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Marketing vocabulary



MARKETINGVOCABULARY
FromtheGlossaryofMarketingManagement(2002)ofPhillipKotler.
EdittedbyTuongKinhQuoc–CMVC–13/03/2007
TomyDadwithloveonhisbirthday.
Lookfor…A
Lookfor…B
Lookfor…C
Lookfor…D
Lookfor…E
Lookfor…F
Lookfor…G
Lookfor…H
Lookfor…I
Lookfor…J
Lookfor…K
Lookfor…L
Lookfor…M
Lookfor…N
Lookfor…O

Lookfor…P
Lookfor…Q
Lookfor…R
Lookfor…S
Lookfor…T
Lookfor…U
Lookfor…V
Lookfor…W
Lookfor…A
*Accessibility.
*Actionability.
*Actualproduct.
*Adaptedmarketingmix.


*AdministeredVMS.
*Adoption.
*Adoptionprocess.
*Advertising.
*Advertisingobjective.
*Advertisingspecialties.
*Affordablemethod.
*Ageandlife-cyclesegmentation.
*Agent.
*Allowance.
*Alternativeevaluation.
*Annualplan.
*Approach.
*Atmospheres.
*Attitude.
*Augmentedproduct.
*Availablemarket.
Lookfor…B
*Balancesheet.
*Bartertransaction.
*Basing-pointpricing.
*Behavioralsegmentation.
*Belief.
*Benchmarking.
*Benefitsegmentation.


*Brand.
*Brandequity.
*Brandextension.
*Brandimage.
*Break-evenpricing(targetprofitpricing).
*Broker.
*Businessanalysis.


*Businessbuyingprocess.
*Businessmarket.
*Businessportfolio.
*Buyer.
*Buyer-readinessstages.
*Buyers.
*Buyingcentre.
*By-products.
*By-productpricing.
Lookfor…C
*Capitalitems.
*Captive-productpricing.
*Cash-and-carryretailers.
*Cash-and-carrywholesalers.
*Cashcows.
*Cashdiscount.
*Cashrefund,offers(rebates).
*Cataloguemarketing.
*Catalogueshowroom.
*Categorykillers.
*Causalresearch.
*Channelconflict.
*Channellevel.
*Closed-endquestions.
*Closing.
*Co-branding.
*Cognitivedissonance.
*Commercialonlineservices.
*Commercialization.
*Companyandindividualbrandstrategy.
*Comparisonadvertising(knockingcopy).
*Competitionssweepstakes,lotteries,games.


*Competitiveadvantage.
*Competitive-paritymethod.
*Competitivestrategies.
*Competitoranalysis.
*Competitor-centeredcompany.
*Complexbuyingbehavior.
*Concentratedmarketing.
*Concepttesting.
*Consumerbuyingbehavior.
*Consumermarket.
*Consumer-orientedmarketing.
*Consumerproduct.
*Consumerpromotion.
*Consumerrelationship-buildingpromotions.
*Consumerism.
*ContinuityScheduling.
*Contractmanufacturing.
*ContractualVMS.
*Convenienceproduct.
*Conveniencestore.
*Conventionaldistributionchannel.
*Copytesting.
*Coreproduct.
*Corestrategy.
*Comersump.
*Corporatebrandstrategy.
*Corporatelicensing.
*CorporateVMS.
*CorporateWebsite.
*Costofgoodssold.
*Cost-pluspricing.
*Countertrade.


*Coupons.
*Criticalsuccessfactors.
*Culturalempathy.
*Culturalenvironment.
*Culturaluniversalscultural.
*Culture.
*Currentmarketingsituation.
*Customer-centeredcompany.
*Customerdatabase.
*Customerdeliveredvalue.
*Customerlifetimevalue.
*Customersalesforcestructure.
*Customersatisfaction.
*Customervalue.
*Customervalueanalyses.
*Customervaluedeliverysystem.
*Cycle.
Lookfor…D
*Decider.
*Deciders.
*Decision-and-rewardsystem.
*Decision-makingunit(DMU).
*Declinestage.
*Deficientproducts.
*Demandcurve.
*Demands.
*Demarketing.
*Demographicsegmentation.
*Demography.
*Departmentstore.
*Deriveddemand.
*Descriptiveresearch.


