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Book of Salah



Obligation of the Five Prayers
Prayer is the most obligatory of the Five Pillars of i$lam next to the Two
Trslificalions of Faith,' and it
ordained in the best and the most perfect
way for an act of worship. Prayer includes many of the aCIS of worship. like the
remembrance of Allah, the recitation of the Qur'an, standing humbly hefo,",

Almighty Allah, bowing. promation, supplication, and rakbfr '. PrlIyer is also
head of the physical .cisof worship, of which none of the religions brought
by any of Allah's Ml'Ssengers is void. Prayer, unlike all Olher acts of worship.
was enjoined by Allah on His Messenger, Muhammad (PBUH). the Seal of
Messengers, on the Night of AI·Mj'rJj (Munammad"s ASCen$ion) ' , Thi. i. an
indication of it!; greatness, a confirmation of its being o bligatory, and a sign
of its high stalus in th e Sight of Allah . There are many badiths indicating the
virtues of prayer and showing its being obligatory on all Muslim individuals.

The fact that prayer is an obligatory act of worship is primarily known in Islam.
So. whoever denies this fact is considered to be an apostate; such a person is to
be asked to ",c.n t, and ifhe does not, he is to be killed as unanimously agreed
upon by Muslim !Kllola".



means im"Oafion; Allah, Exalted],., H" . , omrnands
to 'pray' for the believers. saying:
M, • •

And j,,¥okl l ...

blt lsingS} IJpon tlmn .. ,"
(Qur'A n: At -Tawbah: 103)

Atcording to tbe Shnrl' ah (Islamic Law),
Is defined as a spn:iaJ kind
Mgln ning with lakblr and end ing with ,,,slim', I1 is called
of Jayings and
il ind udes invocation; du ri ng
the worshipper is in a

Slatc of invocation through W{l!'lihipping Allah, praising Him, or supplicating
Him for somrthing. This is ",'hy it is called f rayn'o Pra)'l:r was decreed by
Allah on the Night of AI-M;' rdj. before Hij mll, as five prayers !O be performed
e,..,ryday and night at spe.: ifi ed limes by every legally accountable Muslim.
Allah . h. lted be He, 5ays:
"... /ndud,
h.rs MC" d«ned up"n Iht Hlie""rs" duru
of.J>«ifird /imn,."
(Qurl n: An-N isiI': 103)

timfi u e the times poi rltfil out by Allahs Messenger (PBU H)

through hi. words or his aliiO says:
the)' "'en 110/
ucrpt to WflNhip AI/Ilh {bei/lK]
10 Him In rel/glnu, inclining 10 Irm/" Ilntl to tsJa/tlish
AI.Bayyinah: 5)

In addi tion, in many Vl l"Sn of Allah', Glorious Book (t)", Qura ll),
Exalted be He. says:
a /nltli, " pl'PJ'"....
(Q ur'An: AI.Baqarah: 43)
Allah also says:

Mubammad/. Irll My ,en'm,I, wlro
proyu ...


belitVld 111 tstablish
(Qurl n: lbnlhlm: 31)

Moreover, Allah, Glorified tic He, say"
· So eXlIllM /. AllIIn
you reach
and whr"),,,u
reach l/oe mor/ll/lg, A ..d to Him is (due aliI proin thmuglwut Ihe
hNW", a nd
Nr" " And (u .. IIM;, Ht / ... "Ight ""d whtn
JI'H' ",.., ... "00","
(Qu rl ll: Ar- Rum: 17-1 8)

Therdore. it i. obliga tory for whoever ",oche. oneof the speci fied 'i me,
of pr ayer, being
and unt, to ptrform it,
women in •
of n>enstrua tion or post " at, I bl eeding, Scholars un animously agree that it

is not obligatory for wonlen in the aforesaid two cases to perform prayer,
nor to perform it laler afler purification. On the other hand , whoever is
in a stale of unconsciousness, as in sleeping, fainting, and the like, has to
perform the prayer(s} hdshe has missed when he/she wakes up. Allah,
Exalted be He, says:
"0> . And

prayer for My rt'membranu.»
(Qur'an: TaM.: 14)

In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) says:

"Whoever misses a prayer out of oversleeping or forgetfulneS!; let
him perform il once he remembers it.'"
A guardian of a child has 10 command him to perform pra)'er when the
child ..aches the age of seven, though it is slill not obligatory for him. But the
purpose is 10 make Ihe child interested in prayer and used to it. Thus, Ihechild
and his guardian will be rewarded when the former performs prayer. for Allah,
Exalted k He, says in general:

"WhOt'WT COmeJ {(HI Ihe DtJyofJudgment} with tJ guod dud will
htJYe len lim« the lib thereof ['D hiJ cndit[,.,W

Moreover, when a woman showed Ihe Prophet (PBUH) a young boy who
was wilh her saying:
"Does this one have 10 perform
(Pilgrimage), 0 MeS!;enger of
Allah?" He (PBUH) replied, "l'es, and you will have a reward."'

So, a guardian has to teach his child how to pt:rform prayer and how to
perform ablution for it. A guardian has also to beat his child if the latter is ten
year. old and neglects prayer, for the Prophel (PBUH) said:

"Command your children to perfor", prayer when they become seven
)"'a,.. old. tJnd beat the", for (not performing) it (i.e. prayer) when
they become len years old; and armnge their beds (so Ihlll
girls sleep) sep"mlely."'
(Related by Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, Ab" Dawud, and olher compilers
of H
It is also impermissible 10 pt:rform prayer later than its due time, for Allah,
Exalted k He, says;




Iuu bun d«rffd "po" tlr" bel;"..., .. Q decru af


(Qurl,,: An-Nisi'; 103)

