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Nghiên cứu một số biện pháp kỹ thuật nâng cao năng suất và chất lượng ớt cay (capsicum annuum l ) ở tỉnh bình định TOM TAT (t ANH)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND
TRAINING

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

VIETNAM ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
---------

VU VAN KHUE

STUDY ON SOME CULTIVATION TECHNIQUES TO
IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF HOT
CHILLI (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) IN BINH DINH
PROVINCE

Subject: Crop Science
Code: 9 62 01 10

SUMMARY


AGRICULTURAL DOCTORAL THESIS

Ha Noi – 2018


This Thesis is completed at:
VIETNAM ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

Science supervisors by:
1.
2.

Prof, Dr, Tran Khac Thi
Dr, Hoang Minh Tam

Critic 1:
Critic 2:
Critic 3:

The thesis is defended at Institutional level Council for Thesis
Assessment in: Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences

This Thesis can be referred to at:
1.
2.
3.

Vietnam National Library;
The Library of Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences;
The Library of Field crop Research Institute;


1

INTRODUCTION
1. The urgent of project
Hot Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of high-value spice vegetables using in
Vietnam and many countries in the world. There are some kinds of using such as fresh
, dried chilli powder , chilli sauce, ingredient in some special sauces, pickled vinegar,
canned fruit, etc., so there is a huge potential for production of chilli.


In the world, the total area of fresh and dried chilli increased from 2.94 million
hectares in 1994 to 3.63 million hectares in 2014, yield increased from 14.88 million
tons in 1994 to 36.14 million tons in 2014 and production value reached 1.93 billions
USD in 1994 to $ 30.60 billions USD in 2014 (Faostat, 2017).
In Vietnam, chillis have been cultivated for a long time. Due to the fact that, the
chillis are suitable for many different lands, there is a great potential for expanding
cultivated area of this crop. In particular, in recent years, many places have
successfully implemented a model of chilli cultivation for export purposes, thus it
opens a new direction for farmers to change their crop structure to produce products
with high income. In 2013, our country exported about 3,563 tons of dried chilli, chilli
powder which valued at 4.665 millions USD (Faostat, 2017).
In Binh Dinh, hot chilli is an important vegetable in the crop structure in some
localities, in addition to meeting the domestic consumption demand in the province,
this is also a commodity for export with high economic value. However, in recent
years, some localities have rapidly expanded area of chilli for export, which has
revealed many limitations such as too many varieties (about 20 varieties) but those
varieties are not stable due to new varieties have been introduced regularly every year
that their adaptation has not been carefully evaluated.; furthermore, another reasons
are lack of organic manure, lime and excessive inorganic fertilizer compared with
standard recommendation, the rate of fertilizer is not balanced with the physiological
needs of chilli, improper use of pesticides and IPM in pest management have not been
properly addressed. Due to a dependence on export market, most farmers focus on
production of chilli in the Autumn-winter and Winter-spring crop season (September –
April next year). During this period, the weather conditions in Binh Dinh province has
two months of heavy rains (October and November), so soil moisture and air
humidity are always high. In addition, low temperature and less lighting duration that
have created favorable conditions for raising of pests and diseases, especially the
anthracnose disease at harvest stage has significantly affected the chilli production in
this local. Moreover, cultivation is not planned and market is not forecasted which
lead to always fluctuate of chilli price and unstable market.
Those above limitation factors are main reasons affecting to productivity and
efficiency of hot chilli production in Binh Dinh province. Therefore, in order to have a
sustainable development in the next period, there should be a consistent investment in
infrastructure, research and selection of chilli varieties which have high yield and
good quality. Besides, it is necessary to study and propose some reasonable cultivation
methods.


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For these reasons, the implementation of the project “Study on some
cultivation techniques to improve productivity and quality of hot chilli (Capsicum
annuum L.) in Binh Dinh province” is an urgent requirement for local hot chilli
production.
2. Objectives of subject
Evaluate current status of hot chilli production in Binh Dinh province; identify
new hot chilli varieties which are suitable for export markets; and reasonable
technical solutions to improve productivity, quality and efficiency of this spicy
vegetable production in Binh Dinh province.
3. Scientific and practical significances of the research
3.1. Scientific significance
- The results of this project have contributed to the development of scientific
basis in the exploitation and rational use of natural resources as well as appropriate
cultivation techniques to improve the quality and effectiveness of hot chilli
production in Binh Dinh province.
- The topic has been contributed to the knowledge of hot chilli production in the
Central Region which will be a reference for scientists, technical staffs and
authorities in their research activities, teaching, production, business, and policy
making.
3.2. Practical significance
- The subject has identified basic socio-economic, biological and abiotic
constraints to spicy chilli production in Binh Dinh province.
- It has been identified that the spicy chilli Solar 135 has good yield, good
quality, resistance to some major pests and diseases. Besides, the subject has
identified the best feasible fertilizer and rootstocks. These results meet the urgent
need in the development of hot chilli production in Binh Dinh province.
4. New contributions to the thesis
- Evaluated the current status of hot chilli production in Binh Dinh province,
thus giving some research directions to overcome the limitations, contributing to
help farmer improving their chilli production.
- Selected and introduced new variety chilli Solar 135 for chilli production
which produces high productivity, good quality and suitable with ecological
conditions of Binh Dinh province. Since then, it has contributed to the diversification
of high-yield chilli varieties in production.
- Recommended feasible level of fertilizer nitrogen, potassium and calcium for
new hot chilli variety Solar 135 on Orthic Acrisol soil in Binh Dinh province which
is 150 kg N: 150 kg K2O: 500 kg CaO applied on a basal fertilizer of 20 tons of
manure and 100 kg P2O5/ha.
- Applied the combination of identified promising technical methods in Orthic
Acrisols soil in Binh Dinh province which has increased productivity by 21.6% (from
25.7 tons/ha to 32.8 tons/ha); net profit from 201.8 million Dong to 278.7 million
Dong; and profitability ratio from investment capital from 1.6 to 2.4 in comparision
with traditional farming practices.


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5. The objects and scope of research
5.1. Research objects:
Hot chilli varieties are collected from domestic and foreign sources;
macronutrients fertilizer N, K2O (Urea, potassium cloride), secondary nutrients
fertilizer Ca (Lime powder) which are implemented in the Winter-spring crop on
Orthic Acrisol soil.
5.2. Location, time
- The investigation process took place in 2 districts of Binh Dinh: Phu Cat and
Phu My.
- Experiments were conducted at the Agricultural Science Institute for Southern
Central of Vietnam, Quy Nhon city and at Phu My district, Binh Dinh province,
from 2012 to 2017.
5.3. The scope research
The research focus on the Orthic Acrisols soil in Winter-spring crop, technical
solutions on seeds; dosage and ratio of nitrogen, potassium, calcium; as well as
grafting technique for hot chilli.
6. Thesis structure
The main thesis has 161 pages which typed in A4 size with 39 tables of data, 7
pictures. The thesis consists of 5 parts such as Introduction (5 pages), Chapter I:
Overview of research literature (40 pages), Chapter II: Materials, content and
research methodology (12 pages), Chapter III: Results and Discussion (84 pages),
Conclusion and Recommendations (2 pages) and reference (10 pages).
CHAPTER I
LITERATURE REVIEW
The thesis has reviewed and summarized 45 Vietnamese papers and 60 English
papers, 7 news articles from websites with relevant contents including 1. Origin,
distribution and classification of hot chilli; 2. Nutritional value and economic value
of hot Chili; 3. The requirement the external conditions of hot chilli; 4. Status of hot
chilli production in the world and in Vietnam; 5. Status of research on hot Chili in
the world and in Vietnam.
The collected data show that:
- The condition of soil and climate in Binh Dinh province is basically favorable
for the production of annual crops in general and chilli in particular, and agriculture
plays a major role in the socio-economy of Binh Dinh province; the value of
agriculture production accounted for 32.8 - 39.0% of the total product in this
province.
- Chilli is one of the main vegetables contributing to the total value of
vegetables, beans, flowers and ornamental plants.
- Chilli is a vegetable with high nutritional value, which is an important source
of vitamins for the people population in the world. Furthermore, antioxidants such as
vitamins C, E, and vitamin A are found in a variety of different types of hot chilli.
Chilli is also a source of carotenoids, xanthophylls and it contains large amounts of


