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Book of Hajj from Summarized Fiqh of shaykh Fawzan




The Obligation of Hajj
Hajj (Pilgrimage) is considered onc of the pillars and major acts of Islam;
Allah. Exalted be He, says:
"... And {duel to Allah from the prople i. a pilgrimogHouse - for whoe..." i ... ble to find thereto" wuy. 8u/ ",h."..."
did'elieves (i.e. refuses) - then indetd, AI/..h i.frwfrom need of
the world.,"
(Qur'an: Alu
That is to say, Allah has made an obligation On Muslims to perform Hajj
to Mecca, as indkated in the word "due" in the aforesaid verse. In the Same
verse, Almighty Allah refers 10 thme who abandon this act of worship as

disbelievers, saying:

"••. But whoever dis""Ucvl'S {i.e. rofu.e./· then ;ndeed, Allah is
f ree/ram need "fIliI world•."
(Qur'1n: Alu '[mran: 97)

v, llAJJ
All this confirms that Ha)) is an obligatory act of worship and whoever
does not believe in it is uniformly agreed to be a disbel iever.
Allah, Exalted be He. commanded Hi, Intimate, Prophet Ibrah lm
(Abraham), saying:

"..•And proclaim to th JUople the Hajj (pilgrimag«/ ...•
(Qurln: AI -liajj: 27)
Moreover, . AI; Ibn Ab" rillib (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated
that the Prophet (PBUH) said:

"Whoever has the p rovision and the riding animal (or
thM can cnrry him 10 the House oj Allah (i.e. the Ka 'bah) and he
does not perjorm Iiaj), rilell it does 110 maller ifhe dies as a few or
a Christian."'
(A marfu' (traceable) iJ.adill, reluted by At ·Ti rmidhi and other compilers
of Hadirh, and d""med ",Ilia (anthentic) al50 by At·"J"irmidhij
The Prophet (PBUH) also said:

"Isklm is based 011 five (pillars): (i) lestifying tirat there jj no deity
bllt AI/ah and that Mub.mmnad is the Messenger oj Allah: (ii)
perjormil1g the (compulsory congregational) prayers dutifully and
perjectly; (W) I'ayi'lg
(iv) observingfasting dur;'Ig th e month
ojRm",l!!.dl1; (v) perjorming Ua)) (i,e. Pilgrimage)jor those who can
afford it."
The phrase "who ((In afford it" implies a condition On whom
Uajj is obligatory; that on e must have enough provisions and means of
transportation to travel to Mecca and return back to one', folk ..
The reason why Allah decreed Hajj is shown in the following ver"",


m"y wUn".. , i.e. aI/end} Mnefiu for Ihemut""s and
mention Ihe N"me of AI/"h 0" k"own [i.e. specific! da)" 0...,'
whal Ht has provided for Ihem of {sacrificial/ animals ...n
{Qur'1n: Al-Hajj : 28}
Allah continues:

nTh." Id tll.", end their untidin".. and fulfill th"'r vow. "nd
/'trform tawtlf' arou"d the Andenl House.n
(Qur'in: AI-Hajj: 29)



words, the reople
the beneficiaries from Ha)), not Allah,
A/fah ufreefrom need "f the w"rids, (Qur'an: Alu 'Imdn: 97) Allah
is by no m. ans in
of the pilgrims, unlike the pilgrims who are in need of
Lord to glorify and worship. [t is th e people who need Allah. SO they come
to Yisit His House seeking His aid to
th . ir
The obligation of J:iI1jj is
last pillar of Islam, aftN prayer,
Zakdh, and fasting. This is because prayer, the basic pillar of relig ion, is
five limes a day, so it has 10 be the first pillar of Islam. Zllkill1 has
10 come n.xt, as it is always combined with praye r in many Qur'anic verSes.
Similarly, fasting follows them , as it is regularly observed, but once a year. On
lhe oth .. hand, Ha)j waS prescribed in Islam in the ninth year A.H. (i.e. after
the Prophet's Hijrtlh (Imm igration to Medina) according to the majority of
scholars. We should also know that the Prophet (PBUH) performed Hajj only
once in his [ifetime and it is called the Farewell Ha)) which was in the tenth
year A.H .• ' but (PBUH) rerformed 'Umrah (Lesser Pilgrimage) four times'
in his li fetime.
The main purpose of [jajj and 'Umrah is to worship Allah in the places he
commanded us to worship Him therein. Allah's Messenger (PSUH) said:
·Pebble throwing IlHd performi'lg sa 'y (i.e. going between
Ilnd A{·Marwah) are made (i_r_decrred) for mrntioning Allah."'