The meaning thal prayer has specified timc$ at which it has 10 be
performed. A prayer is Impermissible \0 be deferred except for those who
would like 10 combine il wi th the following prayer, provided IIl.tlhe said
can tu: com bined wi th another, and thal the case is among those in
which tombin!ng
.s W('li u the lK,son Ming onc
who is allowed 10 combine pray"rs in
"';lY. As for deb.yi ng
• nighl prayer until the morning. I day prayer unlillhe nigh!. or the Flljr
(Dawn) Prayer unlil sunrise, it is by nO mnn s
wheth er the
""3.011 is a state of maj o r ritual impurity, m inor ritual impurity, or anyth ing
else. Rather, one ha s 10 perform them at Iheir specified times,
o f one's state.
A pel"$Qn might happen to JM, d nained in hospi tal whrre he i. confined
to a bed that he a n not luve 10 pray, or cannOt (hange Ihe
he wean. or (annOI find puu eart h to perform
(dry ablution)
dd,r pr.llyer
irutcad of abluti on to pay. Some ignor1l.nt porople in tllis
on th e
that they will perform it later when possible. In fact , thi S is'
grave mistake and a mnns of missing prayer whose reuon is unawareness
lod lack of juristic co nsultation . What they have to do is to perform prayer
at it , specified times rega rd less of their states.. Their prayer will be sufficient,
even if it is pt'rformed without '''y"mmu," or in impulC' dothes; Allah,
Exalted JM, He. says:


"Sa fN' Allah '" mlltft

1"''' ,,'"



(Qu.'1o: At-TagMbun: 16)
Ev<:n if they p .... y without facing the face il, their prayer is .11 11 valid.
As regards lhO;K who abandon performing prayer out of negligence
or slackness. even if without denying the facl that il is obligato ry, they are
considerNI disJM,lirul"$ according to !he molC' ".,Iid of the two juristic opinions
in this regard. This is what is indicated in the prophe1ic b.adillrs. like the one
Maled by iodm Muslim that states.:

""/>Well mml "lid ""lweCM pciylheis/tl Qlld disbditf is

lIeg/igmct ofprayer'-"

Ch.F'tor 1: Obliption of the Fiv< P",ye",

There are many o(her legal proofs. Those who abandon prayer are to be
pto tbis. they are to be discarded to tbe extent that they
prayer. In
a,., not to be g,.,ded and their invitations are not to be accepted until they
repent and establish regular prayer. This is beca use prayer is the basic pillar
of ,.,ligion. and tbe main difference betw",<,n a Muslim and a disbeliever. So,
whatever good deeds one might do are useless if one is negligent of prayer. we
ask Allah for safety.


Two T."ificalion, of Faith : Saying, "1 Ie.lify Ihatt l>ore is no deity but AII.h .nd
t hat M"hammad i" h. M.... ng2 Takbir. Saying, "iIIMhu -ilkb<>r" (i .e. Allah is lh. G.... t .. tj.
3 Se. AI·Bu kh1r! (7517) [131583] . n4 TaL• . · P. :ace b< upon you. a nd ,h. m. rcy of AII .h") wh.n concluding prayer.
S Hijrah: 11>. Proph6 AI , Bulhirl (597) !3/93] and Mmlim (1566) ]3/1981.
7 Muolim (3240) 151103].
8 Ahmad (675) ) 1212481. Aba Dlwild (495) [t 12391. AI-1:Illkim (95 t) rt1378 1: >« .1",
At_Tirmidhi (407) 12/2591 , lbn Khu ... ym. h (1002) {2IlO2j.
9 'The qib .. ,,:1he direction of prayer. nam. ly to","rd. th. Ka ·bah.
10 Mu


Prayer Call (Adhiin) and
Immediate Prayer Call (Iqamah)

The Five Prayers have specified times, befo'" which it is
to perform them. Many (>"ople (at the time of the Prop het) did nOl know the
t'XaCi time of prayer, or were so busy that they did not pay attention to the time
of prayer. Therefore, Allilh decreed the prayer call (adhJn) to notify them of
its due time•. The prayer call waS decreed in the first year after Ihe Prophet's
Immigration 10 Medina. The reaSOn behind its prescription was lhal il WaS
difficult for the Muslim, then to observe the exact times of prayer. Therefore,
they conferred and agreed to have a certain sign to gather them for prayer.
Afterwards, the wording oflhe prayer call was revealed to' Abdulllh Ibll Zayd
in a vision, which waS confirmed by the Divine Revelation ;' AlIah,.Eulted be

He, revealed:

11: " RAYER

"Oyuu wlrOM .... bdiI:l'M, whm [tMIldh6,,/IIrt>IIM
"n the day ,,[Ium u' ah [Friday/. Ihm proaM 10 the lVflembrGnu
(Qurln: AI-Jumu . ah: 9)

