state of tranquility
and quietness, They should never raise their voices with recitation or anything
ehe, wh ether it is tahliC' invocations, dhikr," Or saying, -May Allah forgive
him (the deceaud)," or the like. This is because all such acts are mere bid'ahs
(matters innovated in religion) ,
Besides. it is prohibited for women to follow the funeral procession, for
Umm 'Aiiyyah (may Allah be pleased with her) narrated:

«We (women ) were forbidden (by the Prophet) to follow fu"eral
proces.siom ....
At the time of
Prophet (1'IlUH), women did not go out with funeral
processions, for it is a ceremony restrkted to men.
for

it is an act
(PBUH) said:

to deepen the grave and make it wide,

"Diggmves and make them wide and deep."
(AI-Tirmidhi commented that it is a

Iladllh ,l"

(good, authentiC)

It is also an act of the S"nnah to cover the grave of Ih" woman

her body therein

putting

all her body is regarded as 'awmh,

In addition, it is an aCl oftheSunMh to
in his grave,

while putting down the

-(We bury him) in the Name of Allah a"d according to the religion
(i.e, the tradition) of Allah's Messenger (PBUH)."


'" Th is ;$

II,PRAYER

Prophet (PBUH) said:

you pUI your dead
illlhegrQV& UI,II '(We bury) ill
rhe Name of Allah and fUcrmlillg 10 the migio" (i.e. Ihe trudilion)
of Mlllh)' Me55e/lger (PBUH):·
' WMII

(Related by the

Compilers of Had/lh ex-eluding An· NasJ'l, and

deemed a lwan (good) !J.adirh by At· Tirmidhl)"
The decea5Cd to Ix put in his grave on hi s right $ide facing the qiblah, for
the Prophet (PIIUH) said, rderring to th e Ka'bah:
"/1 is your qibiah in your lift Ilnd after your deMh."

(Related by AbCi rnwM and other compilers)"
Aner putti ng the dro:ased in the
a brick, a 510ne or some uflh
10
put under h is had. Bnidrs, he i$ to be pul d(lllt 10 the front wall of his
Also,
is to "" pul bthind his I»ck as u upport
he should
fan on his faaor be overturned on his back. Afterwards. the hole of the grave
i$ 10 be
with bricks and clay 10 hold it togetller, and then earth i. to be
piled up on his grave, using no earth ot her ! h an !

roun d h is grave.

The top of th e grave is !o bt: of a height equal to a palm of the hand, and
to be shaped like a humpback so th at flood water, if any, would flow down .nd
not affe<:t it. On the other hand, $(Imc pebbles art to be pm on the grave
which shou ld be rrtquently WlI.te..w to makt: urth settle and stick to the ground,
not scaner. As for the idea behind making the
that high. it is to make it
distinguishable for
lest they tread on it. 8c$idt'S. thert is no harm in
putting
Larw upright bricks on both ends o f the
to make its lim its
durly marked and distinguished. without writing anything o n them.
II is desirable to stand at thoe grave of thoe deceased after burying him to
supplicate Allah and ask H i. forgiwnHS for him. Thi. i. be<:aust ona burial
was over, the Prophel (PBUH) used to £Iand al the grave and

·Suk f"rg;vmess for your (Musl;m) /.tmlll er and big
(from AlIalt) for It;m. for he ;s being quesrirmed MW."
(Related by Abil Dawild) "
It is. bid ·a" 10 recite th e
at graveyards, fo r neither the Prophet
(PBUH) nor hi. honorable Companions 1«..., reported 10 have done so. Such
a />id·ah must be awided;
is an error.


'"

On
other hand. it is
to build over graves, plaster them,
write on them. To illustrate. Jabi' 1hn . Abdulllh narrated:

Or

"AI/"h:; Messellger (PBUH) forbade that IIle graves sllould be pla.tered or be used as sitting places (jor the people), or a building
should be built over them:
- "
(lklat .. d by [mam Muslim)

Besides. Jabir narrated:

'Tht Messenger (PBUH) forbade plastering the graves, writing
them. building on them, or treading upon them :

011

(A marf;, . (traceable) nadith rd.INI and deemed 1aaib. (authentic)

by Al-TirmidhO"
The "'ason for this prohibition is that such aClS are means leading to
polytheism. as they may make people's hearts attached to graves. On the other

hand, many ignorant people

so attached to the graves when they see

them in a form of well -decorated structures.
It is also prohibited to light graves (with lamps, or anything of the kind).
The prohibition extends to include establishing mosques over graves and
performing prayer at them or facing them in prayer. In addition, it is proh ibited
for women 10 visit graves according to the uadith in which the Prophet sai&