Hajj (Pilgrimage) is I,lniform ly agreed upon by Mus[im scholars as an
obligatory aCl of worship, and ooe of the pillars of Islam. It is prescribed for
all Muslims; they are to perform Haj) once in their lifetime provided
afford it. and it is a collective duty on a ll Muslims at a set time every year.
oth er hand, any performance of l1ajj other thao the obligatory on e is
considered a voluntary act of worship.
Concerning' Umrnh, many scholars regard it as a religious dUly, for when
in jihdd (fighting
the Prophet (PSUH) Was asked if women had to
in the Caus e of All ah), he (PBUH) replied:
'Yej, there is a jiMd prescribed for them in which there is no
fighting, namely Ha)j and

Accord;ngly, if 'Umrah is authenticated to be a religious duty for women,
a man said to
then the more it is so for men , To illustrate,
(PBUH), "My father is an old man who Can neither perform [jlljj nor' Umrah

V: /iAj)

nor n'e n travel" Upon that, tht Prophet (PBUH) said le him:

'Perform li.<>jj

'Ummh 011

of your

(Related by the Fi," Compile",of Hadith and
by At · Tirmidhl)


According to the aoove, it is obligatory for a Muslim 10 p"rform Hajj and
. Urnrah once in a lifetime; th e Prophet (PBUH) said:

'Perform Jiajj only once, and whOt'ver performs it more than thOl,
it is a voluntary act for him."'
Muslim (Muslims Authentic Book ofHadith), il is narrated on the
authority of Ab" HlIrayrah thal the Prophtt (PBUH) $.id:

·0 people! Allah has made JJpjj obligatory for you, so puform Hajj."

VpOH Ihat, a man asked, "(Is it to be performed) every year?" The
Prophet (PBUH) answered, "If I were to say 'Yes: it would become
obligatory (for you to perform it every year) and you would not be
able to do it:'
A Mmlim, male Or fe male, must p" rforrn tht obligatory Hajj as SOOn as
one is able 10, and whoever def.", il without a legal excuse is deemed sinful,
for t he Prophet (PBUH) said:

"Make lume to (perform the obligation of) Hajj,for the o"e of you
does nol know what mighl ajj!ict him:"
(Related by Imam Ahmad)
There are five co ndit ions that must be f uIflU ed as prcrcq uisites of performing
11ajj: 10 be a Musl im, to be sane, to have reached puberty, to be freslavd , and 10 be able tn perform it. Those who meet thest prerequisites art'
obliged to perform Hojj immtdiately,
Performing 11ajj and 'U,nroh for a little boy is accepted as a supererogatory
aCI ()f worship, as indicated in the l1adilh narrated by Ibn 'Abbils:

i\ woman lifted up a boy to (,how him 10) the Prophet and said,
'Would rhis (hild) b. credited willl performing Ha)F' He (PBUH)
replied, 'Yes, and you will hl1ve a reward: ""
(Related by Im1m Muslim)

Scholars unifonnly agree that if a boy p-erforms iJajj
puberty, it is sli1l obligatory for him to do it OnCe again when he is an adult and
has the ability to do it. That is to say, iJaj), which is p-erformed in childhood,
does not spare a p-erson the obligatory iJajj when reaching puberty, and so is
the case of ·Umrtlh.
for a child under the age of discretion. his guardian can assume ibram (a
state of ritual consecration during iJajj or 'Umrah) and declare the intention
iJajj on his behalf. Th e guardian should stop the child from doinS
whatevu acts which are forbidden during iJajj, and should p-erform jawa!
(circumambulating the Ka'bah) and ,(J'y (going between
and AI Marwah) on behalf of the child while carrying him. The guardian is also to
accompany the child to Mount ' Arafah, Muzdalifah, and Min1, throwing the
p-ebbles on his behalf.

However, if th e child reaches the age of discretion, he can assum e
ibrllm and declare the intention to perform iJ")) after seeking the
permission of his guardian. The child is 10 perform whatever rites of
Hil)) he can do, and his guardian performs whateve r the child is unable
to do on his behalf, such as throwing the pebbles or the like. If the child
is unable to walk, his guardian can carry him performing jilwdj, sa 'y, etc.
Still, the child must perform whatever he can perform himself, whether
or not (he is) at the age of discretion, and it is impermissible to perform
any of the rites of Hai) on his behalf as long as the child is able to perform
it himself. Also, he should avoid whatever acts forbidden to be done by
adults during Hajj.
one capable of performingHajj is that who can afford it both physically
the one able to endure Ih e journey and have enough money
and financially,
to go and return. One has also to be able 10 supply one's children and whomever
one financially supports, leaving them enough money until one returns. In
addition. one has to
debts and fulfill all one's financial duties
before heading for liajj, provided the journey to Hajj is
for the pilgrim's
life and
So, if a person can afford Hajj financially but not physically, such as being
may assign
disabled by old age oran incurable chronic disease, one in this
someone to perform Hajj on his behalf. Ibn . AbMs (may Allah be pleased
with him) narrated:

"A womall fTfJm (11,e lriw of) Khalh 'am SQid, "0 Messellger of
Allah! The obligalion of Hajj tlljoillM by Allah Iuu !>«ome due
011 my farher tllld he iJ old alld weak, and he call1lOf si! firm on Ihe
mOllnl (la Ira vel); may 1
Hajj 011 his Whalp.' The Prophd
(PBUH) ""plied, 'Y"-,)'Vu may.'· n
Hajj on hi s own

on h(ohalf of another must have
first, according to the following hlldith

'Abbb (may Allah

by Tbn

with him):

