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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
AND TRAINING

MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE
AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE IN VIETNAM

================

NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF SOME
FEEDSTUFFS AND OPTIMUM LEVELS OF
APPARENT ILEAL AMINO ACIDS
DIGESTIBILITY IN COMMERCIAL PIG
DIETARY

Subject : Animal Sciences
ID : 62 62 01 05


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INTRODUCTION
1. The urgency of thesis
The true nutritional values of feed are determined properly
through the animal digestion and absorption only, therefore,
digestibility is an important indicator to evaluate the nutritional values
of the feed. Determining the feedstuffs digestibility will more
accurately evaluate the protein, amino acids in the feed content to be
digested, as well as the digestible protein and amino acid demands to
provide adequate protein and amino acids for animals. With this
evaluation system, the livestock demands for amino acids are now
defined and expressed in digestible amino acids form and it was
replaced to the previously calculation to identified and calculated the
needs of amino acids by crude protein form. The studies on ileal
digestibility of feedstuffs are fair new in Vietnam and there was very
few experimental in native pigs or in few raw materials supplied
protein and /or energy in animal dietary. There was no publication
about apparent ileal amino acids digestibility in commercial pigs in
Vietnam currently, so, the study on the topic is necessary to evaluate
exactly the optimum amino acids level needed to supply for
commercial pig dietary. It helps to avoid the excess of amino acids in
diets, thus, reducing environment pollution as well as increasing the
feed cost. Besides, it also meets the increasing demands of livestock
producers about the optimal ration for livestock.
2. Thesis objective
- Determining chemical composition and amino acids content
in 25 commonly used feed ingredients in commercial pigs diets in
Vietnam
- Determining apparent ileal amino acids digestibility of the
25 feed ingredients in commercial pigs diets in Vietnam
- Determining the optimum levels of amino acids needs in
commercial pigs dietary by apparent ileal digestibility method
3. The novelty of thesis
Thesis results are contributed systematic information about
chemical compositions, nutrional values and up-to-date the data of
apparent ileal amino acids digestibility properly. Amino acids
requirements of commercial pigs is calculated by apparent ileal amino
acids digestibility instead of under crude protein form. Therefore, it


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helps to supply the nutrients which matched the needs for growth
performance and development in pigs.
Studies on determining the amino acids requirements of
apparent ileal digestibility in commercial pigs were very few and just
few results were published. Therefore, the research is totally new in
Vietnam.
4. Scientific and pratical values
- Supply a relatively comprehensive set of data on chemical
composition and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and
proteins of most commonly used feed ingredients to dietary ration in
commercial pigs in Vietnam today.
- Determining the apparent ileal amino acids digestibility of
commercial pigs to get digestible amino acids amount exactly which
match to the growth performance and development in the pigs, so that
avoid the excess or shortage nutritional replenishment leading to
waste, which still does not guarantee the best growth performance of
the pigs.
Chapter 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH
1.1. International research situation
Nutrition researchers in the world suggested that in order to
properly assess the value of amino acids for pigs, the digestibility must
be determined at the end of the small intestine instead of the entire
digestive tract due to the effect of microflora in large intestine and
determination of the ileal digestibility method were more appropriate
for pigs. Crude protein content in dietary affected to ileal amino acids
digestibility and close related to properties of dietary fiber. High
environmental temperatures did not affect the total digestibility of
nitrogen and dry matter, as well as apparent ileal digestibility (AID)
of nitrogen and amino acids (AA) in pigs. Feed ration of pigs based on
AA digestibility instead of total AA could reduce nitrogen excretion.
1.2. Vietnam research situation
There were few feedstuffs experimented by ileal digestibility in
Vietnam such as: soybean products (extruded soybean, roasted
soybean, soybean meal from Argentina and India); high protein
ingredients (fishmeal, peanut oil cake, shrimp meal, fresh shrimp meal
and silaged shrimp meal; high energy ingredients (maize, broken rice,
rice bran, wheat bran, cassava) and some traditional ingredients