"May Allah cun;e the women who visit the groves, the people who
build mosques over them, and those who establish mosques and
(light) lamps
(Related by the Compilers of the Sunan)"
It is alS(> stated in a laUib. (authenti c) iladit!lthat the Prophet (PBUH) said:

"May Allah "me the Jews and Christians, for they built t!le pltlces
of worship at t!le gmws of their prophets."'"
This is also
consecrating grav.. by means of building structures
over them and the Iiko is the origin of polytheism.
It is pr
treading upon them with shoes, sitting on them, making them piles of garbage,
or using them as drainage ditches. Abil Hurayrah narrated that the Proph et
(PBUH) said:


11, PRAYER

"11 is better that OMe af you should sit on live coals which would
burn his dot/'ing and come in contact with his skin than that he

should sit on

I>

gmve:

(Related by Imam Muslim a. a marf'"

nadUh)"

Irn arn Ibllu l-Qayyirn (may Allah have mercy On him) said:

"If only we (Muslims) reflect 0>1

the (implicaliO>ls of) the Prophets
prohibition of sitting on the graves. lea/ling on them, and treadillg
upon them, we would come to kHOW thnt the Prophet (PB UH)
instructs us to venemte tlw inhabitant5 of the graves from their head,
being trodden on with footwear:

Seventhly: Rulings on Condolence and Visiting Graves
It is an act of the Sunnah to conwle the bereaved person and advise h im to

be
and to pray for the deceased , for' Amr Ibn Hazm narrated that the
Prophet (l'BUH) said,
"No believer consoles his (berea\'ed M1151im) brother (by advi5ing him
10 show patimce) but Allah, Almightyand Ever-Maje5tic be He, will
dreOj himfmm the garment5 of digllity 011 the Day ofResumxlion:

(A marf" (traceable) lJad frh . wilh a trustworthy chain oftrammitters
related by Tbn Majahj'"

l'h ..
also various /!adiths having the same
When consoling a
berea""done.
is to be:
make YOllrreward
comfort y ou with a bettrr
forgive YOllr
It is impermissible to have a silting place for
and dedaring
condolences, as m istakenly done by rome people today. Yet , it is desirabl e
for the Prophet
to prepare some food for the family of the
(PBUH) said:

"Prepare some food for the family of !ajar, for it has happened to
them that which occupied them (i.e. the deClth 0/10 jar):

(Related by Imam Ahmad and At· Tirmid hi;
bawn (good) nodi/hi'

latter

it a

Some of the family OrlM deceased nowadays specify a place (or people to
gather for offering their condolenCe<. prepa,.., food for them and hire reciters


Ch.pto,3O:

De,," .nd Bu".1

of
Qur'3.n,
speod so much 00 that occasion. Such acts are undoubtedly
prohibited bid'ahs (matters innovated in religion). for Imilm Ahmad narrated
with a trustworthy chain of transmitters that Jarir rbn . Abdullah said:
"We (the Companions) used to consider gathering with tile family
DJ the: deceased and the preparation of food (by tile family oJ the
dead persan) after lIis burial a kind of (prohibited) wailing""

Shaykhu]·\sltm Ibo Taymiyah (may AII.h have mercy on him) said:
' Gathering people by the bereaved family, offering them food and
reciting the
to grnnt him (the deceased) the reward oJrecitatioll.
were ne""r practiced in the time oJ the Salaf (early Muslim schola rs;'
Such <>ct, were deemed detestable by some groups of scholMS bewII5e
oJ many proofo:"

A!·Iur:to.shi said:
"As ffJr the funernl ceremanies, they are prohibited as unanimously
agreed upon by scholars; such gatherings on occasions 0/ calamiries
are legally denied bid'ah,_ 'they ha¥e ne..-er been reported to have
been previously obser..-ed (by the Prophel or his Companions or thei r
successors). The same applie, 10 Ihose gatherings on the 5Ccond, third.
Jourth and >ellenth day oJthe dealh o//he decheld monthly and yearly; this is a calm/raphe. Be5ides, if the expenses
DJ
garherings (i.e. the costs oJ foods and hiring ",citers a/the
Quran) were takenfrom the inheritance, or OMe a/the heirs;s under
guardiallship or doe.s no/ grallt permission for such gatherings. all
these gathering will be legally prohibited, and so will be et1ting /rom
thatfood....

It is
(or men to visit grave, as a mean! of moral lessons and as an
admonition, and for the purpose of praying for th. deceased and asking Allah's
forgiVl'ness for him. The Prophet (PBU H) said,
"[

you (me>l) to visit the groves, but you may visit them now:

(Related by Muslim and At· Tirmidhi)
According to At -Tirmidhl's narration. the Prophet (PBUH) added:
".. .for it (i.e. ¥isiting graves) will ",mind you a/the Herea/ler,''''

Yet, it is not
is desirable on

to travel SO as to visit graves , Generally. visiting graves
conditions:


".