"The PrDphtt (PBUH) heard a man saying talbiyah in Ihis way,
'Hut 1 nm nl Your
0 Allah, on behalf of Shubrum"h:
He (Ihe Prophet) asked, 'HaW!)'Vu performed Hnjj on )'Ou, OWn
behnlp.' The mnll said, 'No.' The Prophel (PBUH) said. 'Perform
Hnj} 011 your own bmnlf firsl, then ptrform il all ,"h"lf of
Shubrum"h: - "
(Related through a good chain oft .... nsminers and;s

(.utIle-IItic) by AI-Bayha'1i)
The one who performs Hajj on behalf of 3nothcr should be gi",n e nough
money to cover the costs of the journey back al'd forth . However, he should
and should neWr use it as a
by no means get (us in return for this
muns of earning money. H. who
Hajj on behalf of another should
be doing this with the int.n tion of helping I Muslim brother or sister and also
viliting Ihe House of Allah (the """bah) and the ncrt'd pr«incls. Thu .. one's
perf"onnance of Hnjj on behalf of another should be intended for the Sake of
Allah, root for any worldly purpose. On Ihe other h and, if Hajj is performed in
thl$ Wily in mum for money, thm it will be invalid.

I At· Tirmidht (R 11) 13/176).

2I"""f Cir
K.' bob.

) AI · Bukhhl
18/134) and Mu.Jim (:lOl5) 1(1460). SH .1.., MLUlim (29041) 14140-1 1.
4 AJ·ll ukhh1 (178) 1317571 ond Mu,.rim (:lOll) 14/459).
5 AbiI Dtwtld (l!WI) [U.J.071 _rHI At· Tirmidhl (902) [JIl+6j.
6 Ahrnld (2S198) 1611661. An· Nun (2617) 11I121) ond loo Mijoh (291U) 11I41}). Se<
.100 AJ· Bnkhlorl

Chap«r 1: lh< ObIi&, rion of lJ.ajj (l'il 5ri mag<)
7 AM D1w ild (1810) [21276 ]. At-Tirmidhi (930) [31269]. An-N ...1'1 (2620) [311 17]. and
(2906) 1)14151.
a Abil Diwiid (1721 ) [2lnn An -No;.!L (2619) [311 17 ] . nd lbn Mij . h (2836) [31406].
9 Mu.Urn (.3244) [,/10, ).
10 AbmaJ (2869) [11314-3151.
I1 Mu,lirn(13)6).
12 '\1 _BukhArl (1513)
J . nd Mu,l im (3238) )SilO I ).
13 AM
(1811 ) 121276] ond Ibn Mlj.h (2903) 1314141 .


Women's Hajj and Rulings on
Performing It on Someone's Behalf
l:ifljj is pl"C'scribed for every Muslim, male or female, yet there are some
additional conditions for f:J.ajj Ihal are obligatory for women. A wOman must
be accompanied by a maUr..." ' during/:iajj. I! is impermissible in religion for
a woman to travel for l:iajj or anythingdse without a mauram, for the
(PBUH) said:

i\. woman should not trove! except with a maJ-.lTllm, and ,.,,, man

may visit her except in the preswCl of a mabram:'
(Related by Imlm Ahmad with an authentic chain of transmitters)

I! is aloo narrated in the Two Sahihs that a man said to the Prophet (PBUH):

'0 Messenger of Allah! My wife is proceeding/or Hajj and I have
enlisted in the army for such·and-such a

Thereupon, Ihe

Prophet (PBUH) said 1o him, "&1, and perfonn liajj with your wife.·l



MOrein the Stlhih Book, (Authentic Book< of Hadirh) and
other hooks of Haditl, that the Prophet (PB UH) said:
"It is impermissible far a woman to travel for ont day and night
except witl, a ",aamm:'
All the aforesaid hadiths state that it is prohibited for a woman to travel
without a mahram, whether she is traveling for Hajj or anything clSl:, so as to
avoid corruption or Sl:duction on her part or others when she is abroad alone,

im;\m Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) !aid:
"A mahram is a prerequi,ile, rhu" il is not obligatory for a woman

who has no mail ram
it on her behalJ.