Allah also I'(:vuled:
(Qur';ln: Al-M;l'idah: 58)
Each oflht pl'll)'" .:all (Mhot,,) and the immw iate pnyrr call (iqdmah) has
'pecl;ol wording. which uP""' er«begin with ,akbfr
(,.ying, • AlWru-Akbar" Le. "Allah is lhe: GffiI!est") which is a sign of glorif'ocation
of Allah, Almighty and Ever·Majestic be He. The:n the Two Teslif.cations of
Faith al'(: to be declared,' as an acknowledgement of the Oneness of Allah ,
Exa lted and Glorifie(PBUH). AfttT that, a ca ll for prayr r. the basic pillar of Islam, is pronounced.'
following which a (I ll (or prosperity is pronoullCed,' inviting all Muslims for
p....yrr, the way to felicity and eternal dtlight.s. Finally, tbt wording of the pnyrr
goll end. with lakbir, which is the best way of the
of Allah, and
the word of .incerity of faith, wt.o.c grutntsS and vi rtues nufWtigh {he
with all bcingllhtl't'in (txduding Allah ) and Ibt seven n n hs with ,11
beings therein.
T hel't' al'(: many IJatflths sm ing {he grut vir{uts of th e prarer call,
Indicating that prayrr ca llel'$ (j.e .. muezzins) will
the longest necks of
all people on the D3Y of Judgment ' . Both the prayrr call (adM,,) and the
immediate pl'llyrr call U¥mah) are collectivr du!ies,' and they are among Ihe
app.arent Islamic ritual$. They
dt'CIffd On men, resident. or t ravdel"S, at
each of the
prayu times. The town wltose PaM the immediate prayer call arl lO be fought, be<;a\l$t Ihey
among the
to abandon them.
rnan ifMtlslamic rituals, $0 it ;1
The basic characteristic of a pmyer ca ller is to be a loud·voiced man. 50
U to be morl convenient to call for prayer informing people at its due lime5.
Hl ha. also 10 be an honest man.
he is considered 10 be an l nlrwted
person, as his call ing for prayer decides ttN, times when people pray, fast, and
break their fasting. A prayrr nller has also 10 be acquainted with the due limes
of prayer 10 call for each prayrr once its time is due.
1bt prayer QllI COnsisll of fitter .. sentences, as it u$td to be made by
Billl during the lifetime of Allah's Mes$tnger (PBUH). 11 is desirable to be
deliberate whil e ,a iling for prayer. without lengthening. Jt i. also desirable

to pause after pronouncing each
of the prayer call, and to face the
qibluh while calling, inserting one's index fingers into one's
In addition,
calli n g for
to turn to the right when saying, "Hayy
it is d ..
i,e. "Come 10 prayer," and to the left when saying, "Hayy 'alalFaillh", i,e. ' Come to suc= ss!" When calling for the Fnjr {Dawn} Prayer, after
saying "Hayy 'alal-FaMtJ " twice, il is desirable for the prayer calb to call
saying, il bSaldtu Khaynm minan -Nawm", i.e. ·Prayer is better than sl eep,"
twice. That was commanded by the Prophet (PBUH),' as dawn is a time
It is impermissible for the prayer caller to add
when people are
any words to the original wording of the prayer call before or after calling,
as this is considered to be a bid' ah (i.e., a matter innovated in religion).
Whatever is pronounced other than the wording of the prayer call approved
of by Allah's
(PBUH) is regarded as a prohibited and an innovated
act in religion. For example, uttering words of tasbtb..' chanting. invoking
Allah. Or conferring Allah's peace and blessings upon the Prophet loudly
before or after calling for prayer, all are nothing but bid' ahs. These acts are
prohibited, and one must express one's disapproval of whoever follows any of
them (while calling for prayer).
It is not right to call for a prayer before ilSdue time, because the prayer call
is to notify people of the u aC! time of prayer, but an early prayer call
confusion instead. Still, il is permissible to call for the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer
earlier than its due time, in order to allow people to get ready for prayer (in
that late hour). But
must be another prayer caU at the exact tim e of the
FajrPrayer, so as to acquaint proplewith the due tim e of prayer and fasting (as
fasting starts from the Fajr),

When listening to the prayer call, it is an act of Ihe
Tradition) to repeat what the prayer caller is saying while calling. Also, when
the prayer caller calls saring, "H"yy
(Come to prayer) and "Hayy
',,/al·Fa/dh" (Come to success), One is to say, "Ld H"wl" w,,/a Quww"/,, iIId
Bil/ah: i.e.
is neither might nOr power but in Allah." Afterwards, when
the prayer caller finishe, calling for prayer, one is to say:


"0 Allah, Lord of this perfect
and of this e5wblislled prayer.
grant M"hammnd the place of AI-Wa,lIah' and the most virtuous
pluce, and raise him to" prai,eworthy
(ill Paradise) tll(1/
you hove promised him (of)."
Following the prayer call. it is prohibited for one to leave the mosque
without having a legal excuse or an intention to return SOOn. In addition. if one


is sitting
callfr itnlling for
nol sland, but
rather be palient until the prayer caller flnilhes calling so as not
10 resemble Sa tan (who nees when hearing the p rayer call). Once a Muslim
to head for the mO.,hears the prayer call, he
worldly affairs. All ah, Euhed be He, says:
-{Such nkhn ",.,/ in h"oua {i.e. mMi/" tJ/ ...-hid. AllGh ha.
onkrtd /0 h' ..../sed " lid fhllt HiJ Name k ",mtioMd (i.e. praised/
Ihnri,,; txJll';IIt H i m wilhill tItnrt ill/m ,"omi", and /m ' O'tni"p

• tflrt/ mm wlKHII lld/Ion- cOlllmera IWf" salt diumctJ frum ffr,

rmrnnbmll.., of Allah and perform .. ...., "I prayer "nd ghlillg ,,'
Zllhlh. ThqIta. a Dayi" whkh ,h, htar'Ulld eyt. will fJtarfullyJ
lurn llooul .••"
(Qu r'ln: An · NiI,: 36·37)

The immediate prayer ca ll is in eleven sentenCes
are uttered quickly.
Thue is no ,,",d 10 be slow in prooouncing Ihe m because lhey are merely
addrnsnl for IhoscuJrn d y present for
II is pmerabk IMllhe pt'rson
who caUs for prayt"f is lhe same one who undrnakes Ihe
call. He should only pffi"orm the b ller by permission of the ilRAm (i.e.. leader
in pnyer) who is
one who Mtermines
of the

1 Abil
( 11241 1. A, ·nrmidhl (189) ( IIJl-Ilj .nd loo Mij.ah (706) (1IJI!9): .....
also Muslim (8.15) 12J29BJ.

1 Sayi ng. "'AJJtIImIu ,,'/,/ ilJloa iIIaIlM (ItriaJ. AsltltaJ" .,,"'" MlI/JpmffJfJJm·IIBs{J,,/JJJr


(twiaJ. "i.t. "/'tUify /lUll
U "0 mQd
ulhe Maserogrt af A/Jalt (11Vi1 Saying. "fIfr.Y1 ·a/q.,s.ldlt" (lWi«j, i.e. "Comu" pra)'tr."
4 Saying. "HaY1 ·"wl.F.:rMb". i.•. ""Co .... to prosp."i\y."
S Muslim (8501iVll lj.
duty: A "'liSioul duty which if suffiCiently fu lfilled by
Muslims, the
... 1-\ will not to< ,.<:c",tnt.hl< for 11 .. On oblig" ion •• nd i r I)«Q ..... on "'" of, ... Sunnoh
for t"'m
7 AI>io N ...... d (500) 11f242j. An ·N.a<.li (632) (1/314 j. A'· Ttrmidhl (198) (11)78) and loo
Mljoh(7 IS) 11/l96J.

