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Unit 91. Relative clauses (1)

A

Hy xem mỏu cíu:

The woman who lives next door is a doctor.


relative clauses
Ngừủi phệ nự sờng phẻng bón cnh l mợt bắc sậ.
Mốnh ẵồ l mợt thnh phòn cễa cíu. Mốnh ẵồ quan hố (relative clause) cho chềng ta biọt ré hùn
ngừủi hay võt m ngừủi ni muờn ni ti:
The woman who lives next door ... ('who lives next door' cho chềng ta biọt cệ thổ hùn ngừủi

phệ nự no ẵang ẵừục ni ti ngừủi phệ nự sờng ũ bón cnh)
People who live in London ... ('who live in London' cho ta biọt ré hùn nhm ngừủi no ẵang

ẵừục ni ti nhựng ngừủi sờng ũ London)
Ta dểng who trong cắc mốnh ẵồ quan hố khi ni vồ ngừủi (khộng phi vồ võt), who khi ẵ thay cho
he/she/they:

the women she lives next door is a doctor.




The women who lives next door is the doctor.

Ngừủi sờng ũ phẻng bón cnh l bắc sỵ.
we know a lot of people they live in London




We know a lot of people who live in London.

Chềng tội quen biọt nhiồu ngừủi sờng ũ Luín ẵộn.
An architect is someone who designs buildings.

Kiọn trềc sừ l ngừủi thiọt kọ cắc cộng trẫnh xíy dỳng.
What was the name of the man who lent you the money?

Ngừủi ẵn ộng ẵ cho bn mừụn tiồn tón l gẫ võy?
Anyone who wants to do the exam must enter before next Friday.

Ai muờn dỳ thi phi ẵìng kỷ trừc thử sắu tuòn ti.
Bn cếng c thổ dểng that thay vẫ dểng who:
The man that lives next door is very friendly.

Ngừủi ẵn ộng sờng ũ phẻng bón cnh rịt thín thiốn.
Nhừng ẵội khi bn phi dểng who (khộng dểng that) ẵổ chấ ngừủi xem UNIT 94.

B

Khi chềng ta ni vồ ẵở võt, ta dểng that hoĩc l which (khộng dểng who) trong mốnh ẵồ quan hố:
where is the cheese? it was in the fridge.



Where is the cheese that /which was in the fridge?
Miọng phộ mắt ũ ẵíu? n ũ trong tễ lnh.


Miọng phộmắt trong tễ lnh ẵíu rởi?
I dont like stories that have unhappy endings. (hay ...stories which have...)

Tội khộng thẩch nhựng cíu chuyốn c kọt thềc buởn.
Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines. (hay...a company which

makes...)
Barbara lm viốc cho mợt cộng ty sn xuịt mắy giĩt.
The machine that broke down has now been repaired. (hay...the machine which broke

down...)
Cắi mắy hẽng giủ ẵíy ẵ ẵừục sứa.
That thừủng ẵừục dểng hùn which. Nhừng ẵội khi bn phi dểng which (khộng dểng that) xem
UNIT 94.

C

Bn khộng thổ dểng what trong nhựng cíu nhừ dừi ẵíy:

Everything that happened was my fault. (khộng dểng 'Everything what happened...')

Mẹi viốc ẵ xy ra l do lới cễa tội.
What = 'the thing (s) that':
What happened was my fault. (= the thing that happened)

Nhựng gẫ ẵ xy ra l do lới cễa tội.

D

Hy nh rng trong cắc mốnh ẵồ quan hố chềng ta dểng who/that/which thay cho he/she/they/it.
Ta ni:

Do you know the woman who lives next door? (khộng dểng '...the woman she kives next door')

Anh c quen ngừủi phệ nự sờng phẻng bón cnh khộng?


Unit 92. Relative clauses (2)

A

Hy xem li cắc vẩ dệ cễa UNIT 91:

The woman who lives next door is a doctor. (hay the woman that lives...)

The woman lives next door.
who (= the woman) l chễ ngự
Ngừủi phệ nự sờng ũ phẻng bón cnh l bắc sậ.
Where is the cheese that was in the fridge? (hay ...the cheese which was...)

the cheese was in the fridge.
that (= the cheese) l chễ ngự
Miọng phộ mắt ũ trong tễ lnh ẵíu rởi?
Bn phi dểng who/that/which khi n l chễ tữ (subject) cễa mốnh ẵồ quan hố. Bn khộng thổ ni
The woman lives next door is a doctor hoĩc Where is the cheese was in the fridge?