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vitamin P (Citrin), B1 (Thiamin), B2 (Riboflavin) and B (niacin). In addition, chilli
has a higher amount of vitamins C and A than the recommended dietary sources.
- According to FAO (2017), the area, yield and quantity of Asian countries are
dominating and China is the leading country in terms of cultivated area and quantity
of fresh chilli, while India is the leading country in terms of cultivated area and
quantity of dried chillies, chilli powder.
- In Vietnam, chilli is a traditional crop but the area is small, productivity is low.
Investments in chilli research are not focused so the results are limited. In recent
years, some researches on chilli cultivation techniques such as seasonal crops,
fertilizers, planting density, irrigation, etc. have been paid attention by researchers
but the growth in cultivated area and productivity is still not matched the potential.
- Many varieties of hot chilli have high yield, good resistance to adverse
environmental conditions, disease resistance (anthracnose, green wilt, virus ...), good
quality fruit to export standards ( fruit color, fruit size, spicy ...) has been
successfully created by agronommists inside and outside the country. These varieties
are extremely rich and precious materials to be used for research on the selection of
spicy chilli varieties which adapted to the conditions of soil, climate and socioeconomic of Binh Dinh province.
- The integrated pest control techniques applied on chilli have significantly
reduced the damage caused by anthracnose, root rot and bacterial wilt.
- Domestic research as well as international research on rootstock for grafting
are mainly focused on Phytophthora capsici and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia
solanacearum). The successful research on the rootstock against these two diseases
will help to reduce the risk and economic loss for chilli growers.
- Chilli plant is sensitive to organic fertilizer and mineral fertilizers. The proper
use of fertilizer will improve the quality of chilli products. The amount of nitrogen,
potassium as well as calcium recommended in the study for different areas ranged
from 75-300 kg/ha, 60-150 kg K2O/ha, calcium 500-800 kg lime powder ha.
Therefore, it is necessary to have specific research to have reasonable basis for
fertilizer application for Binh Dinh province.
- In order to improve the soil, increase organic matter and amount of beneficial
microorganisms in chilli cultivation, organic fertilizers can be used in the range of 825 tons/ha and solutions extracted from poultry manure .
These above achievements are the basis for scientific application to production
practices, or used in research to find appropriate farming techniques to improve hot
chilli production in Binh Dinh province.
CHAPTER II
MATERIALS AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2.1. Research Materials
- The varieties used in the variety selection consist of: 18 hot chilli varieties
collected from different sources from within the country and abroad.


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- The varieties used in the study of grafting rootstock: 05 varieties were
collected from Ninh Thuan, Khanh Hoa, Binh Dinh, Thua Thien Hue and Nghe An
provinces.
- Fertilizers: Manure (cow manure), urea fertilizer, superphosphate, potassium
chloride, calcium (lime powder).
- Domestic and foreign references related to the thesis.
- Soils for experimentation were Orthic Acrisols soil.
2.2. Research Contents
2.2.1. Evaluate the current status of hot chilli production in Binh Dinh province.
2.2.2. Determine hot chilli variety which adapted to soil and climate conditions in
Binh Dinh province.
2.2.3. Determine the dosage and ratio of nitrogen, potassium and calcium to hot
chilli grown on Orthic Acrisols soil in Binh Dinh province.
2.2.4. Study on the effect of different rootstocks on the growth, yield and disease
resistance of Solar 135 variety.
2.2.5. Evaluate the application of trial results to yield and quality of hot chilli on
Orthic Acrisols soil in Binh Dinh province.
2.3. Research Methodology
2.3.1. Survey method, collecting information to evaluate the current status of hot
chilli production in Binh Dinh province
- Inherit related secondary information which was collected from Binh Dinh
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Phu Cat District and Phu My
District People’s Committee, Cat Lam Commune People's Committee, Phu Cat
District and My Hiep Commune People's Committee, Phu My District and Binh
Dinh Statistical Office;
- Surveys were conducted in Phu Cat and Phu My districts through
questionnaires.
- Use PRA method to collect information; interview with a knowledgeable
person (KIP) and group interview to review and supplement information; SWOT
analysis to assess strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges in cultivation;
- Analyze statistical survey data using Microsoft Excel 2010 software.
- Implementation time: 2013.
2.3.2. Experiment designs for selecting promising hot chilli variety which is
adaptative to soil and climate conditions in Binh Dinh province
2.3.2.1. Experiment on hot chilli variety separation
- The experiment was arranged by the method of Augmented RCB Design,
divided into 2 blocks. There are two control varieties and 16 tested varieties, each
block has 2 control varieties. The tested varieties are arranged sequentially without
repetition, the area of the experiment is 14m2 (10m x 1.4m).
- The experiment was conducted in the Winter-spring crop of 2012 - 2013 at the
net house of Agricultural Science Institute for Southern Central of Vietnam – Area 8,
Nhon Phu Ward, Quy Nhon, Binh Dinh Province.
2.3.2.2. Experiment on the evaluation of promising hot Chili varieties:


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- The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design
(RCBD), repeated three times, the plot area was 14m2 (10m x 1.4m), monitoring 5
trees in each plot.
- The experiment was conducted in the Winter-spring crop of 2013 - 2014 and
the Winter-spring of 2014 - 2015 in My Hiep, Phu My district, Binh Dinh province
on Orthic Acrisols soil.
2.3.3. Research methods to determine the appropriate dosage and ratio of nitrogen,
potassium and calcium
2.3.3.1. Experiment 1: Study the effect of different doses and rates of nitrogen and
potassium on growth, development and yield of Solar 135 variety.
- The experiment was arranged in the split-plot design, in which the main factor
was potassium fertilizer, the sub factor was nitrogen fertilizer; there was 3 replicates,
the area of the plots was 14m2 including the trench beds (10m x 1.4m), monitoring 5
trees in each plot.
- Experiment conducted in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 - 2016 and the
Winter-spring 2016 - 2017 in My Hiep Commune, Phu My District, Binh Dinh
province.
- The amount of fertilizer used per hectare is:
+ Basal fertilizer: 20 tons manure + 100 kg P2O5 + 500 kg lime powder.
+ Nitrogen factor: N1 = 360 kg N (Based on farmer practice - control); N2 =
200 kg N; N3 = 150 kg N.
+ Potassium factor: K1 = 350 kg K2O (Based on farmer practice - control); K2 =
200 kg K2O; K3 = 150 kg K2O.
- Experimental treatments: N1K1, N1K2, N1K3, N2K1, N2K2, N2K3, N3K1,
N3K2, N3K3 (Control treatment: N1K1).
2.3.3.2. Experiment 2: Study on the effects of nitrogen and calcium doses on growth,
development and yield of Solar 135 variety.
- The experiment was arranged in the split-plot design, in which the main factor
was calcium fertilizer, the sub factor was nitrogen fertilizer; there were 3 replicates,
the area of the plots was 14m2 including the trench beds (10m x 1.4m), monitoring 5
trees in each plot.
- Experiment conducted in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 - 2016 and the
Winter-spring 2016 - 2017 in My Hiep Commune, Phu My District, Binh Dinh
Province.
- The amount of fertilizer used per hectare is:
+ Basal fertilizer: 20 tons manure + 100 kg P2O5 + 160 kg K2O.
+ Nitrogen fertilizer factor: N1 = 360 kg N (Control); N2 = 200 kg N; N3 = 150
kg N.
+ Calcium factor: C1 = 350 kg CaO (Control); C2 = 500 kg CaO; C3 = 800 kg
CaO.
- Experimental treatments: N1C1, N1C2, N1C3, N2C1, N2C2, N2C3, N3C1,
N3C2, N3C3 (Control: N1C1).
2.3.4. Research methods to investigate the effect of different rootstocks on growth,
yield and disease resistance of the chilli variety Solar 135