S TIISbib: Saying. "SubWI,,·AILlIr" (i.t. CIoIy br 10 Ail:oh).
9 AI· "'1uIt.rIo: 11 is , .... "'..... ar.!!hot moot superior do-grffln r.nd ....
for ooly
..... 01"
and I'rop/Id Mubommod (PRVH ) hopes ' 0 br ,ho,one. So, he
(PRUH) osk<
01101< not"", ,,, m y '0 Allah IOIto.-ing nto p,r:ant him that plaa. AI· l'.l,,'Jah.



Prayer Conditions
The conditions of prayer are those on which the validity of prayer depends
SO long as One is able to fulfil! them. Prayer has certain wnditions if they, Or
any of them, are negl ected. prayer is nullified. Among Ihose conditions are
th e following:

The first condition: To be performed at it. specified times; Allah,
balled be He, says:
"IMeM, prayer has been d=ud upon lh£ beli"IIffS .pedfredlime•.n
(Qur'an: An-Ni,a': 103)
That is I<> say, prayer is dc;::rced to be performed at certain times spe<:ified
by Allah. Glorified be He. Thus, Muslim scholau unifo r mly agree Ihat prayer
has five specified t imes and it is insufficient to perform a prayer before its due
time. The Commander of the Believers, ' Urna, Ibnul -KhauAb (may Allah be

pleased with him) said:

"Prayer MS specified times stipulated by
wliicll prayer is

without observing



is obligatory on a Muslim once its due time begins, for Allah,

Exalted be He. says:

"EIta/tJ;,h prayer

the dedin" at I/,e .un...
(Qur'h: AI-1sT,,'; 78)

Mon:ovcr, Kho/an urlirormly ag •..., <.m the great vi rtues of
prayer at its speciroed times in general according to the verse: in which Allah.
Exah t
": .,50 mu 10 /1111 fllIIl ill gODd..,-

(Qurl n: AI·Baqarah: 148)

Allah. Exalted be He •• Iso says:
HAnd h,,,'en

'''forgivtn,," from your Lord ..."
(Qurh: Alu . Imnln: 133)

Furthermo«, Allah. EJ:altM be He. saY$:

HAnd t""foremost, th e!on moJl. Th ou ,.re Ihe "" t$ ",ough t
AI·W;lqrah: 10·11)

nta. {Io Allah }.-

In addition , it is
in tilt Two SwaS ashd about the deare$! dud in the Sight of Allah. he Tq)lied:


at their splXificd fimts." '

Further, All ah, Ex811ed be He. say"
-Mllinlllin ...i,h (

(Qur'An: AI- Baqarah: 238)
ArKI ptrform ing prayer al ilssp«ifim tim6 1$ a sign of such O K nIjoined
by Allah.
Thl obligatory praycrs aK fiVl onn 10 be performed daily. and each has I
due time of performancc
by Allah j.() th al it suiU the conditions of
His slrvants; that is. times of prayer aK specified in a way that does not hinder
p"'ple from man aging thli. worldly .ffai rs, but helps them manage such
affairs.. [n addition, prayer is a way through which people's sins OK forgivtn ;
the Prophet (PBU H) hasliu"ed praylr to a rivtT In which I Muslim takn a
hath flvt times a day, 110 no Ira« of dirt would be left on him '.
Those $pfCifie<\ times of

"'" as follows:

tM sun
[ - The Zuhr (Noon ) Prayer: [IS specified time begins
pilSin the verse in which AII .h, Exalted be He, says;

Ch.pt« 3, Pny<, Goodit",,,,

prayer at the decline of the ,"n...» (Qur'an: AI -Isra': 78)
Such a
sun is known when the shadow of an object
becomes eastward instead of westward, and this sf'<'cificd time for
Zuh r (Noon)
continues until an object's shadow becomes
approximately the same in length as the object itsdf and ends at this
time, for the Prophet (PBUH) said, as related by

"The time of the Zuhr (Noon) Pmyer is when the sun passes the

meridian and a mans shadow is rhe same (length) as his heigltt:'
It is desirabl e to hasten performi ng the Zuhr Prayer at the beginning
of its specified time unless it is extremely hot, in which case it is
desirable to delay performing it until it is cooler, as the Prophet
(PBUH) said:

"In a very hot weather, delay the Zuhr Prayer until it l>ewmes (a bit)
cooler; because the severity of heat is from the raging of the Hell-Jirt:."'
2- The
(Afternoon) Prayer: It begin s when the lime of the ZuhT
(Noon) Prayer ends, Le. when Ihe shadow of an object is of the Same
as the object itsdf, and continues until the sun sets according
is an act
to the valid of the two juristic opinions in this
SU"Mah (Prophelic Tradition) to hasten performing the ·Alr Prayer at
the beginning of its due time. as it is the Middle
whost: virtues
a", stated by Allah, Exalted ht, when He says:
HM"int"in with care Iht
the mlddlt {i,t. ·"',r]

prayel'S and {In
(Qur'1n: Al- Baqarah: 238)

It is also stated in the Sunnal, that it is

(Afternoon) Prayt:T ' .