perform Haj), or to make Someom perform

The man",m of a woman should bt her nu.,band (lr any person
unmarriageable to her forever, either by kinship such as a brother, a father, an
uncle, and a nephew, or by being unmarriageab le to her for a legal reamn such
as a foster brolher, or by affinity, such as a stepfather or a stepson. To illustrate,
il is narroted in Sahih Muslim (Muslims A"th.n/ic Hook of Hadith) that the
Prophet (PBUH) Sil id:
"It is not lawful fo r a wmMan believing in Allah /a undertake
a journey extending OVer three days or more unless she is in tile
brotlier, or any
company of her!ather. her SO". her husband,
oIlier mahram:
A woman must cover the expen>es of her m"hro", during the journey of
Hu)). Therefore, a woman is not obliged (0 perform Hajj until she has enough
money to COver her own and her m"lI rom', expenses to and fro.
If a woman find, a mtlilrom yet she delays perfnrmingHtljj, out of nrgHgence,
until she loses him while she still possesse, the finaocial capability. she has to
mahmm . However. if she has lost hope in finding
wait until ,he finds
another mallram. she is to find so meone to perform Ii.ajj on her behalf.
If someone is obliged to perform Hajj but he died before doing it. an
amount of money, enough to COver the Ha)j expenSl:'. should bt taken out
of the capital of his inheritance and given to someone to perform it on his
bthalf. Al·Bukhari rdated on the authority of Ibn 'AbbA, (may Allah be
pleased with him) that:

"A WOm"n said to tile Prophet, '0 Messenger of Allah! My mother
had vowed /0 perform Hay b"t sIIe died before performing il. May

I perform liajj on her behaift' He replied, 'Yes, perform liajj on her
behalf Had there been a debt on your mother. would you haw paid
it or not? (If ye,) pay Allahs debt as He has more right to fu!fill
His debt (j.e. the obligation of Hojj): "


aforesaid badill' proves that anyone who dies befo,",
obligation of Hajj, then his SOn or guard ian should do it on hi. behalf or they
should find someone to do il on his behalf. provided that the expenses oflhe
l:J.ajj journey is taken from his inheritance. Moreover, the guardian should also
that the debt of a
pay the debts of the dead person; schola rs uniformly
man should be taken OUl of his mon ey. and sO should be any other f,nancial
(such as tbe expen"'s of performing Hajj for him and the like).
According to another hadith, the I'rophet (PBUH) enjoined a woman
whose si ster vowed 10
Ha)) and died before fu lfilling it, to perform
Hojj on her behalf . Similarly, il was related in the Sunan of Ad -Daraqulni that
father died before performing the obligation
he (PBUH) enjoined a man
of liajj. to p erform il on behalf of his father ' , That i. 10 say, th.re is not much
between the obligation of a legislative origin and that which
vows tlpon himself; bolh have to be fulfilled, whelher il is enjoin ed by Ih e
de<:ea..,d in his/her will to perform it on his/her behalf or nOI.
Ha)) on behalf of anolher, the latter b«omes
no longer obliged 10 perform it. h is as if he has performed it
this case, the one performing Hajj for another is called a Udeputy pilgrim,»
Upon p"rforming
on behalf of anot her, a deputy pilgrim
the intention of performing Hajj on that p"rso n's behalf. and he is to chant
talbiyah also on his beha lf; it is sum,ie"t 10 make Ihe intenlion 10 perform
the rites of Hajj on
behalf wit hout mentioning his name. However,
if the deputy pilgrim forgets Ihe name of the person on behalf of whom he is
performing lioj), he can declare
inlenlion and recite talbiyhah on behalf
who ha. given him money to p" rform Ha» on his behalf, wilhoul
mentioning his name.
h is recommended for a Muslim 10 perform Hajj on behalf of his parents
whether Ibey are dead or alive but lacking the abilily 10 do it; a Muslim is
to .,.,rform il on his mother's behalf flrSI, as Ihe molher is worthier of one',

1 Manram, A wom,n" husband or .ny u"m.rriage.bl. kin "fh,,..
2 Al-Bukh1ri (1862) .nd (1086, 1087), .nd Mwlim ( 1)41) and (1338).
3 Al_Bukh1r1 (3006) [61 172 ] .nd Mwlim (3259) [S/llll.
4 Al· BukhM (1088) [2/7J(l[.nd Mu. lim (3255) [51111 ],

5 Mu>!im (3257) 151112).
6 Al·BukhM (1852) ]4/84)
(6699) [Ilm 1].

8 Ad. D1''''lu!nl (25S6) 1112291_

V: li;l}J


Virtues of Hajj and Its
Hajj has a magnificent vinue and a great reward. At-Tirmidhl narrated a
marf(j ' {tmceable} aad/rh, which he deemed lab.ia (authentic), on the au thority
of' Abdun.,h [bp Mas'iJd stating that the Proph..t (PBUH) said:

·Perfon" Hajj and 'Umrah (UsseT Pilgrimage) making them follow
each olller,for they remove poverty and sins as a blacksmiths bellows
remo",", impurities from iron, gcld, ""d
And an accepted
p"jornlance c/Hajj gets no reWl>rd I",s than Paradise."'
it waS narrated in Sab.ib.AI-BukMri (AI-BukMrfs Authentic Book
of I:ituiirh) that' A:ishah (the Prophet's wif e) asked the Prophet (PBUH) saying:

"We see that jiMd' ;s the best of (good) deeds, ,(} should "'" no/ (as
women) participate in jihlld?" He (PBUH) replied, "The best and the
most lUpe,ior jihdd fo r women is the auepted perjDrmaMce (}jHajr'