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- The experiment was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design
(RCBD), repeated 3 times, with 5 graft combination (rootstocks varieties are Binh
Dinh Purple chilli, Khanh Hoa White chilli, Ninh Thuan Xiem hybrid chilli, Hue
Bom and Catu Nghe An, the scion was Solar 135 variety, and a non-graft control
(Solar 135 ). The plot area was 14 m2 including beds (10m x 1.4m). .
- Experiment conducted in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 - 2016 in My Hiep
Commune, Phu My District, Binh Dinh.
2.3.5. Research methods for evaluating the application of research results to the
productivity and quality of hot chilli on Orthic Acrisols soil in Binh Dinh province
The trial was carried out on Orthic Acrisols soil in My Hiep Commune, Phu My
District in the Winter-spring crop of 2016 - 2017 with two cultivation methods:
traditional farmer cultivation and test results of the project.
* Traditional farmer cultivation: using traditional varieties and cultivation
techniques.
* Cultivating trials according to the research results of the project: Using new
varieties and improved cultivation techniques.
2.3.6. Monitoring parameters and monitoring methods
Parameters and monitoring methods are applied in accordance with procedures
approved by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam
(MARD) QCVN 01-64: 2011/BNNPTNT to evaluate the value of cultivation and
using of hot Chili . These include: growth parameters, morphological characteristics
and quality of fruits, components of yield and yield, and pest and disease status.
2.3.7. Data processing and analyzing methods
- Method of data analysis: Using the Microsoft Office Excel 2013 and Statistix
8.2 software to process statistical data in the evaluation of current status, selecting
varieties and cultivation techniques.
- Analytical methods of economic efficiency: Use economic analysis of crop to
analyze efficiency as follows: Total value of income (GR) = Yield x Average selling
price; Total Variable Cost (TVC) = Cost of materials + Labor cost + Energy cost +
Investment capital rate; Profit (RVAC) = GR - TVC; Return on investment (VCR) =
GR / TVC.
CHAPTER III
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Evaluate the current status of hot chilli production in Binh Dinh province
3.1.1. Status of production of hot chilli in Binh Dinh province
- Status of social factors:
The majority of households with a production area of 1,000 - 5,000 m2 should
have feasible conditions to invest in intensive farming and commodity products.
However, difficulties in selling products; lacking of good varieties for production;
lacking of information on new techniques; and lacking of capital in production are
social factors which limit production of chilli in Binh Dinh province.
- Status of biological factors:


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+ Hot chilli variety: 95.8% of area is reserved for pointing-down chilli varieties
while only 4.2% is for pointing-up and local varieties.
+ The average yield of pointing-down chilli varieties is 20.4 tons/ha while the
pointing-up chilli group is only 14.8 tons / ha.
+ 100% of chilli growers were surveyed stating that they bought F1 hybrid
variety from local agents. The rate of using F1 seeds is 100% for the pointing-down
chilli varieties and 86.0% for the pointing-up chilli varieties.
+ Thrombocytes, bed bug, red mite, deep borer, fruit borer, root rot, root borer,
bacterial wilt and anthracnose are common pests and diseases in chilli production. In
particular, anthracnose is the most common disease in the surveyed households, at
rate of 93.3%.
- Status of abiotic factors:
+ Some common cultivation techniques such as making beds, covering bed with
nylon, plant density and method of planting, watering and trimming methods are
reasonably applied by farmers.
+ Fertilizer application: Compared with the recommended procedure, over 80%
of the households did not apply enough manure and lime, while 100% of the
households applied above double times of nitrogen and potassium, and from 3.5 to
7.0 times of phosphorous fertilizer.. The ratio of fertilizer N, P, K the households
used to apply for chilli is: 1: 1,25: 1.
+ Pesticides application: The use of pesticides in hot chilli cultivation in Binh
Dinh province presents many limitations, most of which do not follow the principle
of "four right" in the use of pesticides.
+ Consumption of chilli products: In Phu My district, there are centralized
purchasing agents for export, apart from preliminary processing, some agents invest
to build cool storage system for preserving and processing. However, prices are
uncertain and depended largely on a traditional market.
3.2. Identification of hot chilli adapted to soil and climate conditions in Binh
Dinh province
3.2.1. Isolation of hot chilli group in the Winter-spring crop 2012 - 2013
3.2.1.1. Morphological characteristics and fruit quality s of hot chilli varieties
Results show that:
- Fruit shape in the longitudinal section: fruit shape in the longitudinal section
of most varieties is triangular, which is suitable for market demand and is one of the
criteria required for exporting. Only two local varieties, Xiem Hybrid and Hue Bom,
have the shape of fruit in the longitudinal section as “bull horn”. This fruit type is
short and curved which is less favorable on the market, especially for export..
- Fruit length: Varieties with fruit length ranges from 10.6 to 17.5 cm, in which
the shortest is Xiem Lai and Bom Hue varieties,at 10.6 and 10.8 cm respectively.
These two varieties are shorter than two control varieties from 2.0 to 2.4 cm. Among
remaining varieties, there are 2 dominant varieties, VRQ3 and VRQ4, which are 16.0
and 17.5 cm, respectively. They are higher than the control varieties from 3.0 - 4.7
cm, other tested varieties are equivalent or not significantly different compared to the
control varieties.


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- Fruit diameter: All varieties reach a diameter greater than 10mm. However, to
balance the fruit length and diameter, Bom Hue and Xiem hybrid varieties are
unbalanced by their short and large fruit.
- Fruit thickness: In the experimental varieties, the lowest was Xiem hybrid (1.8
mm), followed by Nun variety and Super 20 variety which are 2.0 mm, the highest
was the Hue variety,at 2.6 mm (equivalent to the control 1). Remaining varieties
range from 2.1 - 2.4 mm.
- Fruit color before ripening: Most varieties are dark-green, 3 yellow-white
varieties are VRQ1, PP9955-15 and Bom Hue, only one lemon-yellow is Long Dinh
3.
- Fruit color when ripening: Divided into two groups: red and dark red, in
which most of varieties are dark red which is the favourite color on the market, only
3 varieties are light red are VRQ1, Xiem Hybrid and Bom Hue.
- Degree of spicy: 100% of the varieties are slightly spicy
3.2.1.2. Growth duration of chilli varieties
- Time from sowing – the first harvesting: Time from sowing to the first fruit
harvesting among varieties varies from 1 to 7 days.The earliest harvested variety is
VRQ4, at 88 days, the others range from 90 to 95 days.
- Time from sowing to end of harvest: The time between sowing and harvesting
among varieties has a large difference, about 20 days. The earliest harvested variety
is Long Dinh 3 (136 days), which is earlier compared to two control varieties from 8
to 9 days whereas the latest harvested varieties are two local varieties such as Hue
and Cam Pha hybrid (156 and 155 days), they are later from 10 to 12 days compared
to the two control varieties., The remaining varieties range from 138 to 145 days.
3.2.1.3. Growth capacity of hot chilli varieties
The results of monitoring growth of chilli show that:
- Plant height: The plant height of varieties ranges from 63.6 to 119.0 cm, of
which the lowest is the variety PP9955-15 which reaches 63.6 cm while the highest
was TN185 (control 1), reaches 119,0 cm, it is higher than the other varieties from
15.0 to 55.4 cm.
- Canopy diameter: The diameter of the canopy among varieties reveales a
significant difference and ranges from 61.2 to 92.6 cm. In particular, the highest was
TN356, at 92.6 cm which is higher than the control varieties from 8.0 to 13.0 cm.
The lowest is Xiem hybrid, at 61.2 cm, it is lower than the two control varieties from
18.4 to 23.4cm.
3.2.1.4. Components of yield and yield of hot chilli
Monitoring data is presented in the following table:
Table 3.10. Yield components and yield of hot chilli in Spring season 2012 2013 in Quy Nhon City, Binh Dinh province
Criteria
Variety
TN185 (Control 1)

Number of
plant/ plot
(plant)
49.0

Number of Average Actual yield
(ton/ha)
fruit/plant fruit weight
(fruit)
(gram)
53.4
15.1
24.3


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F1 No 20 (Control 2)
Super 20
TN 155
TN356
Nun
Koregon
Solar 135
VRQ1
VRQ2
VRQ3
VRQ4
HB9
Long Dinh 3
PP9955-15
Hot Chili
Bom Hue
Xiem Hybrid

49.0
49.0
49.0
49.0
49.0
49.0
49.0
49.0
49.0
41.0
49.0
49.0
49.0
47.0
49.0
45.0
44.0

49.6
67.8
204.0
64.2
59.8
61.4
60.4
61.0
79.3
84.8
73.8
67.3
66.8
65.4
76.6
78.3
66.3

15.0
12.4
4.1
15.6
15.4
15.8
15.5
15.7
10.5
9.4
12.8
14.5
14.8
14.6
14.2
10.4
6.8

22.3
29.3
28.7
32.5
29.5
29.8
32.7
28.7
28,2
23.1
27.8
27.8
28.4
26.4
30.7
25.8
13.0