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(rubber oil cake, coconut oil cake, dried/ silage cassava leaves, peanut
stalk and arrowroot leaves. Studies on AID of AA conducted to
determine lysine digestibility/ME in in commercial pigs (4 blood)
diets and demands of energy, protein and AA digestibility (lysine,
methionine + cystine, threonine) in Landrace and Yorkshire gilts.
Chapter 2: CONTENTS, MATERIALS AND RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
2.1. Contents of the research
- Analysis of chemical composition and AA in some popular
feedstuffs for pig dietary.
- Determining of apparent ileal amino acids Digestibility
(AIAAD) in the feedstuffs for pig dietary.
- Determining of the optimum level of AIAAD for commercial
pigs.
2.2 Materials
2.2.1 Time and places of the research
- Analysis of chemical composition and AA in some popular
feedstuffs for pig dietary at the livestock laboratory under Institute of
Animal Sciences Southern Vietnam from Jul 2011- Nov 2011.
- Determining of apparent ileal amino acids Digestibility
(AIAAD) in the feedstuffs for pig dietary was conducted at Binh
Thang pig research & Development Center and livestock laboratory
under Institute of Animal Sciences Southern Vietnam from Nov 2011May 2012.
- Determining of the optimum level of AIAAD for
commercial pigs was conducted at Thai my pig farm, My Khanh B
Hamlet, Thai My Commune, Cu Chi, HCMC from 27 March 2013 –
21 Nov 2014.
2.2.2 Experimental subjects
- The feedstuffs: 25 samples of common ingredients which
used diet ration were collected at feedmills, retails and as well as feed
factories in Vietnam
- Grower pigs: 504 exotic grower pigs were entired into the
research, in which included 400 pigs ((Duroc×(Yorkshire×
Landrace), 200 castrated male pigs and 200 female pigs) with an


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average weight of 20,1 ± 0,3 kg and 104 pigs (Yorkshire× Landrace),
with an average weight of 32 ± 3 kg.
2.3. Reserach method
2.3.1. Analysis of chemical composition and AA in some popular
feedstuffs for pig dietary
The 2 kg of each samples were collected and analysed the
chemical compositions and nutrient values at the livestock laboratory
under Institute of Animal Sciences Southern Vietnam. The sampling
protocol was followed the standard of TCVN 4325-2007.
Analysed parameters: Humidity (TCVN 4326-2001), Crude protein
(TCVN 4328-1:2007), crude fat (TCVN 4331-2001), Crude fiber
(TCVN 4329-2007), ash (TCVN 4327-2007), Calci (TCVN
15261:2007), total Phosphorus (TCVN 1525-2001), ME according to
formula published by Just (1984); amino acid analysis: reversedphase HPLC amino acid analysis method Water ACCQ•Tag
according to handbook of Institute of Animal research, Queensland,
Australia and referred to AOAC 994.12
2.3.2. Determining of Apparent Ileal Amino Acids Digestibility
(AIAAD) in the feedstuffs for pig dietary
2.3.2.1 Materials
- 25 kinds of feedstuffs used in pig industry and basal diet
- 104 castrated males (Yorkshire x Landrace) in growing phase
with an average starting weight of 32 ± 3 kg.
2.3.2.2 Experimental design
The experiment was designed as Completely Randomized
Design with 26 treatments (diets) included 25 diets with the 25 kinds
of feedstuffs and one basal, the experiment was replicated 4 times (4
rounds, each round conducted with 25 diets from the 25 kinds of
feedstuffs and a basal diet. The total experiment time was 70 days in
which feeding program each round was 14 days and time for preparing
between rounds was 4-5 days. The experimental pigs were housed in
individual cages.
The basal diet: corn starch, casein, DCP, salt, minerals and
vitamins premix, crude protein 18% (NRC, 1998).
The experimental diets: basal diet + 20% of a feedstuffs.
The experimental pigs were fed twice per day at 8:00h and