*Desirableproducts.
*Differentialadvantage.
*Differentiatedmarketing.
*Directinvestment.
*Direct-mailmarketing.
*Directmarketing.
*Direct-marketingchannel.
*Direct-responsetelevisionmarketing(DRTV).
*Discount.
*Discountstore.
*Dissonance-reducingbuyingbehavior.
*Distributioncentre.
*Distributionchannel(marketingchannel).
*Diversification.
*Dogs.
*Door-to-doorretailing.
*Durableproduct.
Lookfor…E
*Economicenvironment.
*Electroniccommerce.
*Embargo.
*Emotionalappeals.
*Emotionalsellingproposition(ESP).
*Engel’slaws.
*Enlightenedmarketing.
*Environmentalmanagementperspective.
*Environmentalism.
*Events.
*Exchange.
*Exchangecontrols.
*Exclusivedistribution.
*Experiencecurve(learningcurve).


*Experimentalresearch.
*Exploratoryresearch.
*Exportdepartment.
*Exporting.
*Externalaudit.
Lookfor…F
*Fads.
*Familylifecycle.
*Fashion.
*FinancialIntermediaries.
*Fixedcosts.
*FOB-originpricing.
*Focusgroup.
*Follow-up.
*Forecasting.
*Fragmentedindustry.
*Franchise.
*Franchiseorganization.
*Freight-absorptionpricing.
*Frequency.
*Fullserviceretailers.
*Fullservicewholesalers.
*Functionaldiscount(tradediscount).
Lookfor…G
*Gatekeepers.
*Gendersegmentation.
*Generalneeddescription.
*Geodemographics.
*Geographicsegmentation.
*Geographicalpricing.
*Globalfirm.
*Globalindustry.


*Globalmarketing.
*Globalorganization.
*Going-ratepricing.
*Governmentmarket.
*Grossmargin.
*Grosssales.
*Growth-sharematrix
*Growthstage.
Lookfor…H
*Habitualbuyingbehavior.
*Handlingobjections.
*Horizontalmarketingsystems.
*Humanneed.
*Humanwant.
*Hybridmarketingchannels.
*Hypermarkets.
Lookfor…I
*Ideageneration.
*Ideascreening.
*Implausiblepositioning.
*Incomesegmentation.
*Individualmarketing.
*Industrialproduct.
*Industry.
*Inelasticdemand.
*Influencer.
*Informationsearch.
*Informativeadvertising.
*Initiator.
*Innovation.
*Innovativemarketing.
*Institutionalmarket.


*Integrateddirectmarketing.
*Integratedlogisticsmanagement.
*Integratedmarketingcommunications.
*Intensivedistribution.
*Interactivemarketing.
*Intermediaries.
*Internalaudit.
*Internalmarketing.
*Internalrecordsinformation.
*Internationaldivision.
*Internationalmarket.
*Internet(theNet).
*Introductionstage.
*Invention.
Lookfor…J
*Jointownership.
*Jointventuring.
Lookfor…K
*Keyaccountmanagers.
Lookfor…L
*Leadingindicators.
*Learning.
*Licensedbrand.
*Licensing.
*Life-cyclesegmentation.
*Lifestyle.
*Limited-servicewholesalers.
*Lineextension.
Long-rangeplan.
Lookfor…M
*Macroenvironment.
*Managementcontracting.


*Manufacturer’sbrand(nationalbrand).
*Market.
*Market-build-upmethod.
*Market-centeredcompany.
*Marketchallenger.
*Marketdevelopment.
*Market-factorindexmethod.
*Marketfollower.
*Marketleader.
*Marketnicher.
*Marketpenetration.
*Market-penetrationpricing.
*Marketpositioning.
*Marketsegment.
*Marketsegmentation.
*MarketSkimmingpricing.
*Markettargeting.
*Marketing.
*Marketingaudit.
*Marketingbudget.
*Marketingconcept.
*Marketingcontrol.
*Marketingdatabase.
*Marketingenvironment.
*Marketingimplementation.
*Marketinginformationsystem(MIS).
*Marketingintelligence.
*Marketingintermediaries.
*Marketingmanagement.
*Marketingmix.
*Marketingprocess.
*Marketingresearch.