The results from Table 3.10 show that:
- Harvested plant/plot: The number of harvested plants/plot ranges from 41.0 to
49.0 plants/plot, of which 4 varieties losses from 2.0 to 8.0 plants/plot compared to
control. The other varieties are PP9955-15 (47.0 plants/plot), Bom Hue (45
plants/plot), Xiem hybrid (44.0 plants/plot), particularly, VRQ3 decreases
significantly (41.0 plants/plot). This decline of four varieties is due to root rot, and
bacterial wilt, with the rate from 2.0 - 12.2%. The remaining varieties and 2 control
varieties obtaine the highest number of plants/plot compared to the standard density
of 49 plants/plot.
- Number of fruits per plant: The number of fruits/plant ranges from 49.6 to
204.0, of which the highest was TN 155, at 204 fruits/plant, it is higher than that of
two control varieties, from 150.6 to 154.0. fruits/plant. The remaining varieties vary
from 59.8 to 84.8 fruits/plant, they are higher than control varieties from 6.4 to 35.2
fruits/plant.
- Average fruit weight: Most varieties have average fruit weight of over 10g, of
which 9 varieties are from 14.2 to 15.8g (equivalent to the two control varieties),
remaining 6 varieties are less than the control varieties, in which, fruit weight of3
varieties is less than 10g, namely TN155 (4.1g), Xiem hybrid (6.8g) and VRQ3
(9.4g).
- Actual yield: There is a large difference in the actual yield of varieties, ranging
from 13.0 to 32.7 tons/ha. Among the experimental varieties, only Xiem hybrid
variety has lower yield than control varieties, from 9.3 to 11.3 tons/ha. The
remaining varieties achieve higher yield than the control varieties, from 0.8 to 10.4
tons/ha, in which the highest yield varieties are Solar 135 (32.7 tons/ha), TN356
(32.5 tons/ha), Hot chilli (30.7 tons/ha), Koregon (29.8 tons/ha), Nun (29.5 tons/ha)


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and Super 20 (29.3 tons/ha) ), yield of remaining varieties ranges from 23.1 to 28.7
tons/ha.
3.2.1.5. Status of pests and diseases of hot chilli
The results of monitoring of pests and diseases showed that:
- Anthracnose: The level of damage ranged from 2.4 to 7.5%, in which the most
seriously affected varieties were Xiem hybrid (7.5%), the less affected ones were
Koregon and Solar 135 (only 2.4 - 2.6% was affected), lower than the control
varieties from 2.0 to 2.9%.
- Root rot: Among the 18 experimental varieties, only 3 varieties were
damaged: Hue Bom 6.1%, Siam Lai 8.1% and VRQ3 12.2%, the remaining varieties
are not affected (0%).
- Bacterial wilt disease: Only four infected varieties were Hue, Xiem hybrid,
VRQ3 and PP9955-15 with the rate of suffered plants from 2.0 - 4.1%, the remaining
species were not infected with bacterial wilt disease.
Thus, from the abovegroups of 18 varietiesand lines, there are six promising
varieties were selected for further evaluation which have high yield and good
resistance to pests and diseases such as: Super 20, TN356, Nun, Koregon, Solar 135,
Hot chilli and control variety TN185.
3.2.2. Evaluate the promising hot chilli varieties in the Winter-spring crop 2013 2014 and the Winter-spring crop 2014 – 2015
3.2.2.1. Growth duration of experimental varieties
- Time from sowing to transplanting: Similar to the winter-spring crop of 2012 2013, the time from sowing to emergencing among varieties ranges from 7 to 8 days
and from sowing to transplanting from 30 to 32 days in both two crop seasons.
- Time from sowing to 50% of plant flowering: time from sowing to 50% of
plants flowering of the two crop seasons varies from 33 to 41 days. On the other
hand, in the same season, this factor of different varieties varies from 1-7 days, while
between two seasons; the varieties also vary from 1 to 3 days.
- From the first harvesting time to the end of harvest: The first harvest time in
both crops ranges from 93 to 97 days and finishing harvested time varies from 136 to
147 days in the Winter-spring crop of 2013 – 2014, and from 138 to 145 days in the
Winter-spring crop of 2014-2015.
3.2.2.2. Growth capacityof hot chilli varieties.
- Plant height: In the Winter-spring crop of 2013 - 2014, plant height varies
from 84.4 to 121.4 cm. In the Winter-spring crop of 2014-2015, plant height varies
from 85.2 to 120.6 cm, in which the experimental varieties have lower plant height,
from 12.7 - 27.0 cm compared to TN185 (control variety).
- Canopy diameter: Similar to plant height, the diameter of canopy among
different varieties also has a large difference, it ranges from 72.6 to 93.2cm
(difference from 0.6 to 20.6cm) in both season times. However, in the same variety,
there is a negligible difference in the Winter-spring 2013 to 2014 compared to the
Winter-spring crop 2014 - 2015 (difference from 0.3 to 3.1cm).
3.2.2.3. Components of yield and yield of hot chilli varieties
Monitoring data is presented in the table 3.14:


12

Table 3.14. Components of yield and yield of hot chilli varieties in Winter spring season in 2013 - 2014 and Winter-spring season in 2014 - 2015 in Phu My
district, Binh Dinh province
Criteria

Variety
TN185
(Control)
Super 20
TN 356
Nun
Koregon
Solar 135
Hot Chilli
CV (%)
LSD0.05

Number of
plants/plot
(plant)
First
Second
crop
crop

Fruits/plant
(fruit)

Average
weight of
fruit (gram)
First Second First Second
crop crop crop crop

Potential yield
(tons/ha)

First Second First Second
crop crop crop crop

49.0 ± 0.0 47.7 ± 1.2 51.6d 52.2d 15.3a 14.6a

27,6c

49.0 ± 0.0
48.3 ± 1.2
47.7 ± 0.6
49.0 ± 0.0
49.0 ± 0.0
49.0 ± 0.0

33,0b
36,3a
35,5ab
35,2ab
36,4a
37,4a
4.91
2.96

49.0 ± 0.0
49.0 ± 0.0
48.3 ± 0.6
49.0 ± 0.0
49.0 ± 0.0
48.0 ± 1.0

63.7c
68.3b
65.4bc
66.2bc
67.5b
73.2a
3.18
3.68

65.4bc
66.7b
61.3c
64.4bc
65.2bc
78.6a
4.14
4.77

11.8b
15.2a
15.5a
15.2a
15.4a
14.6a
3.67
0.96

12.2b
15.2a
15.0a
15.6a
15.2a
14.5a
4.49
1.16

Actual yield
(tons/ha)

26,7e 23.2c 21.5d
32,5cd
35,5b
32,2d
35,2bc
34,7bcd
39,9a
4.98
2.95

29.8b
29.4b
30.2d
30.4d
33.3a
28.7b
4.73
2.46

28.0c
28.7bc
28.0c
30.9b
33.7a
30.2bc
5.31
2.70

Note: First crop: Winter - Spring season in 2013 – 2014, second crop: Winter Spring season in 2014 – 2015

- Harvested plants/plot: The number of harvested plants/plot ranges from 47.7
to 49.0 plants/plot, of which Nun variety losses in both seasons , at 47.7 plants/plot
in the first crop and 48.3 plants/plot in the second crop (an average of reduction from
0.7-1.3 plants/plot compared to the standard density of 49.0 plants/plot). This is due
to the root rot disease, which occurs in both crops at rate of 1.4-2.7%. In addition,
TN185 (Control) is infected with root rot, rootstalk and bacterial wilt in second
crop, so that the number of harvested plants/plot was only 47.7 plants/plot compared
to the standard density of 49.0 plants/plot). The remaining varieties have the
maximum number of harvested plants/plot compared with the standard density (49
plants/plot), or they slightly decrease (decrease ≤ 0.5 plants/plot).
- Number of fruits/plant: All experimental varieties achieve higher number of
fruits/plant than control variety (at the lowest significant difference of 95%), from
10.3 to 27.0 fruits/plant in both seasonsx of the Winter – spring season 2013 - 2014
and 2014 - 2015. In which, the highest number of fruits/plant is the hot chilli, with
73.2 fruits per plant in Winter-spring 2013 - 2014 and 78.6 fruits/plant in the Winterspring 2014 - 2015. The number of fruits/plant of the varieties during two crops is
not significantly different, ranging from 0.6 to 5.4 fruits/plant.
- Average weight of fruit: The fruit weight of all varieties in both Winter-spring
crop 2013 - 2014 and Winter-spring crop 2014 - 2015 ranges from 11.8 to 15.6
grams. In particular, the lowest value is in the Super 20, which is only 11.8 - 12.2
grams, and it is significantly (at the LSD0,05) lower than the control varieties and
other varieties . The average fruit weight of remaining varieties ranges from 14.5 to
15.6 grams, which is equivalent to the control.
- Potential yield: The potential yield ranges from 26.7 to 39.9 tons/ha, in which
experimental varieties are significantly (at the LSD0,05) higher than the control