It is important to point out that an accepted performance ofIiojj is that which
is perfethat an accepted Iiojj is that which is worthy of king accepted by Allah.

on e intends to perform tlajj, one should repent of all one. ,ins,
and free oneself from k ing unjust to others. by returning rights to those to
whom they are due. One should abo return all tru,ts, loans and debts in one's
psetting out for tlojj. Moreover, nne should
ask the forgiveness of those whom one has wronged, and should also write
one's will
departure. In ca,"" (lnc could not settle such obligations kfore
traveling for
one should authori'e someone to do them on On es khalf.
Oo e. as well, should ,""cure on es ch ildren and those one supports with enough
money until one's return. Furthermore. one must make 'ure that the money
on e u,""s for the expemes of Iiajj is lawfully obtained, and should also lake
enollgh provisions and money for the trip. so that one might not need the
assistance of anyone there. provided that one's provisions k lawfully obtained;
Allah, Exalted be He. says:
you who

believed, 3pend from the good I";"g$ wit kit y
have tarned .••»

(Q ur'an: Al-Baqarah: 267)

In addition to the ahove, a pilgrim should try to find a pious companion to
morally support him during the journey and while performing the rite, of
a righteous mate to guide him when h. i, wrong and to remind him when he
fOlgets. On the other hand, a pilgrim should .. new his intention, determining
that hi s performance of tlajj is only for theSakeof Allah. A pi lg rim should also
treat people with kindness and good mann ers, avoid quarreling or annoying
others, and safeguard his tongue against insult, backbiting, and w hatevcr does
nOt please Allah and His Messenger.
1 At·TIrmidh! (1:109) 13/175 ], An·N.dl (26JO) jJIlU). and tbn Mlj.h ( 2887) 131407)

.nd (2888) 131407).
2 JihJd: Fighting in tll< Cau>< of AII.h
) At·Bukhl.rt (1861) 14N31_


Miqats' of Hajj
times for lilljj. and certain siles for en tering




The Fixed Times or Hajj
The tima specified for liajj arc mentioned by Allah, Exalted be He, when
He s.ap:
is {during}

months, JO

'flU made Hajj

ob/lgM",." "po" him""
[by tnUrlng the stalt of Ibr4m}.
lite", i. r ID k for him) n" 1U".,j relatio,,' and " " disobMitn u
"Upllling ""ring HQjj..... (QUI'!n: AI-Baqarah: L9 7)

,,,uI ""

These months
ShawmJ, DhIll·Qa· dab. and the first ten days of DM1l:Iijjah. Themort, anyon e woo enleTS the stale of ibnlm in tilesth e intentioll to perform Hajj must a'fflid
words and contradict the purity of that act of worship, and should also be preoccupied
with good deffis and abide by piety.

The Sites for Enteri ng the State of lhrlim
They all' th e specific places which a pilgrim must not
and head
for Mecca without entering the state of ibnlm (a slate of ritual consecration
during Ha» Or • Umrtlh) , declaring hi. intention to perform tilljj. Thes<: places
were pointed out by the Prophtt (PBUH) as menlioroed in the narration of
. AbdulUh Ibn "Abbls who Roid:

(PBVH) spWfifil Dhlll'liu/Ilrfph (as a site Jarihrdm) for Iht proplt of Medina, AJ-JubfaJr fo r lire
of MhShdm.' Qanwl·Mal1lJzil Jor Ihe peuplt of Ntljd, And Ya/am/am for
the petlple of Ytmt tt. Ulying, 'Th q art' (sitts for ibrpeople and jor any Olhtr prople wming tl/rough th em (i.e. those
silts) with lire i"ten /I"on ofperformillg HaJj and ' Umrah (Lesst r
Pilgri/llQgt). Ami
is living withi" thest boundarits ron
assume ibrhe
fro m ,
M uCll
iar6m from M«Ul: ,.,

Im1m Muslim rriafed on the authority o f Ilbir that


(PBUH) said,

•... The mllhllU' of the prople a/Iraq is DMI.. - ·Irq.··
behind se tting .Iuch "'iqdts for 1:Jajj Is as fo llows:
House of
Allah (fhe Ka'bah), bei ng so
and honored by Allah. i, fortified by
Allah through Mecn and protected by the Sanctuary o f Mecca which, in !Urn,
is glorified by
mlq6ts beyor>d which
ca n not pus withoUl being in
the slate of ib:nfm as a sign of honor and glorification to the House of Allah.
fa rthest of thew siles for enlering lardm is Dhul·tlulayfah. which
is specified for Ihe people 0( Medina; the distance between this place and
Mecca is about a ten ·day journey (on cam els o r the like). As {or the pe<:>pl e
of Ash·Sham. Egypt and MQI"OC(O,
site for Ib.mm is Al · Juhfah. which is
this pl .. ce i, about
Jo urney far from
some say il is even further. Yalamlam. which ;, two-night journey far from
Mecn, is the sile for lardm for
coming from Yemen. The site for ib •.!m
(a -"ate of ritual cOll5«ratioo during Hajj or 'Ummlr) I"or the ptopk o f Najd
is Qamul-Maohil - now known as As-Sayl _ which is two- n ight journey far
from Mecca. As
the p«Jple of Iraq and
of the East, the site for
i/vlfm is
Irq, wh ich is two- night journey far from MKCI. These are Ih e
sites for en,,-ring Ib"'m for the ptople of the aforesaid places and ththrnugh them with
intention of perfonning 1:Jnjj or . Urnrah. Regarding