L1: PRAYER
visitor mUSI

AlIal,
should 110t

mln nOl a woman, fur the Prophd (PBUH) "id:

WO," ..." wlro visit tlrt grows,"
SO distant th.t th ey rNJu i re trlv.:li ng or setting out On

a jou rn <'y to visit thlm: Ihe Prophet (P BUH)
-Do 1101 sd oul on a journey nup! fw ,Ilm MUUfUel •. : .....,

Visiting graws should
for tile
of taking man l i650ns and
admonition, and for praying to Allah for the deceaKd. However. if one's
intention
visiting gravrs is
their bless ings and asking their
of
inhabitants (the dead) for Issistance. ,di.r of suffering and
n,eds, one's visit th en will be a mer. polytheistic bid'oh.
Shaykhul-I$llm Ibn Taymiyah (may

have mercy o n him) sa id:

'Visiting g",n'N ;S of I....., kinds; a 1£Kil1 viljr and a bid"oh (a malftr
;nIWVQltd in m;gio"). The Itgal vU;' is tht one i"wlded /0 invoke AI"'h
10 mllJ" His I>Imillgs upon Ih", d=w "lid 10 prgy to AI/ju,' lib tlte Fu"",ml Pm)'tr. pro.,;tkd it doa 1101 mJlii.., Stlling DuIJOT
long jour"qJ. As fo r lite
which is a bid '"h, I1 is I"'" O"l inlelldd
Jar askl"g the dernllCd for [uljil/ing
lIuds. which is cOIlsiderrd
major polytheism, It is abo the vllit ;Mtonded for invoking A lIah for
oneself at such a gTuling Ih, dec."ud as a medium whill invoking AI"'h at th .. gravr,
which arr amOllg Iht aOOmin"b/. bid ·"Its "",,dlng 10 po/ylhrom. Such
ad. h"vr noliri"g 10 do wilh Iht: Sunnall (Prophdic Tradirio") nor
havr ,''''''' bait dumtd deslmbk by a", of Ihe SMmlim
.moons) of Ihe Muslim "1111011 or Iht: MwlIm Imo:lmL'"

(ra",

At any rale, Allah. EuJled be He, knows best. May Allah 's
an d
blessin g be upon our Prophet, Muhammad (PBUH), his hou.sehold , an d his
Compa nions!

Endnotes
(11498).
2 At· Tirmidhl (UI1] 1415531. An· Nun (ISH) l:lIlO l l, Ind loo Mijah (425B) [4149S.
loo I::\ibhld (2992) (mS91 and AI-Jiftim (i99O) (4146S].
) AI ·lirmidhJ (l46l) 1416)71.
4 ll>n I::\ibb.ln (1 )9 1) [4IUJ I .nd A!.Sayl=jl (1967'11) (IOJ81 .
S AM Dlwild (3874) (411 :HJ.
6 Murlim (SI12) 17/ 152 1.


7 AI-BuWri (12(()) and Mu>1im (S061S) [713671 _

8 AI-Bukh1r1 (747()) IJJ/S461
9 Ch.pt., No. 112 of the Qur '1m.
10 Chapte, No. liJ of the Qudn.
I1 Chapler No. 11 4 of the Q"r'i.n, i.e. the I.'t Ch.pt., of the Qui.n.
12 AI- Bukhl.,1 (2738) 15/4361 .nd Mrnlim (4183) [6177].
13 Qud,1 (Divine) lwdlrh: Divine WOfw., other than the Glorio ... Qur'in, re ... ltd to
the Prophet (PSUH) fmm Allah, Unlike th. Qut·l.n, the words of the Qud,j (Divine )
badllh are neithet ukd fo, wo.-.hip no,
mi,.cul"" ••
14 AI· SuWri (7405) 113/46910nd Muslim (6Il87) 19/631 _