3- The Maghrib (Sunset) Praye r: The time of the MaghribPrayer
htgins when th e sun sets; Le. when il completely disappears so that
it Can by no meanS ht st:en,
from a plane hill nor a mountain.
of the .un.et i. known by the coming of the
.. of
night from eastward: the Prophet (PBUH) said:

·When night falls from this side and the sun sets, the" the fa5ting perw" should breuk his fast."
Maghrib Prayer lasts until the red twilight ends,
and il is an act of the Sumwh to hasten performing the Maghrib at
h"dfth rdated and
the beginning of its due time, according to



(i.e . authentic) by At -Tirmidhf on the authority of
Salamah, which states that the Prophet (?BUH) used to perform
the Maghrib (Sonset) Prayer when the sun disappeared from the

horizon' . At-Tirmidhi commented, "Thi. is also the opinion of
most of tile people o! religious knowledgeo/the Prophets Companions

and their followers."
4- The' fsha' (Night) Prayer: The time specified for this praycrbegins
when the time of the Maghrib Prayer (Le. the time during which it is
performed) ends.
the time of the 'Ishd' Prat'" begins when the

red twilight disappears and continues up to half of the night This tim e
is divided hllO two parts; an optional time and an obligatory time. The
optional time continues until the third of the night, and the obligalory
hegins from the thirJ of the night until the =:ond (1"<'al) dawn. It
is desirabl. to dela)" performing the
Prayer unlil Ihe end of
preferred lime for it, which is the third of the night, if possible. Yet. jf
Ihis might cause Jjfficulty to the Muslims. it is Ihen dr$irablc to hasten
performing it at the heginning of ils due lime so as \0 avoid difficully.
On Ihe other hand, il is detestable 10 sleep hefore Ihe .IsM' Prayer so
as not 10 oversle'1' and mi'" it. Moreover, it is detestable for peopl e 10
galher and chat following performing the 'isM'
SO that they
can sle'1' early and get up early. So, a Muslim should sleep following
performing the 'Isha' Prayer so as to he able to get up early and offer
lhhajjud ' and then the Fa)r (Dawn) Prayer actively. as the Prophet
(PBUH) disliked sleeping before th e '/silcl' Prayer and talking after
(performing) it' . Thus. il is detestable to stay up after the '/,ilcl ' unless
one has something useful or urgent 10 do.

S- The FIJjr (Dawn ) Prayer: The time of the Fa)r Prayer hegirn with
the lrue dawn and lasts until sunrise, and it is dr$irahle to hasten
performing it providffi that the rise oflhe tru e dawn is urlain.
These are th e specififfi limes of the five obligatory prayer.; dec",. d by
Allah. so you should,
Muslim reader, perfo rm them at their specitlffi
times without delay, for Allah. Exalted be He. says:
to Ihou

proy, [bul] who are heedless ofth.ir

AI·M;l'Un,4 -5)
That is, woe to tho!'C who perform prayer but delay it and do not perform
il.t its
tim es. Allah. Exalled be He, also sa)"':

"Bul/hue Clime afttr them s.."esw" (i.e./Dler Ipmerlltions] who
negleckd p'Dyer .md pursued des;res; $I) they lire go'''g to med
evU - nup/those who repent..."
(Qur'an: Maryam: 59-60)


The phrase "neglected prayer" in the
verse means Ihat those people
used to
observing prayer at its specified lim...,;. In brief, Allah refers
to tho,e who do no! perform prayer at its due times as "h...,dless" pe<.>ple who
"neglect" prayer, and He stat.. that such prople will be severely tortured in
the Hellfire and IhM "•.. they lire go;ns to mu t evil." If one forgets performing
one of the five ob ligatory prayers or misses it out of ove rsl"",ping, one has 10
perform it once olle remembers or gelS up; the Prophet (PIJUH) said:

"if ""yone forgets a prayer or misses it because of sleeping,
he should perform it when he remembers it; there is .10 other
expiation for it."
Thus, it is obligatory to make up for a missed prayer as soon as possible.
One should byno means wait 10
a missed prayer with the same prayer
on the following day, as mistakenly done by some people. Also, one should not
pul off performing a missed prayer until such time when its
time is
overdue, but one has to perform it imm ediately instead .

The second condition (of prayer): Tocon,eal on e's

performing prayer, i.e. to s<:rttn the parts of the body that have to be covered,
as expo.sing them is offensive or causes one embarrassment; Allah , Exalted be
He, says:
"0 children of Ad.. "" take your adornment {i.e, wear )'(Qur'an: AI-A 'raf: 31)

;ng] a/ every masjid. __

•Masjid" means a pla!; t for prayer or a mosqu e, so the meani ng of the verse
is that people have to wen their dothing that conceall h eir private parts upon
each prayer. Moreover, in the iladill, related and deemed ilasan (good) by At Tirmidhi, the Prophet (PBUH) said,
iWah does nol accept the prayer of a woman who has reached
she wears a veil:"

Ibn . Abdul -Barr said:
agree Oil the invalidity of the prayer of one who
refrai"s fro," cloth;,,¥- and perform, it naked Ihough able to clothe
oneself and conceal ones 'awrah :



So, it is indisputable that it is obligatory to
one's 'awrah during
prayer, in the presence of p'""ple, or
while b<:ing alone according to the
valid opinion implied in the hadilh narrated on the authority of Mu'awiyah
Ibn tlaydah Al-Qushayri who reported,

"AllahsMessenger (PBUH) mid to me, 'Conceal your 'owralt (priYllte
parts) exupt from your wife and from whom your right hands
posseJS (i.t. slave-girls).' I said. '0 Messenger DJAllah! What (should
we do) if Ihe people are assembled together?' He (PBUH) said, 'if it
is witltin your {Xlwer rhar no ont looks at il (i.e. your' awrah), Ihen
let nO ont look at it: 1 then said, '0 Mwenger of AIIIlh! What if one
is alone (i. e. should on e conceal illoo)?' He (PBUH) replied, 'Allah
is more entitled 10 be sltown bashfulness Ihan pe"ple.' ·