13

varieties. Among the experimental varieties in both Winter-Spring 2013- 2014 and
Winter-Spring 2014- 2015, the highest potential yield is Hot Chilli, from 37.4 to 39.9
tons/ha, higher than the control TN185 from 9.8 to 13.2 tons/ha and the other
varieties from 1.0 to 7.4 tons/ha at the LSD0,05. In addition, the potential yield among
varieties in 2 different seasons also has differences but not large, ranges from 0.5 to
3.3 tons per hectare.
- Actual yield: The actual yield ranges from 21.5 to 33.7 tons/ha, similar to
potential yield, all experimental varieties are significantly (at the LSD0,05) higher
than the control varieties. However, different from potential yield, the highest yield
is Solar 135, from 33.3 to 33.7 tons/ha in both Winter-spring 2013 - 2014 and
Winter-spring 2014 - 2015, which is higher than the control from 10.2 to 12.3
tons/ha and other varieties from 2.9 to 5.8 tons/ha at the LSD0,05, respectively. In
addition, the actual yield among varieties in 2 different seasons also has differences
but not large, ranges from 0.4 to 2.2 tons/ha.
3.2.2.4. Status of pests and diseases of hot chilli varieties
The results of monitoring of pests and diseases of hot chilli show that:
- Status of pests: In both seasons, varieties were infected with mild light at
medium level (grade 1-2). Similarly with fruit borers, the varieties were affected from
2.6 to 5.7% in both seasons, the heaviest affected level is in TN 185 (Control) which
ranged from 6 - 5.7%, the lowest affected level is in Solar 135, from 2.6 to 3.2%.
- Status of diseases: All varieties were affected by anthracnose, with the affected
percentage from 2.7 to 6.4%, of which the most susceptible one was the control TN
185, its infection was from 5.4 to 6,4% while the lowest affected variety is Solar
135, from 2.7 to 3.1%. For root rot, there were only 3 affected varieties: Hot chilli
with 2.0% of the total number of damaged plant in the Winter-spring crop of 2014 –
2015; Nun variety was affected in both seasons, at 1.4 - 2.7% and the control variety
(1.4%) in the Winter-spring crop of 2014 - 2015. The bacterial wilt disease was
appeared only in TN185 variety (control) at a rate of 1.4% in the Winter-spring crop
of 2014 - 2015, the remaining varieties were not infected.
In summary, based on the evaluation of six potential varieties (Super 20,
TN356, Nun, Koregon, Solar 135 and Hot chilli) during two crop seasons of Winter spring 2013 - 2014 and Winter - spring 2014 -2015, the Solar135 reveals as a
promissing variety which has good characteristics such as concentrating ripening,
color of fruit before ripening is dark green and turning to dark red at ripening;the
shape of fruit in longitudinal section is narrow triangular; the fruit is long, straight
and balanced; with slight spicy . The productivity is over 30 tons in all 3 testing crop
seasons (from 33.3 to 33.7 tons/ha). It has good resistance to major pests such as
thrips, fruit borer, anthracnose, root rot, and bacterial wilt.
3.3. Determine the appropriate dosage and ratio of nitrogen, potassium and
calcium for hot chilli in Orthic Acrisols soil in Binh Dinh province
3.3.1. Study the effects of dose and ratio of nitrogen and potassium on growth and
yield of hot chilli
3.3.1.1. The growth time of Solar 135 variety on various nitrogen and potassium
fertilizers in Binh Dinh province


14

In the treatment of 360 kg N/ha, the time from transplanting to flowering, to
first harvest and to the end of harvest averages of 36.3 days, 97.2 days and 141.7
days respectively. Reduction of nitrogen fertilizer to 200 kg N/ha, the time from
transplanting to flowering, to first harvest and to the end of harvest is shorten down
correspondingly to 35.0 days, 95.5 days, 139.0 days, respectively (it is 1.3 days, 1.7
days and 2.7 days respectively shorter than the application rate of 360 kg N/ha) and
the shortest result is in application of 150 kg N/ha, at 33.7 days from transplanting to
flowers; 94.3 days to the first harvest and 135.2 days to the last harvest (that is 2.7
days, 2.9 days and 6.5 days respectively shorter than the application rate of 360 kg
N/ha) . By contrast, different treatments of potassium fertilizer do not show
differences in the growth duration of chili (they vary from 0.6-1.4 days in the same
crop season). The time from transplanting to flowering at 3 levels of potassium
fertilizer ranges from 34.0 to 35.0 days (crop 1) and from 35.3 to 36.0 days (crop 2),
time from transplanting to the first harvest varies from 94.7 to 95.3 days (crop 1) and
from 96.0 to 96.7 days (crop 2), time from transplanting to end of harvest ranges
from 137.3 to 138.7 days (crop 1) and from 138.7 to 140.0 days (crop 2).
3.3.1.2. Growth potential of the Solar 135 variety on various nitrogen and potassium
fertilizers in Binh Dinh
The average of plant height of the treatment of 360 kg N/ha is 92.2 cm (91.4 –
92.9 cm) which is 4.3% higher than the treatment of 200 kg N/ha (average of 88.2 cm
and ranges from 87.3 to 89.0 cm) and 6.6% higher than those of 150 kg N/ha (average
of 86.1 cm and ranges from 85.7 to 86.5 cm). By contrast, among different potassium
treatments, the plant height is not show the difference. The average of canopy
diameter in treatment of 360 kg N/ha of two crops is 76.8 cm which is 5,2% higher
than treatment of 200kg N/ha (average of 2 crops is 72.2 cm), and 6,7% higher than
treatment of 150 kg N/ha ( average of 2 crops is 72,4 cm).At the same time, the stem
diameter of the the treatment of 360 kg N/ha is 1.72 cm which is 6.4%, higher than the
average of 2 crops of treatment of 200 kg N/ha (average of 2 crops is 1,61 cm),and
6.7%. higher than treatment of 150 kg N/ha (average for 2 crops is 1.60cm).
3.3.1.3. Status of pests and diseases of Solar 135 variety on different nitrogen and
potassium fertilizers in Binh Dinh province.
In the different fertilizer formulas, Solar 135 variety was infected with thrips at
rate from level 1 to level 2, fruit borer from 2.5% to 7.3%, anthracnose from 5.1% to
13.2%, root rot from 0.7% to 5.4% and bacterial wilt disease from 0 to 2.7%.
For potassium fertilizers, different rate treatments show no difference or
insignificant difference in the incidence of pests and diseases of Solar 135 variety.
However, for nitrogen fertilizers, the severity of infestation is the highest at rate of 360
kg N/ha and subsequently, it decreases with lesser rates of 200 and 150 kg N/ha. At
rate of 360 kg N/ha, presence of thrips reaches level 2. This value decreases to level 1
when amount of applied N is reduced to 200 and 150kg N/ha. Similarly, at application
rate of 360 kg N/ha, fruit borer and anthracnose, root rot and green bacterial wilt
infect plants at rate of 6.3% (ranges from 5.4 to7.3%), 13,0% (ranges from 11.7% to
13.7%), 4.9% (ranges from 4.1% to 5.4%) and 1.9% (ranges from 1.4 to 2.7%),
respectively. At the application rate of 200 kg N/ha, the infection rate of pests and


15

diseases is reduced to 4.2% (fruit borer), 8.8% (anthracnose), 2.6% (root rot) and 0.2%
(green bacterial wilt),respectively. The smallest rate of pests and diseases infection is
in treatment of 150 kg N/ha, at 3.0%, 5.5%, 1.5% and 0.2% respectively.
3.3.1.4. Components of yield of Solar 135 variety on different rates of nitrogen and
potassium fertilizers in Binh Dinh province
The number of fruits/plant among different fertilizer treatments varies from 61.3
to 68.2 fruits /plant. For nitrogen fertilizer, the treatment of 360 kg N/ha has the
average number of fruits/plant of 64.0 fruits, while the treatments of 200 kg N/ha and
150 kg N/ha achieve 65.3 fruits and 66.8 fruits/plant, respectivly. Thus, when
nitrogen fertilizer increases from 150kg to 200kg and 360 kg N/ha, the number of
fruits/plant does not increase but inversely it tends to decrease. In contrast, for
potassium fertilizer, application at 350 kg K2O/ha, the average fruits/plant reaches
67.0 fruits, and this number again falls down to 65.0 fruits/plant and 64.2 fruits/plant
when potassium is applied at rate of 200 kg K2O/ha and 150 kg K2O/ha, respectively.
The average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter and pulp thickness do not
differ significantly among treatments. It can be attributed to the application of 150
kg N/ha and 150 kg K2O/ha that are enough amount for the requirement of nitrogen
and potassium fro hot chilli grown on Orthic Acrisols soil in Binh Dinh province.
Hence, there is no significant difference between application of 200 and 360 kg
N/ha as well as the application rate of 200 and 350kg K2O/ha. The difference in yield
components in the experiment is mainly influenced by the number of plants/plot and
the number of fruits/plant.
In terms of balanced ratio between nitrogen and potassium, four treatments such
as N3K1, N3K2, N3K3 and N2K1 have the highest number of fruits/plant in the
experiment which ranges from 65.8 to 68.2 fruits. Remaining treatments range from
61.3 to 65.2 fruits/plant.
3.3.1.5. Yield and economic efficiency of Solar 135 variety on different rates of
nitrogen and potassium fertilizers in Binh Dinh province
Table 3.22. Influence of nitrogen and potassium rates on yield of Solar 135
variety in Winter-spring 2015 - 2016 and Winter-spring 2016 - 2017 in Phu My
district, Binh Dinh province.
Yield of Winter-spring 2015-2016 (tons/ha)
Type and amount of
Average yield
K1
K2
K3
fertilizer
based on N
N1
32.2 ab
31.8 ab
30.6 b
31.5 b
N2
33.9 a
33.0 a
32.7 ab
33.2 a
N3
33.3 a
32.7 ab
33.1 a
33.0 a
Average yield based on
33.1 a
32.5 a
32.1 a
Potassium
CV (%) (Plot*N*K)