B

Nhiồu khi who/that/which l tềc tữ (object) cễa ẵợng tữ. Vẩ dệ:

The woman who I wanted to see was away on holiday.

I wanted to see the woman
who (= the woman) l tềc tữ. I l chễ tữ
Ngừủi phệ nự m tội muờn gĩp ẵ ẵi nghấ rởi.
Have you found the keys that you lost?

You lost the keys
that (= the keys) l tềc tữ. you l chễ tữ
Bn ẵ tẫm thịy chểm chẫa kha m bn ẵ ẵắnh mịt chừa?
Khi who/that/which l tềc tữ, bn c thổ lừục bẽ n. Vẫ thọ bn c thổ ni:
The woman I wanted to see was away. hay The woman who I wanted to see...

Ngừủi phệ nự m tội muờn gĩp ẵ ẵi vỉng.
Have you found the keys you lost? hay ...the keys that you lost?

Bn ẵ tẫm thịy chểm chẫa kha bn ẵắnh mịt chừa ?
The dress Ann bought doesnt fit her very well. hay The dress that Ann bought...

Chiọc ắo Ann ẵ mua khộng vữa vi cộ ịy lỉm.
Is there anything I can do? hay ... anything that I can do?

C viốc gẫ tội c thổ lm khộng?
Lừu ỷ rng ta ni:
the keys you lost (khộng ni 'the keys you lost them')
the dress Ann bought (khộng ni 'bought it')


C

Chề ỷ vè trẩ cễa cắc gii tữ (in/at/with v.v...) trong cắc mốnh ẵồ quan hố:

do you know the woman? Tom is talking to her

Do you know the woman (who/that) Tom is talking to?
Anh c biọt ngừủi phệ nự m Tom ẵang cểng ni chuyốn khộng ?
the bed I slept in it last night wasnt very comfortable

The bed (that/which) I slept in last night wasnt very comfortable.
Chiọc giừủng tội nm ngễ tời qua khộng ẵừục thoi mắi lỉm.
Are these the keys (that/which) you were looking for?

#íy c phi l chểm chẫa kha m bn ẵ tẫm khộng ?
The woman (who/that) he fell in love with left him after a few weeks.

Ngừủi phệ nự m anh ta yóu ẵ bẽ anh ta sau vi tuòn.
The man (who/that) I was sitting next to on the plane talked all the time.

Ngừủi ẵn ộng m tội ngởi kọ bón trón mắy bay ni chuyốn lión tệc.
Trong tịt c cắc vẩ dệ ny, bn c thổ lừục bẽ who/that/which.
Lừu ỷ rng chềng ta ni:
the books you were looking for (khộng ni 'the books you were looking for them')
nhựng quyổn sắch bn ẵang tẫm

D

Bn khộng thổ dểng what trong cắc cíu giờng nhừ sau ẵíy:

Everything (that) they said was true. (khộng dểng 'Everything what they said...')

Mẹi ẵiồu hẹ ni ẵồu ẵềng c.
I gave her all the money (that) I had. (khộng dểng '...all the money what I had')

Tội ẵ ẵừa cộ ịy tịt c sờ tiồn m tội c.
What = the thing(s) that:
Did you hear what they said? (= the things that they said)

Bn c nghe ẵừục hẹ ẵ ni gẫ khộng?


Unit 93. Relative clauses (3)

A

Whose

Ta dÓng whose trong mènh ½å quan hè thay cho his/her/their:
we saw some people — their car had broken down.
 We saw some people whose car had broken down.
ChÒng téi thÞy mÞy ngõñi bÌ hÏng xe.
Whose chÔ yäu dÓng vði ngõñi:
 A widow is a woman whose husband is dead. (her husband is dead)

Mît quÀ phÖ l¿ mît ngõñi phÖ nù cÍ chëng bÌ chät.
 What’s the name of the man whose car you borrowed? (you borrowed his car)

Ngõñi ½¿n éng m¿ bÂn mõôn xe tãn l¿ gÉ?
 A few days ago I met someone whose brother I went to school with. (I went to school with

his/her brother)
V¿i ng¿y trõðc ½Ýy téi gÜp mît ngõñi cÍ em trai t÷ng hÑc chung vði téi.
HÁy so s¾nh whose v¿ who:
 I met a man who knows you. (he knows you)

Téi ½Á gÜp mît ngõñi ½¿n éng cÍ biät anh.
 I met a man whose sister knows you (his sister knows you)

Téi gÜp mît ngõñi ½¿n éng cÍ ngõñi em g¾i biät anh.