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15:00h with 90% amount of ad libitum program. The feed was mixed
with water at ratio of 1:1. Drinking water was provided by well water
through nipples. The digesta was collected according to Donkoh
method (1994). On the 14th day of each round, after 9 hours of the last
feeding, the animals were slaughtered to collect ileal digesta
immediately at the last 20 cm section of ileal (counted up from
ileocecal valve) and weighed. The ileal digesta was stored at minus
200C and be dried within 48 hours, milled and to analyse dry matter,
protein and amino acids.
2.3.3. Determining of the optimum level of AIAAD for commercial
pigs
2.3.3.1 Materials
- Ingredients of experimental dietary: high quality maize, high
quality rice bran, cassava root, soybean meal 47% CP, fishmeal 50%
CP, vegetable oil, amino acids, minerals and vitamins premix, DCP,
etc.
- 400 grower pigs (Duroc x (Landrace x Yorkshire) at 60 dayold with an average weight of 20,1 ± 0,3 kg.
2.3.3.2 Experimental design
A total of 400 grower pigs (Duroc x (Landrace x Yorkshire)
at 60 days-old with an average weight of 20,1 ± 0,3 kg, and allocated
to 4 treatments (10 castrated male and 10 female/treatment with 5
replications. The experimental diets was formulated by software
Feedlive 1.5 based on the practice ingredients and data results of past
part of the research. The experimental animals were accessed fed and
water ad libitum. The experiment design as follows:
Treatment 1: diet with level of AIAAD 1 (=90% amount of
AIAAD according to NRC 1998)
Treatment 2: diet with level of AIAAD 2 (=100% amount of
AIAAD according to NRC 1998)
Treatment 3: diet with level of AIAAD 3 (=110% amount of
AIAAD according to NRC 1998)
Treatment 4: diet with level of AIAAD 4 (=120% amount of
AIAAD according to NRC 1998)


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2.1. Experiment diets of grower pigs stage 1 (20 – 50 kg)
Ingredients
High quality maize
High quality rice bran
Cassava root
Vegetable oil
Soybean meal 47% CP
Fishmeal 50% CP
Min. and vit. premix
NaCl
L-Lysine
DL-Methionine
L-Threonine
DL-Tryptophan
Total

Treat 1
700,00
56,46
10,00
11,78
140,72
75,62
2,50
2,46
0,46
0
0
0
1.000

Treat 2
700,00
58,08
10,00
11,84
136,92
75,83
2,50
2,45
1,57
0,24
0,48
0,1
1.000

Treat 3
700,00
59,70
10,00
11,88
132,66
76,06
2,50
2,44
2,69
0,72
1,04
0,31
1.000

Treat 4
700,00
61,37
10,00
11,90
128,57
76,27
2,50
2,43
3,68
1,15
1,70
0,44
1.000

Table 2.2. Experiment diets of grower pigs stage 2 (50 kg -finishing)
Ingredients
High quality maize
High quality rice bran
Cassava root
Vegetable oil
Soybean meal 47% CP
Fishmeal 50% CP
Min. and vit. premix
NaCl
L-Lysine
DL-Methionine
L-Threonine
Total

Treat 1
661,31
10,00
137,84
8,49
100,00
77,47
2,39
2,50
0
0
0
1.000

Treat 2
513,32
123,07
157,86
25,76
100,00
74,00
2,51
2,50
0,63
0,11
0,24
1.000

Treat 3
316,99
200,00
250,00
39,01
116,86
69,86
2,66
2,50
1,04
0,50
0,59
1.000

Treat 4
315,51
200,00
250,00
38,70
116,95
69,88
2,66
2,50
1,80
0,89
1,11
1.000

2.3.3.3 Measurements and records
+ Feed intake: daily record, and then calculated at end of each
phase and whole trial.


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+ Initial weight, weight at d60 of trial and finishing weight
(d120).
2.3.3.4 Data analysis
The data will be recorded and analysed by Microsoft
Office Excel 2007 and ANOVA analysis -MINITAB software version
16.20 for Windows. Differences among treatments will be

separated Tukey test. The significance level will be considered
at P<0.05
Statistical model
Yij = μ + i + eij
Where as:
Yij : the value for the ith observation in the jth treatment level
μ : grand mean
αi : the effect of A treatment level i
eij : the error effect associated with Yij
Chapter 3: RESULT
3.1.
Analysis of chemical composition and AA in some popular
feedstuffs for pig dietary
3.1.1 Nutritional composition of some grains
Table 3.1. Nutritional composition of some grain samples
Parameter

Dry matter (%)
ME (Kcal/kg)
Crude Protein(%)
Crude fat (%)
Crude fiber (%)
Ash (%)
Ca (%)
Total P (%)