*Marketingservicesagencies.
*Marketingstrategy.
*Marketingstrategystatement.
*MarketingWebsite.
*Mark-up,mark–down.
*Masscustomization.
*Massmarketing.
*Materialsandparts.
*Maturitystage.
*Measurability.
*Media.
*Mediaimpact.
*Mediavehicles.
*Membershipgroups.
*Merchantwholesalers.
*Messagesource.
*Microenvironment.
*Micromarketing.
*Missionstatement.
*Modifiedrebuy.
*Monetarytransaction.
*Monopolisticcompetition.
*Moralappeals.
*Motivedrive.
*Multi-brandstrategy.
*Multipleniching.
Lookfor…N
*Naturalenvironment.
*Needrecognition.
*Netprofit.
*Newproduct.
*New-productdevelopment.


*Newtask.
*Nichemarketing.
*Non-durableproduct.
*Non-personalcommunicationchannels.
*Non-tarifftradebarriers.
Lookfor…O
*Objective-and-taskmethod.
*Observationalresearch.
*Occasionsegmentation.
*Oligopolisticcompetition.
*Onlineadvertising.
*Onlinemarketing.
*Open-endquestions.
*Operatingcontrol.
*Operatingstatement(profit-and-lossstatementorincomestatement).
*Opinionleaders.
*Optional-productpricing.
*Order-routinespecification.
*Overpositioning.
Lookfor…P
*Packaging.
*Packagingconcept.
*Patronagerewards.
*Penetratedmarket.
*Percentage-of-salesmethod.
*Perception.
*Perceptualmaps.
*Performancereview.
*Personalcommunicationchannels.
*Personalinfluence.
*Personalselling.
*Personality.


*Persuasiveadvertising.
*Physicaldistribution(marketinglogistics).
*Physicaldistributionfirms.
*Place.
*Plannedobsolescence.
*Pleasingproducts.
*Point-of-purchase(POP)promotions.
*Politicalenvironment.
*Portfolioanalysis.
*Post-purchasebehavior.
*Potentialmarket.
*Pre-approach.
*Premiums.
*Presentation.
*Price.
*Priceelasticity.
*Pricepacks.
*Primarydata.
*Primarydemand.
*Privatebrand(middlemen,distributororstorebrand).
*Problemrecognition.
*Product.
*Productadaptation.
*Product-binfilepricing.
*Productconcept.
*Productdevelopment.
*Productidea.
*Productimage.
*Productinnovationcharter(PIC).
*Productinvention.
*Productlifecycle(PLC).
*Productline.


*Productlinefilling.
*Productlinepricing.
*Productlinestretching.
*Productmix(productassortment).
*Productposition.
*Productquality.
*Productsalesforcestructure.
*Productspecification.
*Product-supportservices.
*Productionconcept.
*Promotion.
*Promotionmix.
*Promotionalallowance.
*Promotionalpricing.
*Proposalsolicitation.
*Prospecting.
*Psychographicsegmentation.
*Psychographics.
*Psychologicalpricing.
*Public.
*Publicrelations.
*Publicity.
*Pullstrategy.
*Pulsing.
*Purecompetition.
*Puremonopoly.
*Pushstrategy.
Lookfor…Q
*Qualifiedavailablemarket.
*Qualitativeresearch.
*Quality.
*Quantitativeresearch.


*Quantitydiscount.
*Quantitypremium.
*Questionmarks.
*Quota.
Lookfor…R
*Rangebrandingstrategy.
*Rationalappeals.
*Reach
*Referencegroups.
*Referenceprices.
*Relationshipmarketing.
*Reminderadvertising.
*Resellers.
*Retailerco-operatives.
*Retailers.
*Retailing.
*Retailingaccordion.
*Role.
Lookfor…S
*Salesforcemanagement.
*Salesforcepromotion.
*Salespromotion.
*Salesquotes.
*Salesperson.
*Salutaryproducts.
*Sample.
*Samples.
*Scaled-bidpricing.
*Seasonaldiscount.
*Seasonally.
*Secondarydata.
*Segmentmarketing.


*Segmentedpricing.
*Selectiveattention.
*Selectivedemand.
*Selectivedistortion.
*Selectivedistribution.
*Selectiveretention.
*Self-expect.
*Self-serviceretailers.
*Sellingconcept.
*Sellingprocess.
*Sense-of-infusionmarketing.
*Sequentialproductdevelopment.
*Servedmarket(targetmarket).
*Service.
*Serviceinseparability.
*Serviceintangibility.
*Serviceperishability.
*Servicevariability.
*Services.
*Shoppingproduct.
*Simultaneousproductdevelopment.
*Single-sourcedatasystems.
*Sodaclasses.
*Societalmarketing.
*Societalmarketingconcept.
*Specialtyproduct.
*Specialtystore.
*Specializedindustry.
*Stalemateindustry.
*Standardizedmarketingmix.
*Stars.
*Statisticaldemandanalysis.