B

Whom

Whom cÍ thæ thay cho who khi nÍ l¿ tÒc t÷ cÔa ½îng t÷ trong mènh ½å quan hè (giêng nhõ c¾c cÝu
trong UNIT 92B):
 The woman whom I wanted to see was away on holiday. (I wanted to see her)

Ngõñi phÖ nù m¿ téi muên gÜp ½Á ½i nghÊ hÄ.
BÂn cÕng cÍ thæ dÓng whom vði mît giði t÷ (to whom/from whom v.v...):
 The woman with whom he fell in love left him after a few weeks. (he fell in love with her) .

Cé g¾i m¿ anh ta yãu ½Á bÏ anh ta sau v¿i tußn.
Nhõng ta khéng thõñng dÓng whom. Trong khàu ngù tiäng Anh, ta thõñng dÓng who hoÜc that, hay
khéng dÓng cÀ hai (xem UNIT 92). VÉ thä chÒng ta thõñng nÍi:
 The man I saw... hoÜc The man who/that I saw... (Ngõñi ½¿n éng téi ½Á thÞy...)
 The woman he fell in love with... hoÜc The woman who/that he fell in love with (Ngõñi phÖ

nù m¿ anh ta yãu...)
Vå whom, hÁy xem c¾c UNIT 94, UNIT 95.


C

Where

Bn c thổ dểng where trong cắc mốnh ẵồ quan hố ẵổ ni ti mợt ẵèa ẵiổm:
the hotel we stayed there wasnt very clean.
The hotel where we stayed wasnt very clean.
Khắch sn nùi chềng tội ẵ ũ khộng sch sặ lỉm.
I recenttly went back to the town where I was born. (hay ...the town I was born in. hoĩc the

town that I was born in.)
Mi ẵíy tội c trũ vồ thè trịn nùi m tội ẵ sinh ra.
I would like to live in a country where there is plenty of sunshine.

Tội thẩch sờng ũ vểng quó nùi c nhiồu ắnh nỉng mĩt trủi.

D

Ta ni: the day/the year/the time (.v.v...) something happens hoĩc that something happens:

Do you still remember the day (that) we first met?

Bn cẻn nh ngy chềng mẫnh gĩp nhau lòn ẵòu tión khộng?
The last time (that) I saw her, she looked very well.

Lòn cuời cểng m tội thịy cộ ịy, cộ ịy trộng rịt khẽe.
I havent seen them since the year (that) they got married.

Tội chừa gĩp hẹ tữ nìm hẹ cừi nhau.
Ta ni: the season something happens hay that/ why something happens:
The season Im phoning you is to invite you to a party. (hay The season that Im phoning.../

The season why Im phoning...)
Lỷ do tội ẵ gẹi ẵiốn thoi cho anh l ẵổ mủi anh ẵọn dỳ tiốc.


Unit 94. Relative clauses (4)

A

CÍ hai kiæu mènh ½å quan hè. Trong c¾c vÈ dÖ sau, c¾c mènh ½å quan hè ½õôc viät kh¾c m¿u.
HÁy so s¾nh:

Kiæu 1
 The woman who lives next door is a doctor.

Ngõñi phÖ nù sêng ò phÎng bãn cÂnh l¿ mît b¾c sË.
 Barbara works for a company that makes washing machines.

Barbara l¿m vièc cho mît céng ty sÀn xuÞt m¾y giÜt.
 We stayed at the hotel (that) Ann recommended to us.

ChÒng téi nghÊ ò kh¾ch sÂn m¿ Ann ½Á giði thièu cho chÒng téi.


´ nhùng vÈ dÖ trãn, mènh ½å quan hè cho ta biät ngõñi hay vât n¿o ngõñi nÍi muên ½å câp tði:
 “The woman who lives next door” cho ta biät ngõñi phÖ nù n¿o ½ang ½õôc nÍi tði.
 “a company that makes washing machines” cho ta biät rÐ hïn vå nh¿ m¾y.
 “The hotel (that) Ann recommended” cho ta biät rÐ hïn kh¾ch sÂn n¿o ½ang ½õôc nÍi tði.