(Related by Ab"

and other compilern of HlUlith) "

Allah also refers to exposing
as an act of 'immorality' as the
unbdicvers used to circumambulate th e House (Le. the Ka ' bah) while being
naked, claiming that it was an act of religion; Allah, Exalted be He, says:

KAnd when they co",mit
,m",orality, they MY, 'We foand oar
fathers doing it and Minh hllS ordered aJ ta da it:
'lndu d,
(Qur'ln: AI · A' rM: 28)
Allah does notomer immorality•. .'
In th e light ofthe above, eXpto grave evil and such an act isa mean.' of immorality and debauchery. We
see in Iho"" dissolute societies nowadays that their honor is lost and their
morals are gone due to exposing their 'awrah, which led to th e spread
of vice and the disappea rance of "irtu e among th em. On the other hand,
concealing 'awrah is a means of maintaining virtue, and thi s is why Satan
is keen to tempt people 10 eXpagainst Satan, saying:
"0 children of Adam, Id not St.tan tempt you lIS he removed

yoar parents from Paradise stripping them of their clothing to
show them their p rivate par"•..»
(Qurln: Al-A 'rH: 27)
So, exprn;ing 'nwmh is a satanic scheme in which many communities are
entrapped nowadays, calling it fashion and modernity. As a rt$ult, there have
b«om e 'trip dubs, and wom en have: becon,. so dissolute that they apose
their bodies b<.fore men so shamek&

So. you should know, gentle Muslim ..,,,der, that
to N conceal.-d in a way

'awrtlh (private pa rts) hu

makes such parts unnoticeable; All ah, fualtffi

be He. uYS'
"0 childun of Adllm, We ha"" bestowed U/XIII you dothing to
c"lIu IIl your p';"I'/'
(Qur'An: AI· A· rH: 16)

"".t•.. -

Thus, concealing one's' ,:....,."I! (private paris) with clothing is a necessary,
obligatory act.

A mans '"",.-.:rh is from his TIlIVellO hi. kr>«S, fOf •AIi lbn AM Plib narrated
thl' the Prophd (PBUH) !-aid:

"Do nor unveil your thigh. ami do 110/ look alllle Origl! of the living
or the dead:"
(Related by Abil D1wild and Ihn


h..dlth, lhe Prophc1 (PB UH) said:

'Uw..r )"lilT thigh for"
partl ."



thigh i5 a parI ofhis 'Qwruh (priva te

(Related by Mllik, Ahmad, and At·Tirmidhl who

it a hasan

(good) hadlrh)

In spit., of all th e above. regrenably. wr find that a lot of men nowada)'$
when prac licing certain sports expose th ..ir hodi.., and ,over only thdr oexual
orga.ns.. which ill an rxpl icit contradiction 10 Ihe afonmtntionM religious
texts.. Such mm ha"" 10 bewarr of that, and 10 abide by
teachings of Iheir
rdigion, refraining from whate\'ffcontradict.s !hml.

1\5 for a woman. all her body is considered' awrah. as the Prophet
(PBUH) . aid :
"A wamml is (regarded as) 'awrall (i.e, she /ras 10 be concealed jusl
like' awralr).""

Thil /liIdllh is
VJtJltJ (aurthent ic) by AI_ TIrmidhl. Also. il is narratM
Otllhe authorityof Umm Salamah that she asknI the Prophet (PBU H) saying:

"Can 0 woman perform pmytr while M'euring a di, (0 long upper
gannenl) and Q vdl bul nOI >Wllringa
He (PBUH) rtplied.
"(Yrs,) only
dir ' is I"ng enough to wwr Irer instep....
(Related by AbO m wOd)


AbiJ Dlwild, At -Tirmidh1, and Ibn
narrated on tM authority
of' A'ishah (may AUah be ple""-"
"Allall dpuberty unless slle wears a veil:"
At-Tinnidhl commented:

"The opinion 0] scllolMS istllal if a wOman who ho, reached puberty
performs prayer while a certain pari uf liCr 'awroh is exposed, her
prayer i. deemed invalid:"
In addition to th e aforesaid lJadilhs concerning a woman's 'owrah, Allah,
Exalted be He, says:
": .. And not di.ploylhtirodornmenttxceptthotwhich
appe,,,,, thereof and 10 wrap fa partian ofl their hhlJ-cowN 0""
their chest. find no/ display Ihtir adfJrnment fi.£ . '-'uly] ""cept
IfJ their husoonds•.,"
(Qur'in: An -Nil" 31 )
Allah, halted
He, al,o say_"
"0 PrfJphd, tell your wives and your daughters ,,,,d


of Ihe believer. to bring down over themselves [part} of their
Im'er garmenIJ".w
(Qur'an: Al-Ahtiib: 59)
Moreover, Anah, Exalted
He, "'ys:
",.,And when you ask. [hi. wiv.,.l for 'fJmething, nsk them from
!nhind a partili,m","
(Qur'an: AI - Ah;dib: 53)
For mol"<' illustration, . A'ishah (may Allah

pleased with her) narrated:

"Men would poss by ,jj when we accompanied the Messenger (PBUH)
while we were in Ihe slate of IlJr,)", (0 Slate of ritual
during ]ioj) or ·Umroh). When Illey came by U', every one of us
would lel down her veil overherface, and ,.,hen they had passed on,
we would UnCOver our faces: "
The aforesaid texts a.o; well as
likes in Ule Qur'an and the Sunnah
(Prophetic Traditio,,), which are '0 oumerou" stress that everything in a
woman is consider.d 'awroh that has to be concealed in the presence of men
who al"<' ajnabis (fol"<'ign, marriageable males): nothing of a woman's body is
pennissibl. to exposed in the presence of an aj"abi (a foreign, maniageable
male), whether in prayer or d sewhel"<'. However, if a woman performs prayer
in a place void of aj"nbls, it is permissible for her to uncover her fac., as it is
not I"<'garded as 'owrah during prayer provided there is no ajnobi to se<: her
face, as it is imperm issible in this ca.o; • .