4.2

Yield of Winter-spring 2016-2017 (tons/ha)
Average yield
Type and amount of
K1
K2
K3


16

fertilizer
N1
N2
N3
Average yield based on
Potassium

based on N
31.8 b
33.9 a
33.5 a

ote
s:
N1
=
36
33.8 a
33.0 a
32.3 a
0
CV (%) (Plot*N*K)
5.7
kg
N/ha; N2 = 200 kg N/ha; N3 = 150 kg N/ha; K1= 350 kg K2O/ha; K2 = 200 kg K2O/ha; K3 =
150 kg K2O/ha.

32.8 ab
34.5 a
34.2 a

31.6 ab
33.9 ab
33.6 ab

31.1 b
33.2 ab
32.7 ab

Results obtained in Table 3.22 show that, in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 2016 and 2016 - 2017, treatment using 360 kg N/ha application rate obtains the
yield of hot chili at 31.5 tons/ha and 31.8 tons/ha respectively. At the rate of 200 kg
N/ha, hot chili yield is 33.2 tons/ha and 33.9 tons/ha respectively. At the rate of 150
kg N/ha, yield is 33.0 tons/ha and 33.5 tons/ha, respectively. In the above three
application rates, 200 and 150 kg N/ha have higher yield, and there is a statistically
significant at the LSD0,05 in compare with application rate of 360 kg N/ha in both
two crop seasons.
By contrast, for Potassium fertilizer, due to there is no difference in the yield
components (except for fruits/plant), the yield of hot chili in both crops at 3 levels of
potassium (350, 200, 150 kg K2O/ha) is not statistically different.
Table 3.23. Yield of Solar 135 variety in different rates of nitrogen and
potassium fertilizers in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 - 2016 and the Winterspring 2016 - 2017 in Phu My district, Binh Dinh province.
Treatment
N1K1 (Control)
N1K2
N1K3
N2K1
N2K2
N2K3
N3K1
N3K2
N3K3

Yield (tons/ha)
WinterWinterspring 2015 - spring 2016 2016
2017
32.2 ab
32.8 ab
31.8 ab
31.6 ab
30.6 b
31.1 b
33.9 a
34.5 a
33.0 a
33.9 ab
32.7 ab
33.2 ab
33.3 a
34.2 a
32.7 ab
33.6 ab
33.1 a
32.7 ab

Average
32.5
31.7
30.9
34.1
33.5
33.0
33.8
33.2
32.9

CV (%) (Plot*N*K)
4.2
5.7
4.2
LSD0.05 (Same nitrogen rate)
2.42
3.37
2.42
LSD0.05 (Different nitrogen rate)
2.33
2.93
2.33
Notes: N1 = 360 kg N/ha; N2 = 200 kg N/ha; N3 = 150 kg N/ha; K1= 350 kg K2O/ha; K2
= 200 kg K2O/ha; K3 = 150 kg K2O/ha.

N


17

In terms of balanced ratio between nitrogen and potassium, the average yield in
two crops of all treatments varies from 30.9 to 34.1 tons/ha, of which the lowest
yield is in the treatment N1K3 which gains only 30.9 tons/ha while the highest
yields are in three treatments of N2K1, N2K2 and N3K1 which range from 33.5 to
34.1 tons/ha (Table 3.23).
Results of economic analysis of all treatments of nitrogen and potassium
fertilizer show that, the average yield of 2 crops of all treatments reaches from 30.9
to 44.1 tons/ha which makes income from 370.20 to409.20 millions VND/ha, net
profit from 248.40 to 287.55 millions/ha, and profit rate of investment capital from
2.04 to 2.37. In which, the treatment N2K1 achieves the highest yield and income.
However, the net profit and profit rate of the investment capital are equal or no
significant difference compared to the treatments of N2K2, N2K3, N3K1, N3K2 and
N3K3. Thus, application rate of 200 and 150 kg N/ha combined with three levels of
potassium as 350, 200 and 150 kg K2O/ha do not make any difference in net profit
and profit rate. Therefore, application of treatment N3K2 or applying nitrogen,
potassium and phosphorus fertilizer at rate of 150kg N, 100kg P2O5 and 150 K2O for
1 hectare (at ratio of 1.5 : 1 : 1.5) in combination with the basal fertilizer of 20 tons
manure plus 500kg lime powder is the reasonable level of fertilizers to produce the
highest productivity and economic efficiency of hot chilli grown on Orthic Acrisols
soil in Binh Dinh province.
3.3.2. Study the effects of dose and ratio of nitrogen and calcium on growth and
yield of hot chilli
3.3.2.1. The growth duration of Solar 135 variety on various rates of nitrogen and
calcium fertilizers in Binh Dinh province
Among the different nitrogen and fertilizer treatments, there is a difference in the
growth duration of hot chilli. In the treatment of 360 kg N/ha with the time from
transplanting to flowering;to first harvest and to the end of harvest average of 36,2
days; 99,9 days and 143 days respectively (varying from 35 to 38 days, 98 to 101 days
and 142 to 146 days). When nitrogen fertilizer is reduced to 200 kg N/ha, the time
from transplanting to flowering; first harvest and to the end of harvest is 34.0 days;
95.4 days; and138.5 days, respectively (it is 2.2 days, 4.5 days and 4.8 days
respectively shorter than that of 360 kg N/ha) and the shortest duration when
application of 150 kg N / ha to 33.5 days to flowers; 93.2 days to the first harvest and
135.0 days to the end of harvest (it is 2.7 days, 6.7 days and 8.3 days respectively
shorter than those of application rate of 360 kg N/ha). This result is similar to the
experiment of nitrogen and potassium when reducing nitrogen rate from 360 kg N/ha
to 200 kg N/ha and 150 kg N/ha. By contrast, among different treatments of calcium
fertilizer, the growth duration of chilli is less different (it varies from 0.6 - 1.4 days in
the same season). The time from transplanting to flowering at 3 rates of calcium
fertilizer ranges from 33.3 to 34.3 days (crop 1) and from 34.7 to 36.0 days (crop 2);
time from transplanting to the first harvest varies from 94.7 to 96.0 days (crop 1) and
from 96.0 - 98.0 days (crop 2); from transplanting to end of harvest is from 137.7 to
138.3 days (crop 1) and 139.3 days to 140.7 days (crop 2).