Vði nhùng mènh ½å loÂi n¿y ta khéng dÓng dÞu phày (,) :
 We know a lot of people who lives in London.

ChÒng téi quen biät nhiåu ngõñi sêng ò London.
Kiæu 2
 My brother Jim, who lives in London, is a doctor.

Em trai Jim cÔa téi, ngõñi ½ang sêng ò London, l¿ mît b¾c sË.
 Colin told me about his new job, which he’s enjoying very much.

Colin nÍi vði téi vå céng vièc mði cÔa mÉnh m¿ anh Þy rÞt thÈch.
 We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us.

ChÒng téi nghÊ ò kh¾ch sÂn Grand, nïi m¿ Ann ½Á giði thièu vði chÒng téi.


´ nhùng vÈ dÖ trãn, c¾c mènh ½å quan hè khéng cho bÂn biät ngõñi hay vât n¿o ngõñi nÍi muên
½å câp tði, bòi chÒng ta luén biät vât hay ngõñi n¿o ½ang ½å câp. #Í l¿ “My brother Jim”,
“Colin's new job” v¿ “the Grand Hotel”. Mènh ½å quan hè trong c¾c cÝu n¿y cung cÞp cho
chÒng ta théng tin ½Üc bièt n¿o ½Í (extra information) vå ngõñi hay vât ½ang ½õôc nÍi tði.



Ta dÓng dÞu phày (,) vði c¾c mènh ½å loÂi n¿y:
 My brother Jim, who lives in London, is a doctor.

ThÙng Jim em téi, hièn sêng ò London, l¿ mît b¾c sË.

B

Trong cÀ hai kiæu mènh ½å quan hè, chÒng ta dÓng who ½æ chÊ ngõñi v¿ dÓng which ½æ chÊ vât.
Nhõng:


Kiæu 1

BÂn cÍ thæ dÓng that:
 Do you know anyone who/that speaks French and Italian?

BÂn cÍ biät ngõñi n¿o nÍi ½õôc tiäng Ph¾p v¿ tiäng @ khéng?
 Barbara works for a company which/that washing machines.

Barbara l¿m vièc cho mît céng ty sÀn xuÞt m¾y giÜt.
BÂn cÍ thæ lõôt bÏ that/who/which khi nÍ l¿ tÒc t÷ (xem UNIT 92)
 We stayed at the hotel (that/which) Ann recommended.

ChÒng téi nghÊ ò kh¾ch sÂn m¿ Ann ½Á giði thièu.
 This morning I met somebody (that/who) I hadn’t seen for ages.

S¾ng nay téi gÜp mÞy ngõñi m¿ téi ½Á khéng gÜp trong nhiåu n×m.
Ta thõñng khéng dÓng whom trong c¾c mènh ½å quan hè loÂi n¿y (xem UNIT 93B).
Kiæu 2

BÂn khéng thæ dÓng that:
 John, who (not that) speaks French and Italian, works as a tourist guide.

John, ngõñi nÍi ½õôc tiäng Ph¾p v¿ @, l¿m hõðng dán viãn du lÌch.
 Colin told me about his new job, which (not that) he’s enjoying very much.

Colin nÍi vði téi vå céng vièc mði cÔa anh ta m¿ anh ta rÞt thÈch.
BÂn khéng thæ lõôc bÏ who hoÜc which:
 We stayed at the Grand Hotel, which Ann recommended to us.

ChÒng téi nghÊ ò kh¾ch sÂn Grand, nïi m¿ Ann ½Á giði thièu cho chÒng téi.
 This morning I met Diane, whom (hoÜc who) I hadn’t seen for ages.

S¾ng nay téi gÜp Diane, ngõñi m¿ ½Á nhiåu n×m nay téi khéng gÜp.
Trong cÀ hai kiæu mènh ½å quan hè chÒng ta cÍ thæ dÓng whose v¿ where:
Kiæu 1:
 We met some people whose car had broken down.

ChÒng téi ½Á gÜp mÞy ngõñi bÌ hÏng xe.
 What’s name of the place where you spent your holiday?

Nïi anh ½Á ½i nghÊ cÍ tãn l¿ gÉ vây?
Kiæu 2:
 Amy, whose car had broken down, was in a very bad mood.