High
quality
maize
(n=3)
88.9
3,287.7
9.4
4.9
2.1
1.5
0.1
0.4

Maize
(n=3)
88.6
3,231.7
8.4
3.9
2.5
1.4
0.1
0.3

Broken
rice
(n=3)
87.9
3,318
8.8
1.5
0.8
1.0
0.2
0.2

Barley
(n=3)
88.7
2,739.5
10.7
4.1
9.1
3.3
0.1
0.4

Wheat
(n=3)
88.8
3,284.
5
10.8
1.3
2.3
0.5
0.1
0.1

Nutritional composition of some grains was almost the same,
excepted some parameters such as crude fiber and ash (see table 3.1).
The crude protein contained 8.4-10.8%, average 9.6%; crude fat 1.3-


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4.9%, average 3.1%; the ash (total minerals) 1.0-3.3% (ash of wheat
0.5%), average 1.5%. However, the ME of the grains contained
differently and ranged from 2,739.5 Kcal/kg in barley to 3,318.5
Kcal/kg in broken rice.
The AA profile, special essential AA content in the grains were
often not enough if single used them to formulate diet for pigs. The
AA contained different between the grains (see table 3.2). The lysine
was 2.3 - 3.6 g/kg; methionine was similar between maize, barley and
wheat with 1.7 g/kg, but it was higher in broken rice 2.4 g/kg;
threonine ranged from 2.7 – 3.4 g/kg; tryptophan was 0.3 – 1.3 g/kg.
In the same kind of grain, the high quality grain showed the higher
nutritional value compared to the normal one. This was allowed
natural rule because the high quality grain was lower impurities and
was not degenerated by oxidation, preservation and molds. The results
were agreed with published data by NRC (1998), National Institute of
Animal Sciences Vietnam, (2001), La Van Kinh (2003), and Sauvant
(2004).
Table 3.2. AA content in some kinds of grain samples (g/kg)
Parameter

High quality
maize

(n=3)

maize
(n=3)

broken
rice (n=3)

Barley
(n=3)

Wheat
(n=3)

Lysine
2.3
3.0
3.6
3.1
2.4
Methionine
1.7
1.7
2.4
1.7
1.7
Threonine
3.0
2.7
3.0
3.4
3.1
Tryptophan
0.4
0.3
0.9
1.3
1.3
The difference of amino acids rate to crude protein each kind
grain was showed in table 3.3. Considering to the shortage of 4
essential amino acids for pig diet, the lysine and threonine rates to
crude protein between grains was the same, in which the lysine was
ranged from 2.6 - 3.4 g/kg and the threonine was 2.9 – 3.4 g/kg.
However, the rates of methionine and tryptophan to crude protein
were different, in that, the methionine rate in maize (1.8% - 2.0%) and
broken rice (2.8% ) was higher than those of barley and wheat (1.6%);
whereas the tryptophan rate of maize (0.4% - 0.5%) and broken rice
(1.0% ) was lower than those of barley and wheat (1.2%). In the same


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kind of grain, the tryptophan rate to crude protein was the lowest one
(0.4 – 1.2%).
Table 3.3. AA rate to crude protein of some kinds of grain samples (%)
Parameter

High
quality
maize

maize
(n=3)

Barley
(n=3)

Wheat
(n=3)

Lysine
Methionine
Threonine
Tryptophan

(n=3)
2.6
1.8
3.2
0.5

Broken
rice
(n=3)

2.8
2
3.2
0.4

3.4
2.8
3.4
1.0

3.4
1.6
3.2
1.2

2.9
1.6
2.9
1.2

3.1.2 Nutritional composition of some rich enegry agriculture byproducts
a) Nutritional composition of some kinds of bran
There was no significant difference between the rice brans
excepted crude fat (2.7 – 11.7%) and ash (3.7 – 10.4%) (see table 3.4.
The nutritional composition was depended on the kind of the byproducts and their processing. ME of the rice brans was ranged from
2,486.9 – 2,885.1 Kcal/kg and their ME was lower than those of the
grains..
Table 3.4: Nutritional composition of some kinds of bran samples
Parameter

Dry matter %)
ME (Kcal/kg)
Crude Protein (%)
Crude fat (%)
Crude fiber (%)
Ash (%)
Ca (%)
Total P (%)

Extracted
rice bran
(n=3)

High
quality
rice bran
(n=3)

Normal
rice bran
(n=3)