18

3.3.2.2. Growth potential of the Solar 135 variety on various rates of nitrogen and
calcium fertilizers in Binh Dinh
The results of monitoring growth of Solar 135 variety in fertilizer treatments in
two crop seasons Winter-spring 2015 -2016 and Winter-spring 2016-2017 indicate
that, the plant height in the treatment of 360 kg N/ha is 92.3 cm (varies from 91.1 to
93.6 cm), it is 3.0% higher than that of the 200 kg N/ha (average of 89.6 cm and
ranges from 88.0 to 91.3 cm) and it is 6.6% higher than that of 150 kg N/ha (average
of 86.3 cm and ranges from 85.0 to 88.0 cm). By contrast, among different calcium
treatments, plant height does not show the difference.
The same as plant height, the canopy diameter and stem diameter are different
among treatments. Canopy diameter in treatment of 360 kg N/ha achieves in average
of 77,6 cm during two seasons, it is 5,2% and 6,7%. higher than treatment of 200kg
N/ha (Average of 2 crop is 73,6 cm) and 150 kg N/ha (average of two crop 72,4 cm)
respectively. At the same time, the stem diameter of the treatment of 360 kg N/ha is
1.74 cm higher than the average of 2 crops, higher than the 200 kg N/ha treatment
(average of 2 crops was 1,62 cm) is 6%, and for treatment of 150 kg N/ha (average
for 2 crops was 1.61cm) is 7.5%.
3.3.2.3. Status of pests and diseases of Solar 135 variety on different nitrogen and
calcium fertilizer in Binh Dinh province.
The results of monitoring pests and diseases in treatments using different
nitrogen and calcium fertilizer in two crops have shown that: Solar 135 variety is
infected with peak fruit rot disease from 2.2 to 6.1%, anthracnose from 4.8 - 13.7%,
root rot from 0.0 - 6.1% and bacterial wilt from 0 to 3.4%.
For nitrogen fertilizers, the severity of infestation is highest when applying 360
kg N/ha and decreased with application of 200 and 150 kg N/ha. When applied 360
kg N/ha, peak fruit rot disease, anthracnose, root rot and bacterial wilt had moderate
infection of 5.4% (range 4.6-6.1% ), 11.7% (range from 10.8 to 13.7%), 4.2% (range
from 2.7 to 6.1%) and 1.9% (range from 0.7- 3.4%). However, at the rate of 200 kg
N/ha, the disease rate dropped to 3.5% (peak fruit rot), 8.9% (anthracnose), 1.2%
(root rot) and 0.7% (green bacterial wilt) and the smallest infection was 150 kg N/ha,
the rate of harmful disease was 2.7%; 5.7%; 0.7% and 0.2%.
For calcium, the rate of disease has decreased significantly when applied from
350 kg CaO/ha to 500 kg CaO/ha. Average fruit rot disease decreased from 4.3% to
3.8%, the average anthracnose from 9.8% decreased to 8.3%, the average of root rot
disease decreased from 2.8% to 1.8% and average bacterial wilt decreased from
1.6% to 0.7%. However, when increase application rate to 800 kg CaO/ha, the rate of
disease did not decrease compared to the level of 500 kg CaO/ha.
3.3.2.4. Components of yield of Solar 135 variety on different nitrogen and calcium
fertilizers in Binh Dinh province
The results show that the number of fruits/plant between the different fertilizer
treatments varies from 61.7 to 69.3 fruits/ plant. For nitrogen fertilizer, the treatment
of 360 kg N/ha had the average number of fruit/plant of 63.9 fruits, while the
treatment of 200 kg N/ ha reaches 64.9 fruits, while apply 150 kg N/ ha, all
treatments have the average number of fruits/plant is 67.2 fruits. Thus, when


19

nitrogen fertilizer increases from 150 to 200 and 360 kg N/ha, the number of
fruits/plant do not increase but also tend to decrease. In contrast, for calcium
fertilizer, when applied at 350 kg CaO/ ha, the average fruits/plant reaches 63.8
fruits, and the figure increases to 65.6 fruits/plant when applied 500 kg CaO/ha, and
66.7 fruits/plant when applying 800 kg CaO/ha.
The average fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter and pulp thickness do not
differ significantly between treatments. It can be attributed to the application of 150
kg N/ha to meet the nitrogen requirement of hot chilli in Orthic Acrisols soil in Binh
Dinh province, so there is no significant difference compared to the application of
200 and 360 kg N/ha. However, different treatments of calcium give a significant
difference in application of 500 and 800 kg CaO/ha for average fruit weight, fruit
length and fruit diameter compared to 350 kg CaO/ha from 0.6 to 0.9 grams/fruit, 0.3
to 0.6 cm and 0.5 to 1.0 mm. Thus, in terms of the difference in the yield
components in this experiment, in addition to the main effect of the number of
plants/plot and the number of fruits/plant which is also influenced by the calcium
factor affecting the mass index average fruit weight, fruit length and fruit diameter.
At the same time, the N3C2 and N3C3 treatments have the highest number of
fruits/plant in this experiment and ranges from 66.9 to 69.0 fruits, the remaining
treatment had 62.3 - 66.2 fruits/plant.
3.3.2.5. Yield and economic efficiency of Solar 135 variety on different nitrogen and
calcium fertilizers in Binh Dinh province
Table 3.30. Influence of nitrogen and calcium fertilizers on yield of Solar 135
variety in Winter-spring 2015 - 2016 and Winter-spring 2016 - 2017 in Phu My
district, Binh Dinh province.
Yield on Winter-spring 2015-2016 (tons/ha)
Type and amount of
Average yield based on
C1
C2
C3
fertilizer
N
N1
28.9 c
31.3 bc 32.0 ab
30.7 b
N2
32.2 ab
34.5 a
34.3 a
33.7 a
N3
32.2 ab 33.9 ab
34.4 a
33.5 a
Average yield based on
31.1 b
33.2 a
33.6 a
Calcium
CV (%) (Plot*N*C)

4.2

Yield on Winter-spring 2016-2017 (tons/ha)
Type and amount of
Average yield based on
C1
C2
C3
fertilizer
N
N1
28.2 d
30.5 c
31.3 bc
30.0 b
N2
32.0 bc
34.3 a
33.8 a
33.4 a
N3
31.4 c
33.6 ab
34.1 a
33.0 a
Average yield based on
30.5 b
32.8 a
33.1 a
Calcium
CV (%) (Plot*N*C)

2.9


20

Notes: N1 = 360 kg N/ha; N2 = 200 kg N/ha; N3 = 150 kg N/ha; C1= 350 kg
CaO/ha; C2= 500 kg CaO/ha; C3= 800 kg CaO/ha.

Results obtained in Table 3.30 show that in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 2016 and 2016 - 2017, treatment using 360 kg N/ha has the yield of hot chilli at 30.7
tons/ha and 30.0 tons/ha respectively. At the rate of 200 kg N/ha, hot chilli yield
gains 33.7 tons/ha and 33.4 tons/ha respectively. At the rate of 150 kg N/ha, yield is
33.5 tons/ha and 33.0 tons/ha, respectively. In the above three application rates,
application rates of 200 and 150 kg N/ha have higher yield, and there is a
statistically significant at the LSD0,05 in compare with application rate of 360 kg N/ha
in both two seasons.
For calcium fertilizer, the application of 500 and 800 kg CaO/ha have higher
yield, from 2.1 - 2.5 tons/ha compared to the level of 350 kg CaO/ha and there is a
statistically significant at the LSD0,05 in both two seasons.
Table 3.31. Yield of Solar 135 variety in different nitrogen and calcium
fertilizers in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 - 2016 and the Winter-spring 2016 2017 in Phu My district, Binh Dinh province.
Treatment
N1C1 (Control)
N1C2
N1C3
N2C1
N2C2
N2C3
N3C1
N3C2
N3C3

Yield (tons/ha)
Winter-spring Winter-spring
2015 - 2016
2016 - 2017
28.9 c
28.2 d
31.3 bc
30.5 c
32.0 ab
31.3 bc
32.2 ab
32.0 bc
34.5 a
34.3 a
34.3 a
33.8 a
32.2 ab
31.4 c
33.9 ab
33.6 ab
34.4 a
34.1 a

Average
28.6
30.9
31.7
32.1
34.4
34.1
31.8
33.8
34.3

CV (%) (Plot*N*C)
4.2
2.9
LSD0.05 (Same Nitrogen rate)
2.42
1.64
LSD0.05 (Different Nitrogen rate)
2.95
2.24
Notes: N1 = 360 kg N/ha; N2 = 200 kg N/ha; N3 = 150 kg N/ha; C1= 350 kg CaO/ha;
C2= 500 kg CaO/ha; C3= 800 kg CaO/ha.

In terms of interaction between nitrogen and calcium, the average yield in the two
crops of all treatments is from 28.6 to 34.4 tons/ha, of which, the lowest is the
treatment N1C1 which reaches only 28.6 tons/ha, the highest values are in four
treatments N2C2, N2C3, N3C2 and N3C3 which reaches 33.8 - 34.4 tons/ha (Table
3.31).
Results of economic analysis of all treatments of nitrogen and calcium fertilizer
showd that the average yield of 2 crops of all treatments reaches 28.6 - 34.4 tons/ha
which has income from 342.60 - 412.80 millions VND/ha, net profit from 220.87 to
294.32 millions/ha and the profit rate on investment capital varies from 1.81 to 2.49.