Oupta 3, Pro)"" Condition.

It is re.ily shameful. upsd ting and disappointing th.t many ofth. Muslim
of this modern age have reached a dangerous
of dissoluteness
and debauchery; they compete in expo, ing th eir bodies and wear see·thmugh
clothing and
like, imitating the unbelieving and apostate females. There is
neither might nor power except in Allah, the Mo.t High, and the Most

Allah, Exalted be He, does not only command concealing 'prayer, but He also enjoins Muslims to appear well when going to perform
prayer; Allah,
be He, ,ays;
"0 children of Adom, tab your adarnmtlll {I.t. wear y"ur
do thillg] ill every masjld ..."
(Qur'an: AI -A' rH: 31)
This means that Allah commands His
to wear their best, de.nest,
and most beautiful dothing when heading for mosques to perfonn prayer, as
th,,), will stand in prayer between the Hands of Allah, Blessed and Exalted be
He. Therefore, one has to appear perfectly wdl. physically and spiritually, to
stand before Almighty Allah in prayer.

The third condition (of prayer): To avoid impurity. One of
conditions of the validity of pruyer is the avoidance ofimpurily, and being in
a perfect state of purity, whether rdated

one's body, clothing, Or the plau
in which om stands to perform prayer. Impurity here means a special kind of
that makes it impermissible for on e to perform prayer, such
as the flesh of de.d animals, blood. win e. urine, and Stool. Allah, Exalted be
He. says:
"And your dothing purify."


(Qurln: Al -Muddaththir: 4)

Morrover, the Prophet (PBUH) said:

·Purify yourselves fmm urine, for r1IOS/ of the torture in the grnve
is because of il,"
He (PBUH) also commanded a woman to wash her garment and purify it
from m. nstruation blood before performing prayer in it,"" and enjoined scrubbing
the soles of one's shoes to dean them hefo ... performing prayer wearing them". The
Prophet (PBUH) ordered his Companions to pour a bucket of water Over the
place in the
where a Bedouin had urinated. Such incidents, as well as
many others, are proofs of the ne<:essity of avoiding impurity whi le perfonning
prayer, as prayer is invalid if there is something impure affiicting one's body,
clothing. or the place in which one performs prayer;
ruling is
applicable in caS<' one is carryingsometbing impure.

11: I'IV.YER

Tf one notkes .prayer, one's prayer is
valid so long as one has not been aware of it.
Likewise, if one has bttn aware of impurity and has forgotten to remove it
before pe rforming prayer, one's prayer is
valid according to the sound
juristic opinion in this regard. Howe,·.r, ifimpurity is nOliced during prayer and
one is able to remo"e it without making much mo"e ment during prayer (such
as taking off one's impure shoes or turban), one is to remove it and continue
perform ing prayer. But if unable to remove it, one's prayer is deemed invalid.

Prayer is invalid if performed at a graveyard. except for the Fu n eral Prayer.
for the Prophet (PBUH) said:
"The whole earlh is a mrujid (a place for pmyer) excepl batl/rooms
and graveyards."

This h adilh is related by the Five Comp ilers of Had/lh except
and was
(authentic) by At-Tirmidhl". The Prophet (PBUH)
also said:

"Do no/ face gmves i" pmyer a"d do "0/ si/ on them:
(Related by the Group of Compilers of Hadilh except Al· BukMrl)"
The Prophet (PBUH) said:
"Do nO/lake gmves as masjids (i.e. places for prayer).""

The reason for such prohibition is nOl just to avoid impurity. but for fear
that graves might he taken as sacred places or idols to b<: worshipped by prople.
That is. the prohibition of performing prayer at graveyards is inten ded to avoid
worshipping their dwdlus (the dead) afterwards. Still, the Funeral Prayer is an
excep tion of that ruling, as it is permissible 10 be performed at graves, as done
by th e Prophet (PBUH) ." which makes the Prophetic prohibition restricted to
So, whatever ii related to
ii pr<;>hibited to perform prayer
therein. such as graves them,elves. grlwyards.. etc ,
Shaykhul. IsIAm Ibn Ta}' miyah .aid:
"The Imdms agree that it is impermissible 10 build a mosque over
grave, or 10 bury a dead person in a mosque. if the
has been
built before Ih. grave, rhe grave in, id, has to be levded to the mosque
floor. or to be dise"tombed if il has been recently built. Howe,·,r. if
the mosque has been built afler the grave. we should either pull down
the mosque or pul/ down whate",,, indicates that Ihe place js" grave
mlher than a mosque, for it is prohibired 10 offer pmy"rot a
built on a grave. be il obligato ry Or supererogatory prayer:"


On the other hand.
i5 invalid if performed at a mosque ".. hose
faces a grave, for the Prophet (PBUH) !-aid:

"Do rmt/ace gmvts in prayer:
It is alS
in a toilet, as they art places 5!'C'cified
with impuri ty: since the Lawginr"

for urination and ckfccalion and
prohibits mentioning IlK Name of Allah in a taik!, IlKn, with
it 1$ proh ibited 10 perform prayer in such placu, which ace inhabited by devils.