*Status.
*Straightproductextension.
*Straightrebuy.
*Strapline.
*Strategicbusiness-planninggrid.
*Strategicbusinessunit(SBU).
*Strategiccontrol.
*Strategicfocus.
*Strategicgroup.
*Strategicplan.
*Strategicplanning.
*Style.
*Subculture.
*Substantiality.
*Supermarkets.
*Superstore.
*Suppliersearch.
*Supplierselection.
*Suppliers.
*Suppliesandservices.
*Surveyresearch.
*SWOTanalysis.
*Systemsbuying.
Lookfor…T
*Targetcosting.
*Targetmarket.
*Targetmarketing.
*Targetprofitpricing.SeeBreak-evenpricing.
*Tariff.
*Teamselling.
*Technologiesenvironment.
*Telemarketing.


*Televisionmarketing.
*Territorialsalesforcestructure.
*Testmarketing.
*Time-seriesanalysis.
*Totalcosts.
*Totalcustomercost.
*Totalcustomervalue.
*Totalmarketdemand.
*Totalqualitymanagement(TQM).
*Trade-inallowance.
*Trade(orretailer)promotion.
*Transaction.
*Trend.
*Two-partpricing.
Lookfor…U
*Underpositioning.
*Undifferentiatedmarketing.
*Uniformdeliveredpricing.
*Uniquesellingproposition(USP).
*Unsoughtproduct.
*User.
*Users.
Lookfor…V
*Valuepricing.
*Valueanalysis.
*Value-basedpricing.
*Valuechain.
*Variablecosts.
*Variety-seekingbuyingbehavior.
*Varietystore.
*Volumeindustry.
Lookfor…W


*Warehouseclub(wholesaleclub,membershipwarehouse).
*Webcasting(pushprogramming).
*Wheelofretailing.
*Wholesaler.
*Word-of-mouthinfluence.
*Workloadapproach.
*WorldWideWeb(WWWortheWeb).
Lookfor…Z
*Zonepricing.


*Accessibility.
Thedegreetowhichamarketsegmentcanbereachedandserved.
*Actionability.
Thedegreetowhicheffectiveprogramscanbedesignedforattractingandservinga
givenmarketsegment.
*Actualproduct.
A product’s parts, quality level, features, design, brand name, packaging and other
attributesthatcombinetodelivercoreproductbenefits.
*Adaptedmarketingmix.
Aninternationalmarketingstrategyforadjustingthemarketing-mixelementstoeach
international target market, hearing more casts but hoping for a larger market share and
return.
*AdministeredVMS.
A vertical marketing system that coordinates successive stages of production and
distribution,notthroughcommonownershiporcontractuallies,butthroughthesizeand
powerofoneoftheparties.
*Adoption.
Thedecisionbyanindividualtobecomearegularuseroftheproduct.
*Adoptionprocess.
The mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an
innovationtofinaladoption.
*Advertising.
Anypaidformofnonpersonalpresentationandpromotionofideas,goodsorservices
byanidentifiedsponsor.
*Advertisingobjective.
A specific communication task to be accomplished with a specific target audience
duringaspecificperiodoftime.
*Advertisingspecialties.
Usefularticlesimprintedwithanadvertiser’sname,givenasgiftstoconsumers.
*Affordablemethod.
Settingthepromotionbudgetatthelevelmanagementthinksthecompanycanafford.
*Ageandlife-cyclesegmentation.
Dividingamarketintodifferentageandlife-cyclegroups.
*Agent.
A wholesaler who represents buyers or sellers on a relatively permanent basis,