Amy, ngõñi bÌ hÏng xe, ½Á rÞt ch¾n nÀn.


 Mrs Bond is going to spend a few weeks in Sweden, where her daughter lives.

B¿ Bond sÆ ½i nghÊ v¿i tußn ò ThÖy #iæn, nïi con g¾i b¿ Þy sêng.


Unit 95. Relative clauses (5)

A

Gii tữ + whom/which

Trong cắc mốnh ẵồ extra information (xem UNIT 94 - kiổu 2) bn c thổ dểng gii tữ trừc whom
(chấ ngừủi) v which (chấ võt). Võy bn c thổ ni:
to whom/with whom/about which/for which .v.v:
Mr Carter, to who I spoke on the phone last night, is very interseted in our plan.

ông Carter, ngừủi ẵ cểng tội ni chuyốn ẵiốn thoi tời qua, rịt quan tím ẵọn kọ hoch cễa
chềng ta.
Fortunately we had a map, without which me would have got lost.

May mỉn l chềng tội ẵ c mợt cắi bn ẵở, bng khộng chỉc chềng ta ẵ bè lc.
Trong tiọng Anh ẵm thoi chềng ta thừủng ẵĩt gii tữ sau ẵợng tữ trong mốnh ẵồ quan hố. Khi ẵ ta
thừủng dểng who (khộng dểng 'whom') :
This is Mr Carter, who I was telling you about.

#íy l ộng Carter, ngừủi m tội ẵ ni vi anh.
Yesterday we visited the City Museum, which Id never been to before.

Hộm qua chềng tội ẵ ti thìm bo tng thnh phờ, nùi trừc ẵ tội chừa bao giủ ti.

B

All of /most of... + whom/which

Xt cắc thẩ dệ sau:
Mary has three brothers. All of them are married. (2 cíu)

Mary has three brothers, all of whom are married. (1 cíu)
Mary c ba anh em m tịt c ẵ lịy vụ.
They asked me a lot of questions. I couldn't answer most of them. (2 cíu)

They asked me a lot of questions, most of which I couldnt answer. (1 cíu)
Hẹ ẵ hẽi tội nhiồu cíu hẽi m phòn ln tội ẵ khộng tr lủi ẵừục.
Từùng tỳ bn c thổ ni:
none of/neither of/any of/either of
some of/many of/much of/ (a) few of
+ whom (chấ ngừủi)
both of /half of/each of/one of/two of (.v.v.) + which (chấ võt)
Tom tried in three jackets, none of which fitted him.

Tom ẵ thứ ba cắi ắo vt, khộng cắi no trong sờ ẵ vữa vi anh ịy c.
Two men, neither of whom I had ever seen before, came into my office.

Hai ngừủi ẵn ộng, c hai ngừủi trừc ẵíy tội chừa tững thịy, ẵ bừc vo vìn phẻng cễa tội.
Theyve got three cars, two of which they never use.

Hẹ c ba cắi xe hùi, hai cắi trong sờ ẵ hẹ chừa dểng ti bao giủ.


 Sue has a lot of friends, many of whom she was at school with.

Sue cÍ ½éng bÂn bÄ, nhiåu ngõñi trong sê hÑ t÷ng hÑc cÓng trõñng vði cé Þy.

C

Which (khéng dÓng what)

XÃt vÈ dÖ sau:
 Jim passed his driving test. This surprised everybody. (2 cÝu)
 Jim passed his driving test, which surprised everybody. (1 cÝu)

Jim ½Á ½âu kü thi l¾i xe. #iåu n¿y ½Á l¿m ngÂc nhiãn mÑi ngõñi.
Vièc Jim ½Á ½âu kü thi l¾i xe, ½Á l¿m ngÂc nhiãn mÑi ngõñi.
Trong vÈ dÖ n¿y, which = vièc anh Þy ½Á ½âu kü thi l¾i xe. BÂn phÀi dÓng which (khéng dÓng what)
trong c¾c cÝu giêng nhõ vây:
 Sheila couldn’t come to the party, which was a pity. (khéng dÓng '...what was a pity')

Sheila ½Á khéng thæ ½än dú tièc, ½Í l¿ ½iåu ½¾ng tiäc.
 The weather was very good, which we hadn’t expected. (khéng dÓng '...what we hadn't

expected')
Thñi tiät rÞy ½Çp, mît ½iåu m¿ chÒng téi ½Á khéng mong ½ôi.
Vå what, xem thãm UNIT 91C v¿ 92D.