21

In which, the two treatments N2C2 and N3C3 achieve the highest yield and income.
However, the net profit and profit rate on the capital investment are equal or no
significant difference compared to the N2C3 and N3C2 treatments. Thus, with the
application rate of 200 and 150 kg N/ha combined with two levels of calcium 500 and
800 kg CaO/ha, there is no difference in net profit and profit rate. Therefore, treatment
N3C2 or application of nitrogen and calcium with at rate of 150kg N and 500kg CaO
for 1 hectare, with basal fertilizer as 20 tons manure, 100 kg P2O5 and 160 kg K2O is
the suitable level of fertilizer which achieves the highest productivity and economic
efficiency for hot chilli in Orthic Acrisols soil at pHkcl<5.0 in Binh Dinh province.
3.4. Study on the effects of different rootstocks on the growth, yield and disease
resistance of Solar 135 variety
3.4.1. The survival rate of Solar 135 scion on different types of rootstock after
transplant period
The results show that, after transplant period, the rate of survival of Solar 135
variety on different rootstocks after grafting begin to stabilize after 9 days. Up to the
12th day and 15th day, the survival rate of the grafted plants is almost unchanged
compared to 9 days. The highest value is in Trang Khanh Hoa variety, reaching to
95.0% which is from 5.0 to 8.7%.higher than 4 remaining rootstocks.
3.4.2. The growth capacity of Solar135 variety grafted on different types of
rootstocks
The time from transplanting to finish harvesting of grafted varieties is quite
large, ranging from 122 to 162 days. In which, grafting on 3 varieties of Xiem Ninh
Thuan Hybrid, Hue Bom and Catu Nghe An, the harvest time varies from 122 to131
days which areshorter than control variety from 8 to17 days. In contrast, the
harvesting time of grafted plants of Purple Binh Dinh and Trang Khanh Hoa are 154
and 162 days, respectively, which are 15 and 23 days longer than that of control
varieties, respectively.
Plant height: At the period of 30 days after transplanting, the plant height in all
combinations is lower than the control variety, from 1.3 to 10.9 cm, but at the period
60, 90 and 120 days after transplanting, the height of the transplanted plants on
Trang Khanh Hoa is highest in comparision with 5 other rootstocks and higher than
the control (non-grafted) variety was 0.7 cm (60 days after transplanting), 1.1 cm (90
days after transplanting) and 3.7 cm (120 days after transplanting), while plant height
of grafted plants of 4 remain rootstocks (Purple Binh Dinh, Xiem Ninh Thuan, Hue
Bom and Catu Nghe An) are shorter than control variety (not grafted), from 4.3 to
27.1 cm (60 days after transplanting); from 3.8 to 15.7 cm (90 days after
transplanting) and from 5.1 to 18,9 cm (120 days after transplanting).
Ratio of rootstock stem diameter/scion stem diameter at several periods such as
1, 60, 90 and 120 days shows that, Trang Khanh Hoa variety has an index “T” at
stable level and this index is nearly 1 compared to the other 4 rootstocks. At the stage
of 120 days after transplanting, the chilli plants reach at stable growth and
development, the T-index of Trang Khanh Hoa rootstock obtains 0.98, whereas other
4 rootstocks gain at different T-index such as : Catu Nghe An (T = 0.84), Purple Binh
Dinh (T = 0.90), Xiem Ninh Thuan Hybrid (T = 0.91) and Hue Bom (T = 0.94).


22

3.4.3. Disease status of Solar 135 variety which is grafted on different types of
rootstock
The proportion of root rot disease and bacterial wilt of different rootstock
varieties are different. For root rot disease, the infected rate ranges from 0.7 to 2.7%,
with the lowest infection is in Purple Binh Dinh rootstock which is infected only
0.7% and it is lower than that of the control varieties. The infected rate of
TrangKhanh Hoa and Xiem Ninh Thuan Hybrid varieties are 0.7%, Catu Nghe An and
Hue Bom are infected with the highest rate of 2.0 - 2.4%.
For the bacterial wilt, Trang Khanh Hoa variety is the one that is not infected
(0.0%) while Purple Binh Dinh and Xiem Ninh Thuan hybrid are infected at the same
rate as control (0.7%). Meanwhile, Hue Bom and Catu Nghe An varieties are infected
at a rate of 1.4% which are higher than that of the control varieties (0.7%).
3.4.5. Components of yield and yield of Solar 135 variety which is grafted on
different types of rootstock
Table 3.37. The effect of different rootstock varieties on yield and yield
components of Solar 135 variety in the Winter-spring crop of 2015 - 2016 in Phu
My district, Binh Dinh province.
Rootstock
Solar 135 (Control)
Purple Binh Dinh
White Khanh Hoa
Xiem Ninh Thuan Hybrid
Bom Hue
Catu Nghe An
CV (%)
LSD0,05

Number of
harvested
plants/plot
(plant)
48.0 ± 1.0
48.3 ± 1.2
48.3 ± 0.6
48.0 ± 0.0
47.0 ± 1.0
47.3 ± 1.5

Fruits/plant
(fruit)
65.3 ± 2.8
55.7 ± 3.3
66.4 ± 4.1
55.6 ± 2.2
52.3 ± 2.8
46.3 ± 2.4

Average
fruit
weight
(gram)
15.4 ± 0.8
14.2 ± 0.6
15.2 ± 0.5
13.4 ± 0.7
13.5 ± 0.6
13.3 ± 0.6

Actual yield
(tons/ha)

33.2 a
25.4 b
33.7 a
23.2 bc
22.6 cd
20.4 d
5.0
2.4

The data in table 3.37 shows that: The number of harvested plants/plot ranges
from 47.0 to 48.3 plants. The difference in number of harvested plants/plot is due to
the presence of root rot and bacterial wilt which vary among different rootstocks.
The number of fruits/plant among different rootstocks varies greatly, it ranges
from 46.3 to 66.4 fruits. In 5 different rootstocks, Trang Khanh Hoa rootstock is only
one that has the same number of fruits/plant with control, while the remaining
rootstocks produce only from 46.3 to 55.7 fruits/plant, which is lower than that of the
control varieties (9.6 - 19.0 fruits/plant).
Similar to the number of fruits/plant, the average fruit weight of Trang Khanh
Hoa is 15.2 grams, this is equivalent to the control (15.4 grams). However grafting
on the remaining rootstocks, this value achieves only from 13.3 to 14.2 grams which
is from 1.2 to 2.1 grams lower than that of the control variety.
Due to the difference among rootstocks which affect on the number of
harvested plants/plot; the number of fruits/plant; and the average fruit weight, the


23

actual yield of Solar 135 variety therefore when grafting on different types of
rootstock also has a large fluctuation. It ranges from 20.4 to 33.7 tons/ha. In which,
grafted plants on Trang Khanh Hoa rootstock obtains 33.7 tons/ha, which is 0.5
tons /ha higher than that of the control group.. However, there was no significant
difference at LSD0,05. The remaining rootstocks gain only from 20.4 to 25.4 tons/ha,
which are lower significantly at LSD0,05 in compared with control varieties, from 7.8
to 12.8 tons/ha.
3.5. Assessment of the application of research results to the yield and quality of
hot chilli on Orthic Acrisols soil in Binh Dinh
Results of the assessment of the comparison of yield and economic efficiency
between intensive cultivation method and traditional method of Solar 135 variety
show that, in traditional cultivation method, the number of fruits/plant is low due to
imbalanced fertilization which leads to the increase rate of fruit peak rot and
anthracnose diseases. On the other hand, the level of root rot disease and bacterial
wilt is high that causes the yield of TN 185 variety is decreased, at only 25.7
tons/ha. Meanwhile, application of the current project results by using Solar 135
variety combined with balanced fertilizer which subsequently leads to higher disease
resistance, a higher number of fruits/plant, the yield therefore reaches to 32.8
tonnes/ha, which is 21.6% higher than the traditional cultivation method.
Table 3.39. Economic efficiency of different cultivation methods in the Winterspring 2016-2017 in Phu My district, Binh Dinh province
(Unit: 1.0 ha)
Evaluation Criteria
Total cost (1,000 VND)
Materials, power (1,000 Dong)
Labor cost (1,000 Dong)
Total revenue (million VND)
Yield (ton/ha)
Product price (1,000 Dong/kg)
Net profit (million VND)
Rate of return on investment capital

Traditional
Cultivation
cultivation of
methods apply
farmer
results of project
128,200.0
114,910.0
57,250.0
46,210.0
70,950.0
68,700.0
330.0
393.6
27.5
32.8
12.0
12.0
201.8
278.7
1.6
2.4

The results of economic analysis show that: at the same price of product, due
to the difference in yield and total cost between the two cultivation methods, total
revenue, net profit and profit margin are different. In the traditional farming
practices, the total revenue is 330.0 million dong, the profit is 201.8 million dong
and the profit margin is 1.6. Meanwhile, the cultivation method that applied the
research results of the current project has total revenue of 393.6 million VND. Itsnet
profit reaches to 278.7 million VND and its profit margin get 2.4 (Table 3.39).


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