who dwell in places that are nnnr to Mecca than
lar.l", for Hujj or ' U",mh from thei r places. A$ memiontd
above. the residem. of Mecca. however. enter litr.l", for l:iajj from their own
nsidnlce. i.e. from place, at M...:ca itself; they do not
to get ou t of Me<:co
lar.lrn from there. However. when it comes to ·Ummh. they h.'1: to
get out of M«GI to the nearest precincts wherefrom they can a!.Sume ibr"",.
As for those who do not pass by ony of the ofore$llid sites o f illmm o n th.ir
way to pnfonn H"jj.
have to
jbr.lm once they know they are at
the neartSt
opposite 10 any o f llIese sitl'S.
rtlalM that' Umar
Ibnul·Kha111b (may Allah be pleased with him) said to the people ofl .... q;

"Mak. your for Ill."", a place siluuled oppOSilt IQit (I.t. opposile
10 Qa rMul·MuMo:\zil. II,e plllct of Ibr"'" for lil t people of Najd) on
)'Our U5ual way,"
Similarly. those who travel by plane should assume iar"m oroce they know
that they are (n .... lld to a ny o f the sites for ibmm du ring the flight Ho,"""r.
tller should be prepared before getting o n bN.rd the plane by ritual bathing
l nd dnning. Afterwards. whenever the plane reaches a place that is panUeI to
any of the aforesaid .ites fo r iardm. they .hould declare the in tention of iar4rn
and chant lalblY"h in the plane. It i. impermissible for one to delay iaMm until
the plan e lands in the airport of Jeddah as some pilgr ims mistakenly do. as
both Jeddah and Bohrah are not Sites for Ib.nlm except for Iheir own people or
anyone who intends to perform l:i"jj or 'U",mh while being there. Otherwise.
it is
to assume Illmm from Jcddah. IS it will be regarded as
n.cgIigcroce of one of the rites of Hajj. namely
ianlm from one of
its decreed sites. a nd one in this
will be obligtd to slaughter a gerifleial
animal in upiation.
Here i! a common mistake made by many people IInd it has to be poinlM
o ut; some people mistakenly believe that they have to take a ritual bath before
ISIluming lurdm. arguing thnt thi s i. not possible while being in a plane and
$0 on. Therefore. it is important to point out that IIlMm means declaring the
inlention to
the riles o f Hajj or ·Ummh. avoid ing the lets prohibited
to bedone while being in a Slate of ihrdm as much as possible. As for washing.
wearing pnfumes. and the like. they are acts of the s"nllah which a Muslim an
do befo.., gdting on bN.rd the plane. and
IlIrdm without observing
them i! permissible. So. a plane pusenger an make
intention to assume
iard rn and recite lalbiY"h while being in his/her scat once the plane is over any
o f the known site. (or lard," o r jult bero.., it. Thi. i, kn own by asking the pilot.

v, JJltJJ

of Iht
or trying to find it out independently through
and estimallon, Thus,
would have done
utmo$t in this
r<:gard. However, if onc does not cart, it will be cons ider<:d an inexcusable
negligence and indiffer<:nce regarding one of Iht prerequisiles of Hajj and
'U"'rah, namdy ib:rol ... , which may im'alidate them.

As for !host who Pi" by tlleir site of ib:rdm wi thoul
it, they have
to murn 10 that sile and assume ;/lnl..., for it is a manageable obligation Ihat
should nnTI" be
So. if onc does not go back and assume i/inlm from
IM right sire -as some mistakenly do from Jeddth and the likt . ont in this case
will "" obligM to slaught er a sacrificial animal in expiation, i.e. to slaughter a
sheep or 10 gel one-seventh of a camel Or on e·seventh of a row and divide il
the residents of the Sanct uary of Mecca, provided one (Ihe pilgrim who
sacrifices) should eat nothing from i1.

In a nutshell, Muslims should take an interest in their religious matters w
as 10 perform all ac ls of WOfship properly and perfectly as legally enjoined
Among Ih ..... religlous mitten is IM ibnlm for H..jj and 'Umrah; it has 10 be
assumed from Ihe sit es for ib:r.lm specified by tile P rophel (PBUH). Therefon,
a Muslim should be aware orlh ..... siles and never pa ss them wilhoul ""ing in
a slate of ib.r.lm.