90.1
2,705.7
15.4
2.7
6.9
10.4
0.1
1.2

89
2,721.3
12.5
11.7
8.2
7.8
0.3
1.2

88.7
2,486.9
11.2
10.3
10.7
8.8
0.3
1.3

High
quality
wheat
bran
(n=3)
88.4
2,885
.1
15.1
3.9
7.1
3.9
0.2
1.0

Normal
wheat
bran
(n=3)
88.2
2,880.1
14.1
3.8
7.0
3.7
0.1
0.8


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There was no significant different about essential AA content in
the brans (see table 3.5). The lysine content ranged from 4.4– 6.6 g/kg,
the methionine was 2.0– 2.7 g/kg, and the threonine was 3.9– 5.3 g/kg.
However, the tryptophan in wheat bran (2.2 – 2.7 g/kg) contained double
amount compared to those of rice bran (1.3 – 1.4 g/kg).
Table 3.5 AA content of some kinds of bran samples (g/kg)
Parameter

Lysine
Methionine
Threonine
Tryptophan

Extracte
d rice
bran
(n=3)

6.6
2.3
5.3
1.4

High
quality
rice bran
(n=3)

5.1
2.7
4.2
1.4

Normal
rice bran
(n=3)

4.4
2.0
3.9
1.3

High
quality
wheat bran
(n=3)

6.1
2.0
5.3
2.7

Normal
wheat
bran
(n=3)

5.7
2.3
4.3
2.2

The AA rate to their crude protein was no different (see table
3.6). The essential AA such as lysine, methionine, threonine and
tryptophan were 3.9 – 4.3%, 1.3 – 2.2%, 3.1 – 3.5% and 0.9 – 1.8%,
respectively. The rate of tryptophan to crude protein was lowest in
compared to all kinds of bran.
Table 3.6: AA rate to crude protein of some kinds of bran (%)
Parameter

Lysine
Methionine
Threonine
Tryptophan

Extracted
rice bran
(n=3)

High
quality
rice bran
(n=3)

Normal
rice bran
(n=3)

High
quality
wheat bran
(n=3)

Normal
wheat
bran
(n=3)

4.3
1.5
3.5
0.9

4.1
2.2
3.3
1.1

3.9
1.8
3.5
1.2

4.1
1.3
3.5
1.8

4.0
1.6
3.1
1.5

b) Nutritional composition of cassava root and cassava residues
The nutritional compositions of cassava root and cassava
residues were lower more than those of brans and grains (see table 3.7)
Crude protein was 3.0% in cassava root and 1.9% in cassava residues
whereas the crude protein was 13,7% in brans and 9.6% in grains. The
crude fat was 0.6% in cassava root and 1.1% in cassava residues while
it was 6.5% in brans and 3.1% in grains. The other nutrition parameters
of cassava roots and cassava residues were lower than those of brans


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and grains as well. ME of cassava roots (3,172.5 Kcal/kg) was higher
than those of cassava residues (2,717.6 Kcal/kg). These dued to the
crude protein in cassava root higher than those of cassava residues as
well as the fiber content in cassava residue (2.1%) was higher than
those of cassava root (8.1%). The findings was agreed with the
published data by La Van Kinh (2003).
Table 3.7 Nutritional composition of cassava root and cassava
residue samples
Cassava root
Cassava residue
Parameter
(n=3)
(n=3)
Dry matter (%)
87.7
88.4
ME (Kcal/kg)
3,172.5
2,717.6
Crude protein (%)
3.0
1.9
Crude fat (%)
0.6
1.1
Crude fiber (%)
2.1
8.1
Ash (%)
1.4
1.8
Ca (%)
0.2
0.4
Total P (%)
0.1
0.1
The data showed the AA content in cassava root was higher
than those of in cassava residues but it was no significant in statistical
analysis (see table 3.8). The AA amount in cassava root and cassava
residue were very low, special essential AA, in that, almost of their
amount was lower than 1g/kg. The lysine was 0.8 – 0.9 g/kg,
methionine was 0.3 – 0.4 g/kg, threonine was 0.6 – 0.8 g/kg and
tryptophan was 0.1 – 0.2 g/kg. Since the crude protein of cassava root
and cassava residue was so low, their AA was also low as well. It did
not match the demand for pig compared to NRC’s requirement (1998).
Table 3.8 AA content of cassava root and cassava residue samples
g/kg)
Parameter
Cassava root (n=3)
Cassava risidue (n=3)
Lysine
0.8
0.9
Methionine
0.4
0.3
Threonine
0.8
0.6
Tryptophan