Unit 96. -ing and -ed clauses

A

Mốnh ẵồ l mợt phòn cễa cíu. Mợt sờ mốnh ẵồ bỉt ẵòu vi -ing hay -ed. Vẩ dệ:

Do you know the woman talking to Tom?


mốnh ẵồ -ing

Bn c biọt ngừủi phệ nự ẵang ni chuyốn vi Tom khộng?
The boy injured in the accident was talken to hopital.


mốnh ẵồ -ed

Cõu b bè thừùng trong vệ tai nn ẵ ẵừục chũ ẵọn bốnh viốn.

B

Chềng ta dểng mốnh ẵồ -ing ẵổ ni mợt ngừủi no ẵ ẵang lm (hay ẵ lm) cắi gẫ ti mợt thủi
ẵiổm cệ thổ:

Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (The woman is talking to Tom)

Bn c biọt ngừủi phệ nự ni chuyốn vi Tom khộng? (ngừủi phệ nự ẵang ni chuyốn vi Tom)
Police investigating the crime are looking for three men. (police are investigating the crime)

Cnh sắt ẵiồu tra ẵang tẫm kiọm ba ngừủi ẵng ộng. (cnh sắt ẵang ẵiồu tra tợi phm)
Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting)

Nhựng ngừủi ẵang chủ ũ ngoi l ai võy? (hẹ ẵ chủ)
I was woken up by a bell ringing. (a bell was ringing)

Tội bè thửc giịc vẫ tiọng chuộng kóu. (tiọng chuộng ẵ kóu)
Khi bn tội ni vồ mợt sỳ viốc (v ẵội khi ngừủi), bn c thổ dểng mốnh ẵồ -ing ẵổ ắm chấ tẩnh chịt
ko di, khộng phi lm nhịt thủi, cễa sỳ viốc. Vẩ dệ:
The road joining the two villages is very narrow. (the road joins the two villages)

Con ẵừủng nời hai lng rịt hầp.
I live in a pleasant room overlooking the garden. (the room overlooks the garden)

Tội sờng trong mợt cìn phẻng thoắng mắt trộng ra vừủn.
Can you think of the name of a flower beginning with T? (the name begins with 'T')

Anh c thổ nh tón cễa loi hoa m bỉt ẵòu bng chự T khộng?

C

Cắc mốnh ẵồ -ed mang nt nghậa thệ ẵợng (pasive):

The boy injured in the accident was taken to hospital. (the boy was injured in the accident)

Cõu b bè thừùng trong vệ tai nn ẵ ẵừục chũ ẵi bốnh viốn.
Some of the people invited to the party cant come. (the poeple have been invited to the party)

Mợt sờ ngừủi ẵừục mủi dỳ tiốc khộng thổ ẵọn ẵừục.


Injured v¿ invited l¿ nhùng qu¾ khö phÝn t÷ (past participles). Nhiåu ½îng t÷ cÍ qu¾ khö phÝn t÷
khéng kät thÒc bòi -ed (made, bought, stolen .v.v.) :
 Most of the goods made in this factory are exported. (the goods are made...)

Phßn lðn h¿ng hÍa sÀn xuÞt ò nh¿ m¾y n¿y ½õôc xuÞt khàu.
 The police never found the money stolen in the robbery. (the money was stolen)

CÀnh s¾t chõa tÉm thÞy sê tiån bÌ mÞt trong vÖ cõðp.
BÂn cÍ thæ dÓng left theo c¾ch n¿y, vði nghËa “not use, still there”:
 We’ve spent nearly all our money. We’ve only a litte left.

ChÒng téi ½Á tiãu s¿i hßu nhõ tÞt cÀ tiån cÔa chÒng téi. ChÒng téi chÊ cÎn lÂi mît Èt tiån.

D

ChÒng ta thõñng dÓng c¾c mènh ½å -ing v¿ -ed sau there is/there was .v.v.:

 There were some children swimming in the river.

CÍ mÞy ½öa trÅ ½ang bïi trãn séng.
 Is there anybody waiting?

CÍ ai ½ang ½ôi khéng?
 There was a big red car parked outside the house.

CÍ mît chiäc xe hïi lðn m¿u ½Ï ½âu bãn ngo¿i ngéi nh¿.



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