Moreover, it is proh ibited 10

in bathrooms, WhCR one gets

WlIShtd. bK""", they are places where people's' awm", (private p;o.rn) ue
exposed and where devils live; this prohibition
all the places inside
the bathroom.
In addition, it is imper m issible to pe rform praye r at camd stall s; Shaykhul_

IslAm Taq iyyud-Din Ib n Taym iyah
iJ prohibited /0

pro>," Q/ their stalls (i.t. the cllmeb ')
$Ialls an sheltus
dtvi/s, and i/ is also prohibi/t·d to
pro}'" in a ho/hroom. (15 1/ is a slrdttr
So. such
plau. of evil
n aSl)na /'/y necessitatr avoiding
pm>",' the""in .-"
It Is detestable to perform
Im l m Ibnul·Qayyim uid ,

in a place co ntaini ng pictures or the like;

"Such placeJ a..., mOl'!.' df!Sf!Ning of avoidingptrform ing pmyc the...,i"
Ihan bathro()nIS. The dd u lnbi/ily ofpnjlJ1'ming pmyrr in a balhroom
,Jout offra. that Iht pl/lct is impul't.
il iJ Ihe dcooils'dwd/lng
p/act which is the 50lmd opinion. Yel, the delUlabilityof performing
prayer in a plaa can/aining pictures or Iht lib is intended /0 avoid
polylhdsm, for IlIe poly",,,i!m mml of Ih e previous Millions
rtlaled 10 paintinl' m,d gra ves."


gentle Mu slim reader. you should tah ca re of )'(lur pl1lyer and be
on ils validiry. ""rifying your pu rily before being engagd in il. and
places where performing
is in'·alid . SO as 10 ensure that
is kgally performed in the wayshould nevn- n..gleel any of lhe rulings o n
or d isregard it. for I""P
is Ihe basic pillar of your religion, if perfected, )'(lur rai Ih will be perfeeted u
w<11; if not. your faith will be Imperfecl. May Allah guid e Ui
that which
luds 10 goodness and righteousness!



The fourth condition (of prayer): Facing the qibwh (di"",tion of
prayer). Among the conditio ns of the validity of prayer is facing the the honorabl. Ka 'bah. It is called
because all Musl ims turn their face
towards it during prayer. Al lah, Ex"lted be He, says,

": .. s.> turn you.r flUe (j.t. JOul'$df)

/IJWQ,d A/-Ma'jid AI·lla"'m
(/Ju Sacrw
And whm>W'r you /belu""nj """ him your
/tJu, {i .• . yoursel_} toward it (in prayer) ••.

(Qur'an: AI-Baqarah: 144)
So. wh""ver is so near to th e Ka' bah that he can
it, it is obligatory for
him t o turn his whole body toward it during prayer, as s uch a prrson can face
it well, as he sees it with his eyes. Thus. it is
for .deviate from its direction. On th e other hand, if one is near to tnl: Ka'bah but
there is something
hinders On., from
in thi s case has to try
facing it as much as possible. However, if One is anywhore in the world 50 that
one is away from the Ka'bah, one then can face the direction believed 10 be
that ofth ... Ka 'b.h, and moving a bit leftward or rightward does not matter, as
the ?roph et {PBVH} 5aid:

is qiblah (dir«rioH ofprayer) bflwun Ih, erut and the west:"
This badilh was deemed
(authentic) by At -Tirmidhi, and was narrated
by many of the Prophet's Compan ions. Surely. thi.l1adith
th e qiblah
for Medi na and all the places of the same direction and location. However. th e
q;blal1 for the t alt. for
is between the so uth and
north , and 50 is
th e qiblah for the west.
G enerally. prayer is inval id without facing the qiblah. for Allah. Enltw be
He. sa ys:

", ••And whenveryau {w lievflrs] are, turn yaur/Dca ri.1!. yaurseJW's]
tUWtlrd it /i" prDyer], ..H
(Quran: Al -Baqarah: 144)
"Wh ..ever" her. indicates that the qiblah is to be faced during pray., no
matter where one is; trawl ing by land, sea, air, eastward, westward, etc. Yet, o ne
is not obliged to face the qiblah if
to, such as being tied up or crucified in
a warthatone cannot fa," it. In ,uch acase, one is to
prayer facing th e
available direction even ifit is not the qiblah, as this condition inapplicable
in suc h a case accordi ng to juristic consensus. Similarly, if on . j, engaged in a
fierce war, or one f1ees fro m a flood, fir., a wild an im al, o r an enemy, or one is

Chapter 3: Prayer Condi riom


so ill that one is unable to face the qiblal,. on. in such case, can perform prayer
the qiblah. and onc's prayer
in th e same state o ne is in, even if one is not
will be deemed valid as well . Th is is b""ause the condition is nullified in ca."
of inability; Allah. Exalted be He. says:

"So fear AI/ilk ilS much as you are able..•
(Qur'an: At -Taghabun: 16)

(PBUH) said,

'Ifl command you 10 do something, tl,c" do (of) it Q$ much as you can."
Also, it is stated in a lIadilh related by AI -Bukhid and Muslim that the
Muslims in case of u treme fear used to perform prayer with and without
facing the '1ib/ah".

How to Identify the Qib/ah
There He many ways through which onc can know the qib/ak. among
which are:

Informing: Onc can be informed by a legally

person of the direction of qib/ah, provided that the informer is cenain
abo ut it.

Following the qibJal1 observed by mosques and mil1rabs: One Can
identify the qib/ak by following the qiblah observed by a mosque or a
milirab (prayer nichel, which would show one the right d irection of
the qiblah.
Astronomy: The qil>lah can also be identified by means of stars; Allah.
Exalted be He, says:

"•. ,And I>y the stars /lley li re {lIba JgJJided.»
(Qur'1n: An -Nahl: 16)
The fifth oondition (of pray... ); Intention; to intend pe rf<>rming
an act of worship to draw near to Allah . Exalted be He. The heart is the real
place of inte ntion, so one does not have to d""lare it overtl)" for this is regarded
as an act of innovation in religion that had """er been observed either by the
Prophet (PBUH) or by his Companions . So, one is to intend performing a
certain praye r only with one's heart. not tongu e, in accord ance with the iJpdilh
that states:

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