0.2

0.1


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Due to crude protein was very low in cassava (root and
residue), their AA rate to crude protein was low, under 5% (see table
3.9.
Table 3.9The AA rate to crude protein of cassava root and cassava
residue (%)
Parameter
Cassava root (n=3)
Cassava residue (n=3)
Lysine
Methionine
Threonine
Tryptophan

4.2
1.4
3.2
0.7

3.1
1.2
2.8
0.6

3.1.3 Nutritional composition of some protein feedstuffs from
animal by-products
There was fluctuated about nutritional composition between
animal by-products which used to supply as protein source in animal
dietary formulation (see table 3.10).
Table 3.10 Nutritional composition of some protein feedstuffs
from animal by-product samples
Parameter
Dry matter (%)
ME (Kcal/kg)
Crude protein
(%)
Crude fat (%)
Crude fiber (%)
Ash (%)
Ca (%)
Total P (%)

Fishmeal
50% CP
(n=3)
89.9
2,521.9
50.3
2.1
0.9
34.3
5.7
2.6

Dried
fishmeal
65% CP
(n=3)
91.1
3,287.9
65.1
3.3
0.5
19.9
6.7
3.1

Meat meal
(n=3)
97.9
3,618.9
57.9
15.4
1.7
16.9
4.5
2.3

Meat and
bone meal
(n=3)
93.3
2,659.3
48.1
8.5
1.4
34
12.4
6.1

Crude protein content in meat and bone meal (MBM) was
lowest (48%) and the highest one was found in dried fishmeal (65%),
but the Calcium and Phosphorus of MBM was 2-3 times higher than
those of the other feedstuffs. This was the MBM had a lot of bones
which contained high calcium and phosphorus amount inside


13
(NRC,1998). The calcium and phosphorus were 29,8% and 12,5% in
MBM, correspondingly. Crude fat of MBM was 4-7 times higher than
those of fishmeal, thus, it made the ME of meat meal and MBM was
higher than those of fishmeal as well (3,139 Kcal/kg ME of meat
meal/MBM compared to 2,905 Kcal/kg ME of fishmeal).
Otherwise, the essential AA content such as lysine,
methionine, threonine and tryptophan of fishmeal was higher than
those of meat meal and MBM (see table 3.11). The results were similar
to the research findings of NRC (1998), National Institute of Animal
Sciences Vietnam (2001), La Van Kinh (2003), and Sauvant (2004).
Table 3.11 AA content of some protein feedstuffs from animal
by-product samples (g/kg)
Parameter

Fishmeal
50% CP
(n=3)

Dried
fishmeal
65% CP
(n=3)
45.7

Meat
meal
(n=3)

Meat and
bone meal
(n=3)

Lysine
30.4
23.6
30.1
Methionine
11.3
15.5
7.7
5.6
Threonine
18.4
23.3
19.2
15.7
Tryptophan
4.5
6.4
4.2
2.0
The AA rates to their crude protein were no difference
between the animal by-products feedstuffs (see table 3.12). However,
when considering to the essential AA rate of fishmeal to their crude
protein, the rate was higher than those of meat meal and MBM.
Table 3.12 AA rate to crude protein in protein feedstuffs from
animal by-product samples (%)
Parameter

Fishmeal
50% CP
(n=3)

Dried
fishmeal
65% CP
(n=3)

Meat
meal
(n=3)

Meat and
bone meal
(n=3)

Lysine
7.0
5.3
4.9
6.0
Methionine
2.3
2.4
1.3
1.2
Threonine
3.6
3.6
3.3
3.3
Tryptophan
0.9
1.0
0.7
0.4
In fishmeal, the essential AA content was 6.0 – 7.0% for
lysine, 2.3 – 2.4% for methionine, 3.6% for threonine and 0.9 – 1.0%
for tryptophan; whereas the essential AA content 4.9 – 5.3% for lysine,


14
1.2 – 1.3% for methionine, 3.3% for threonine 0.4 – 0.7% for
tryptophan in meat meal and MBM. The highest amount between the
4 essential AA was lysine, and then to threonine and the lowest one
was tryptophan in all of the animal by-product feedstuffs.
3.1.4. Nutritional composition of some protein feedstuffs from
agricultural by-products
Table 3.13: Nutritional composition of some protein feedstuffs
from agricultural by-product samples
Parameter