performsonlyafewfunctions,anddoesnottaketidetogoods.
*Allowance.
(1) Reduction in price on damaged goods or (2) promotional money paid by
manufacturerstoretailersinreturnforanagreementtofeaturethemanufacturer’sproduct
insomeway.
*Alternativeevaluation.
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer uses information lo
evaluatealternativebrandsinthechoiceset.
*Annualplan.
A short-term plan that describes the company’s current situation , its objectives, the
strategy,actionprogramandbudgetsfortheyearaheadandcontrols.
*Approach.
Thestepinthesellingprocessinwhichthesalespersonmeetsandgreetsthebuyerto
gettherelationshipofftoagoodstart.
*Atmospheres.
Designed environments that create or reinforce the buyer’s leanings towards
consumptionofaproduct.
*Attitude.
Aperson’sconsistentlyfavorableorunfavorableevaluations,feelingsandtendencies
towardsanobjectoridea.
*Augmentedproduct.
Additionalconsumerservicesandbenefitsbuiltaroundthecoreandactualproducts.
*Availablemarket.
Thesetofconsumerswhohaveinterest,incomeandaccesstoaparticularproductor
service.
*Balancesheet.
Afinancialstatementthatshowsassets,liabilitiesandworthofacompanyatagiven
time.
*Bartertransaction.
A marketing transaction in which goods or services are traded for other goods or
services.
*Basing-pointpricing.
A geographic pricing strategy in which the seller designates some city as a basing
point and charges all customers the freight cost from that city to the customer location,
regardlessofthecityfromwhichthegoodsareactuallyshipped.
*Behavioralsegmentation.


Dividingnmarketintogroupsbasedonconsumerknowledge,attitude,useorresponse
toaproduct.
*Belief.
Adescriptivethoughtthatapersonholdsaboutsomething
*Benchmarking.
The process of comparing the company’s products and processes to those of
competitors or leading firms in other industries to find ways to improve quality and
performance.
*Benefitsegmentation.
Dividingthemarketintogroupsaccordingtothedifferentbenefitthatconsumerssock
fromtheproduct
*Brand.
Aname,term,sign,symbolordesign,oracombinationofthese,intendedtoidentify
thegoodsorservicesofonesellerorgroupofsellersandtodifferentiatethemfromthose
ofcompetitors.
*Brandequity.
The value of a brand, based on the extent to which it has high brand loyalty, name
awareness,perceivedquality,strongbrandassociations,andotherassetssuchaspatents,
trademarksandchannelrelationships.
*Brandextension.
Usingasuccessfulbrandnametolaunchanewormodifiedproductinanewcategory.
*Brandimage.
Thesetofbeliefsthatconsumersholdaboutaparticularbrand.
*Break-evenpricing(targetprofitpricing).
Gettingpricetobreakevenonthecostsofmakingaidmarketinga‘product’orsetting
pricetomakeatargetprofit.
*Broker.
Awholesalerwhodoesnottaketidetogoodsandwhosefunctionistobringbuyers
andsellerstogetherandassistinnegotiation.
*Businessanalysis.
A review of the sales, costs and profit projections for a new product to find out
whetherthesefactorssatisfythecompany’sobjectives.
*Businessbuyingprocess.
The decision making process of which business buyers establish the need for
purchased products and services, and identify, evaluate and choose among alternative
brandsandsuppliers.


*Businessmarket.
All the organizations that buy goods and services to use in the production of other
productsandservices,orforthepurposeofresellingorrentingthemtoothersataprofit.
*Businessportfolio.
Thecollectionofbusinessesandproductsthatmakeupthecompany.
*Buyer.
Thepersonwhomakesanactualpurchase.
*Buyer-readinessstages.
Thestagesthatconsumersnormallypassthroughontheirwaytopurchase,including
awareness,knowledge,liking,preference,convictionandpurchase.
*Buyers.
Peopleinanorganization’sbuyingcentrewithformalauthoritytoselectthesupplier
andarrangetermsofpurchase.
*Buyingcentre.
Alltheindividualsandunitsthatparticipateinthebusinessbuying-decisionprocess.
*By-products.
Itemsproducedasaresultofthemainfactoryprocess,suchaswasteandrejectitems.
*By-productpricing.
Setting a price for by-products in order to make the main product’s price more
competitive.
*Capitalitems.
Industrial goods built partly enter the finished product, including installations and
accessoryequipment.
*Captive-productpricing.
Setting a price for products that must be used along with a main product, such as
bladesforarazorandfilmforacamera.
*Cash-and-carryretailers.
Large, ‘no- frills’ stores that sell an extensive assortment of goods, and are noted
particularlyfortheirbulkdiscounts.
*Cash-and-carrywholesalers.
Wholesalers that stock a limited line of fast-moving goods - such as groceries, toys,
householdgoods,clothes,electricalsuppliesandbuildingmaterials-andthatselltosmall
retailersandindustrialfirmsforcashandnormallydonotprovideadeliveryservice
*Cashcows.
Low-growth,high-sharebusinessesorproducts;establishedandsuccessfulunitsthat


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