15 Muslim (2110, 2122) 1314 58. 4591.
16 Abfi Nw6d (3tI6) 13/3181.
17 Chapt" No, 36 of the Qu r'An.
18 Ab(!
(3121) 131320 I, lbn M1j.h (t448) 12/)95J, . nd Ibn Hil>Wn (3002) 171269].
19 Mu.lim (21 27) 131461 ].
20 Al-BukMrl (!;814) 110/3401 and Muslim (2180) HID ].
21 AM NWlld (3159) 13/333].
22 A,hmad (9642) [214401, At_T,rmidhl (1079) 131389) and [bn M1joh (2413) [3/145].
23 Sidr. The utuct of th. lot<
le ..".
H AI_BukhArl (1265) 1311 74 1 ond Mu,lim (2SA)) [4/3(5),
25 Al-Bukhirl (31161]ond M",lim 14151 ,
26 Abu O)w(ld (3141) (313281 .nd Ibn
([ <164) (212021.
27 AI-B.tyh.ql (6663) 131557 ]. ' AMut- Rn>iq in hi ••
(6117) 13140810nd Ibn
AM Sh. yboh (10969) 12/4551.
28 AI-Iloyhaqt (/j(j(j()) jJI556], • Abdur·R=1q (6122) [)/410j aod Ad·m,.",Jlnl (1833) (2166].
29 AI-Sayh.q! (6662) [3/S56] ,
.l() 5«: 'M-/jmJ' • (pp. 50) 0 od •... 1· ... """1· 15/338 1. Ibn AM Sh ayb. h (I 09S8) [2/457] ,
31 'a"""h, The priv.te porto or p' ''' of the body which . ..
to "[>Ok to OIhe.-.;.
mal., . aW1'ah ;. from the ".",,1 to the k""" wh.", • • in .notoo view it ;. .. id to b< the
ext ... nal organs I>f kX and
A, for. r.male', . • """h, it includ •• I II het body in
on. view where • • in onoth.,,- it i. .1I h... body with the ."eption of her face and hands.
32 Sjd" Th<- extract of the 10l e tree I,av«,
33 Al ·Bukhlri (1325) [3/2;(010nd Mwlim (2186) 14/16).
34 Takbl" Saying, • Alt.ihu·AJ:ba? (Le _Allah i, the G",. te,t)_
)5 T",Um,Sayingthefinal SaWm, in prayer(saying, • As-i.e. ·P...,e b< upon you. lnd tn. merry of Allah") when conduding praye',
36 Bas"",/ah: Saying. · Bi'mWJhir-RabmJni,-Ra!JJm" i,e. · 1... the N.me of AIl.h, tn.
Entirely Merciful, the Especiolly Merciful.·
)7 AM NwlId mOl) PIl50 j, At-Tltmidhl (t025) P/J4Jj and Ihn Mljah (1498) 1212181 ,
38 Muslim (2229) {4134 ].
39 Muslim (2117) (31461] .
.j() Ibn Ab" Sh.ybah (29829) [61107 ] a nd' Abdu,.Razdq (6588) [3/529] _
41 AI ·Bukh1ri (1325) and Mwlim (945)_
42 Muslim (2192) 14119]
43 AI -Bukh1ri (13\5) [3123}) and Mu,lim (2t8) (4/15).


11: PRAYER

4.j T.,hli/, s..yi ng •• Li lliiha ilia/lair" (i .•. lher< i. no deily but AII.h)
45
I llm".. ion, implr ing ",membr.mc. of.nd m.nt io,,;ng An.h.

46 AI -BukMrt (3 (3) II/S36 ] . nd Muslim (1 16-1) HIS].
47 Ab;, Dt w(;d (321«;) ]3n56J ."d (3215) 131355], md At -Tirmidhi (l717) ]<1/213 ]_
Tbn Mlj,h ( 15)0) 12/241 1.
H AbO DJ""d (2875) 1J/1991.
>0 Ab;, DtwLid (3221 ) 131357] .
SI Muslim (2242) 14141 ].
52 At ·Tirrnidhi (1053) 131361l ] .nd An -Na<.l' (2026) [2/391 ]_ Ibn M;lj.h (l562, 15(3)

[lllH. US]
53 Ahmad (2030) [linO], Ab" D1,,1id (3236) [31362], At ·llrmidhi (320) [2/136 ] ."d
An ·".,.'i (2(42) 121400 ]_Jbn
( 1575) 12125-4 1_
5-4 AI·Bukhiri (43S1 1116881. "d
(1 187) 13I16J.
55 Muslim (2245) (4i 41] .
56 Ibn M.jah ( 1601) 121268 1_
57 Ahm.d (l75()) 111253 (. AbO l).\wlid (3 132) (3111S ]. At· Ti rmidhl (999) 131323], Tbn
Mlij. h (1610) 121274 ]_
58 Ahm,d (6902) (21270 r and Ibn Mlj,h (1612) (21275 ].
59
- Mojmu .
(24/316) _
60 See; •AI-iJ.,..",ldilh ..." '\/-8irU! ' • (pp. 175) .
61 Mu.!im (1257) H/5()[, AI- TIrrnidhi (I 055) [313701 ".,110 Abd DlwM /:l(98) [4165].
62 ThAI -Aq1<1 Mosque.
63 AI·A ukh l rl (1 189 ) 13/82 r and Mu,];m (3370) [51169 (.
M S<-e: • Moj"'" 'ul-fmJw.1" 124/326 ] and [2611481



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