KĐT
44
(n=3)

KĐT
47
(n=3)

ĐTH
(n=3)

KDD
(n=3)

KDV
(n=3)

KDL
(n=3)

KDH
C
(n=3)

KDC
(n=3)

DDGS
(n=3)

Dry matter (%)

89.7

89.8

90.5

93.1

91.4

88.5

89.9

88.2

90.9

ME (Kcal/kg)

3,199

3,417

3,238

2,617

2,341

3,177

2,311

2,455

3,002

Crude Protein
(%)
Crude fat (%)

45

48.7

35.9

19.1

38.9

42.1

35.5

13.6

26

1.3

3

18.2

9

9.5

7.3

3.6

8.7

11

Crude fiber (%)

5.2

2.9

7.1

12

18

6

17.1

13.5

8.9

Ash (%)

6.9

6.8

5

9

8.8

5.6

7.5

4.4

4.4

Ca (%)

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.6

2.1

0.5

0.7

0.2

0.2

Total P (%)

0.5

0.2

0.5

0.5

0.8

0.6

1

0.7

0.7

Note: KĐT 44: soybean meal 44%CP; KĐT 47: soybean meal 47%CP; ĐTH: roated
soybean; KDD: coconut oil cake; KDV: sesame oil cake; KDL: groundnut oil cake;
KDHC: rapeseed oil cake; KDC: palm kernel cake; DDGS: dried distillers grain with
solubles

In general, the crude protein of the protein feedstuffs from
agricultural by-products was lower than 47% and it fluctuated with
wide range from 13.6% - 48.7% (see table 3.13). In which, the protein
content was highest in soybean meal 47 (48.7%), followed to soybean
meal 44 (45.0%) and the lowest one was palm kernel cake (13.6%).
The crude fat was quite different between the raw materials, ranged
1.3 – 11.0%. Due to the two reasons above, the ME was very different
between the raw materials. The ME was lowest in palm kernel cake
(2311.0 Kcal/kg) and highest in soybean meal 47 (3,417.1 Kcal/kg).
The AA content was quite different among the raw materials


15
(see table 3.14). Considering to 4 essential AA, the lysine ranged from
0.8 g/kg (DDGS) – 28.0 g/kg (KĐT 47); methionine was from 0.5 g/kg
(DDGS) – 9.0 g/kg (KDV); threonine was from 1.0 g/kg (DDGS) –
18.5 g/kg (KĐT 47); and tryptophan was from 0.2 g/kg (DDGS) – 6.6
g/kg (KĐT 47). Similar to the previous results, the crude protein in
coconut oil cake (19.1%) was lower than those of DDGS (26.0%) but
the essential AA content in the coconut oil cake was higher than those
in DDGS. In which, the essential AA content of lysine, methionine,
threonine and tryptophan were 5.1 g/kg, 2.7 g/kg, 5.3 g/kg and 1.6 g/kg
in the coconut oil cake compared to 0.8 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg and
tryptophan 0.2 g/kg in DDGS, in correspondingly. The laboratory
results showed an interested point that although crude protein in
DDGS was high but it AA profile was not balance and must be payed
attention if used DDGS with high level in pig dietary ration, special
the 4 essential AA mentioned above.
Table 3.14 AA content of some protein feedstuffs from
agricultural by-product samples (g/kg)
KĐT
44
(n=3)

KĐT
47
(n=3)

ĐTH
(n=3)

KDD
(n=3)

KDV
(n=3)

KDL
(n=3)

KDH
C
(n=3)

KDC
(n=3)

28

21.1

5.1

9.1

13.3

16.5

3.7

Meth

27.2
6.2

6.7

4.6

2.7

9.0

5.2

6.1

2.7

Thre

17.2

18.5

12.3

5.3

13.0

10

12.8

4.2

6.4

6.6

4.7

1.6

6.0

3.2

4.2

1.2

Parameter

Lys

Tryp

Note: KĐT 44: soybean meal 44%CP; KĐT 47: soybean meal 47%CP; ĐTH: roated
soybean; KDD: coconut oil cake; KDV: sesame oil cake; KDL: groundnut oil cake;
KDHC: rapeseed oil cake; KDC: palm kernel cake; DDGS: dried distillers grain with
solubles; Lys: lysine; Meth: methionine; Thre: Threonine; Tryp: tryptophan.