1 M/q4Is of lJajj: lh< fiud rimn '" Hajj and thr oil" for ent";nl thr .u>le of ih",,,,.
..po.. covm"ll Syria. Ldooonon, Iordan. and hlnti"..
) Al-Bukhltl ( 1524) [lJ4I41 and MllSIim (2796) I4/l24 [.
MuIwIl: The
ttlt ,Iote of i/Inlm.
5 MllSIim (2802)(4/)261.
6 AI-lluWr1 (1511) Il/4!101.

2 oUh·SMm; The Levanl;




How to Assume Ihram

of ritual cQnse<:r... ion during l;bJjj or . Umrnh) is th e first of
IM riles of lJiJjj, and it muns the intention to lilar! Ihe riles. 11 i.
(which is derivro from Ihe Arabic word "nllrd,",' Lt. forbidden or prohibilnl)
bKause a pilgrim by assuming ihrot/n prohibits himself from all IlK acts that
permissible before bei ng in this Stale, such as snual int"Teom...
perfume, dipping o ne'l fingernails. having o nc's hair cut, or wearing
certain kinds of clothes. To illu strate. Shaykhul· bl l m Ibn Taymiyah (may
Alllh haY", mercy on him) $.lid,

ItUI" is not

in " flatr

of iludm olKe he illtrndk with hi.

hfQrI, 10 prrform Htljj. for Im ;n/en/ wlt is almuJy i" his Mart since he
has JrjI his h",,,dawn (hrwwds C1I'duds tlmmgh whic/r M b«c»Ms in Il sra/t of Ibnlm,"'
Before assuming iardm, it is desirable to gel prepared for such a state by
some duds prior to this great act of worship:

v, lJ;1}}
First: It is desirable to have a bath - washing the whole body - before ihnlm>
Prophet (PBUH) used to do SO before assuming ihram'. This is
bathing is a bener and more compreMnsiw way of cleaning
and ridding oneself of
undesired smd l. MOl"eOV<'r, h,wing a bath
upon assuming illrnm is also required for a ,mman in a Slale of postnatal
bleedingor menstruation> for the Prophet (PIlUH) commanded Asmi!" Bint
. Umays. who WilS in a Slate of confinement> to take a bath before assuming
ilzra",> as related by Imlrn Muslim ' . He (PIIUH) also commanded . kishah
(his wife) 10 do the same though she WilS in her menstrual (l(riod '. The
purpose of this is to dean the body. rem""" unthe impurity of menstruation or confinement
Second: Before assuming ibra"" it is desirable to clean oneself perfl'dly
wdJ, removing th e hair which is legally enjoined !O be remm·ed. such as
trimming the moustache. shal'ing the hair of the armpits. and shaving
the pubic hair.
should do this before assuming ill,drt, becauSl: it
will not be allowed when being in a state of ibrd",. Yd, removing such
kinds of hair is not one of the prerequisites for ihrJm. In other words.
if one
not need to trim or shave any oflhem , one is nOI obliged
to do SO; it is permissible to do so if

Third: It is desirable for a pilgrim to perfume oneself using whatever
is available, such as musk. incense, rose-water,
. A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) reported:

or the like, for

"[ used /0 sunt Allah's Mcssrnger (PBUH) whenever he wanted /0
Qssume ibrdm Qnd (also) on finishing
before circumambulating
the House of Allah (i.e. before
Shaykhul-IsIAm Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy On him) said:

"If a pilgrim wants

10 wear some perfume before (l.5suming ibrdm il
will befine. YeI. doing so is '10/ obligatory,jor the Prophet (PBUH) did
50 but he did "0/ e"jol" the people to do the same" Fourth: It is desirable for male pilgrims before
to takeoff a ll tailored
or Sl:wn clothes and wear something "nstitched; the Proph et (PBUH)
used to take off his tailored or sewo clothes and wear something
unstitched - after taking a bath - to assume ilzram '. So, a pilgrim should
wear a
unstitched loincloth wrapped round th e lower part
of th e body, wrapping another sheet of white, clean, unstitched doth
round the up?"r parI. Ye!, it is permissible to replace Ihe white color

with any other color provided it is traditionally
men. The idta
behind this is to withdraw on..df from luxury and to have the feeling
of asubmissive servant of Allah through wearing such humbledothing.
Morem",r, such clothing always reminds one oft>eing in a state of ib.nlm.
and thus one keeps alert and avoids committi ng the acts prohibited
during ib.rnm. The clothing of iarnm reminds one of death, the shroud
of dead people, and the Day of Resurrection, and so On and so forth. In
addition. taking off sewn clothes before intending to assume ihrdm is
an act of the SUllllah, but it is obligatory ait« assuming ibnlm. So, if a
pilgrim intends assuming ib.mm while ,till wearing his ordinary sewn
dothes. his ihrdm is considered valid, bUI he is then obliged to take such
doth .. off and put on the dothes of ihnlm.
By fulfilling the aforesaid prerequisites, a pilgrim is thus prep.red to be in
a state of ihrJm, but such acts Ihemsdvrs a", not called i/lrdm as many people
mistakenly believe; ib.mm meanS the intention of starting performing Ihe rites
of Hajj or ·Umrah. Accordingly. a pilgrim is not conside",d in a slate of j/lrdm
once he takes off his sewn clothes and wears the afo",menlioned clothing of
ihrdm without having the intention of starting performing the rites of l;1ajj or
. Ummh. This is
th e Prophet (PBUH) said:

"Indeed, (the correClrless and rewards of) deeds depend upon
intentions .. .

As for praying befo", assuming ib.rnm, the more valid opinion is that there
is not a
kind of prayer to be offered before ihrdm. However, if the time
of ihrdm coincides with an obligatory prayN, th en a pilgrim is to perform
the obligatory prayer first then assume i/Jrdm. To illustrate, it was narrated
that the Prophet (PBUH) assumed i/Jr(an obligatory) prayer '. Moreover. Anas reponed that the Prophet (PHUH)
performed the Zuhr (Noon) Prayer then rode his mount beast,' and when
he came to the hill of AI-Bard.' he raised his voice with talbyiah. The great
Muslim ",holar Ibnul-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him), said:

was ....r reported that th e Prophet (PBUH) specified performing
two mk 'ahs (uniIJ ojpmyer) forassumjng ihmm; ....hat wasreported
is that he performed th e obligmory Zuhr (Noon) Pmyer before it:"

11 is important here to draw the attention of pilgrims to a very important
matter; many pilgrims mistakenly believe Ihat they have to assum e ibrllm from
the mosque in Ihe site for ibrnm for them . As a result, many pilgrims, mal.. and
females, hurry to such mosques, overcrowding them, to start assuming jhrdm

from there. They may also change their clothes the..., and wear the clothing of
ib.rJm, while in fact nl! such issues are, by all means, baseless. Rather, Muslims
are just repmper sile for ihrJm for them, not
specifica lly from
mosques the...,in . They can assume ib.rarn anywhere in
.uch sites., and there is no specific place in a certain site from which a pilgrim;s
obliged to assume ib.mm . That is 10 "'y, pilgrims can assume 'hrd", wherever is
appropriate for them in their site for ib.ram. and this makes it easier for them and
their fellows. This also spares pilgrims being exposed before one another or bei ng
jammed in certain places. We would like to point out that those mosques in the
sites for 'hrdm were not
during the lilrtime of the Prophet (PBUH), and
that they were not built f", the purpose of assuming ib.rJm . However, they were
built for the inhabitants of and around such places to perform pTa)":'r therein .
This is very important 10 bear in mind, and may Allah grant uS all SuCcess.
A pilgrim is free to choose either the three kinds of ib.mm, namely


ifrdd, and qiran:

Tamattu ' : It means that a pilgrim assumes ib.!'Jm for performing 'Ummh
during the months of Hajj, and then, after performing 'Ummh, a pilgrim
assumes i!Jram for perfonni ng Hajj in the
/frlid: It means that a pilgrim
ihram for perform ing Ha)) only,
ke.ping in the state of ib.rJ", until he finishes perfo rming th. rite. of lJ.ajj.
Qirlin: It meanS that a pilgrim aSSumes ihrdm for performingboth 'Umrall
andHajj together, orto aSSume 'b.f/lm for ' Umrah then, before starting the lawllf
(circumambulating the Ka'bah) for 'Umralt, a pilgrim intends performing
both 'Umrah and Hajj . ither from Ihe miqM or hefore the lawllfof 'Ummh.ln
Ihis case, a pilgrim is to perfonn both jawdf and sa 'y (going between A,s;·,Safl
and AI-Marwah) for both.
It is important to point out that a pilgrim who intends tamatlu' or
is obliged to slaughter a sacrindal animal if he is not a residenl of Mecca.
should also know that the best ohhe aforesaid thre<: ways of ib.rrlm is tamatlu'
for various legal proofs.
Once a pilgrim assumes ib.rdm in any ofth. aforesaid thru ways, he is to
chant talbiyah, saying:

"Here I am at Your serv;u, 0 Allah, here I am at Your rervice. Here I mn
at Your service, You have no partller, Ilere I am at Your service. Veril)\
all praise, blessiNgs, and dominion are Yourl. Y(lU hm'e no partner."
A pilgrim should raise his \'oice wilh talbi)"'h, saying il

1 See; Majm" .ul-Paldw.l 12t>1n. 10111.
2 AI-Tirmidh! (830) 131192].
3 Muolim (2900) 1413711 ond (2941) 1414041
4 Mu,lim (2929) 141 3921.
5 AI · Buxhlrt (1539) 1)149'1 J and Mrnlim (2818) [413371
6 See: MajrnO ' ul-fuldwd [2(1107) .
7 At· TirmidhJ (830) 131 1931 .
8 At· Tirmidhi (819) [31181] ond An -Nw ' (2753) 1311761.
D.lw(td (1774) 12/25>11 and An ·Nod'l (2661 ) 13/1361_
10 See: ZM"I-Ma'dd.

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