The essential AA rate such as lysine, methionine, threonine
and tryptophan was different to their crude protein and among the raw
materials (see table 3.15). The lysine rate to its crude protein was high
but the methionine rate was lower than those of the other materials.
The AA rates of DDGS were very low, less than 1%. The laboratory
results showed that the soybean meal could be considered a protein
feedstuff from agricultural by-products since it had AA profile quite
balance excepted low methionine content. Otherwise, it should be

DDGS
(n=3)
0.8
0.5
1.0
0.2


16
supplemented more some essential AA when using DDGS in ration
for pigs.
Table 3.15: AA rate to their Crude protein of some protein
feedstuffs from Agricultural by-product (%)
Parameter
Lys
Meth
Thre
Tryp

KĐT
44
(n=3)

KĐT
47
(n=3)

ĐTH
(n=3)

KDD
(n=3)

KDV
(n=3)

KDL
(n=3)

KDH
C
(n=3)

KDC
(n=3)

DDGS
(n=3)

6,04
1,37
3,82
1,42

5,75
1,38
3,80
1,35

5,88
1,28
3,44
1,32

2,69
1,38
2,79
0,85

2,33
2,32
3,33
1,55

3,16
1,22
2,36
0,75

4,64
1,71
3,60
1,18

2,75
2,01
3,11
0,85

0,30
0,19
0,37
0,08

Note: KĐT 44: soybean meal 44%CP; KĐT 47: soybean meal 47%CP; ĐTH: roated
soybean; KDD: coconut oil cake; KDV: sesame oil cake; KDL: groundnut oil cake;
KDHC: rapeseed oil cake; KDC: palm kernel cake; DDGS: dried distillers grain with
solubles; Lys: lysine; Meth: methionine; Thre: Threonine; Tryp: tryptophan.

3.2 Determining of Apparent Ileal Amino Acids Digestibility
(AIAAD) in the feedstuffs for pig dietary
3.2.1 Chemical components of experimental materials
The result of protein and AA content in basal diet and its
ingredients was showed in table 3.16. There was the difference
between material about protein and essential AA amount and this
result was gareed with the results of National Institude of Animal
Sciences Vietnam (2001) and La Van Kinh (2003). The protein and
AA in basal diet was formulated to match the pig requiremnt according
to NRC’s standard (1998).


17
Table 3.16 Protein (%) and essential AA content (g/kg) of basal
diet and its ingredients in the experiment
Basal diet
Cassava root
High quality maize
Maize
High quality rice bran
Rice bran
High quality wheat
bran bran
Wheat
Broken rice
Cassava residue
Extracted rice bran
Barley
Wheat flour
Soybean meal 44
(India)
Soybean meal
47(USA)
Fishmeal 50
Fishmeal 65
Meat meal
Coconut oil cake
Sesame oil cake
Groundnut oil cake
DDGS
Roasted oybean
MBM
Palm kernel cake
Rapeseed oil cake

Protein
18.12
2.95
9.38

Lysin
14.81
0.91
2.41

Met
5.45
0.36
1.66

Thr
7.76
0.83
3.01

Try
2.30
0.17
0.45

8.43
12.54
11.23
15.14
14.12
8.82
1.87
15.35
10.68
10.83

2.33
5.14
4.43
6.12
5.67
3.01
0.79
6.61
3.61
3.13

1.67
2.71
2.01
1.96
2.29
2.45
0.26
2.29
1.72
1.74

0.35
1.4
1.33
2.68
2.16
0.88
0.13
1.44
1.33
1.33

45.01

27.16

6.15

48.65

27.98

6.71

50.34
65.14
57.89
19.14
38.94
42.11
25.95
35.85
48.07
13.58
35.47

30.08
45.71
30.43
5.14
9.05
13.33
0.77
21.07
23.62
3.73
16.47

11.3
4
15.5
4
7.69

2.74
4.17
3.93
5.3
4.31
3.02
0.59
5.31
3.38
3.14
17.1
9
18.4
8
18.3
5
23.3
4
19.2
3
5.32

2.65
9.01
5.16
0.49
4.58
5.58
2.74
6.08

12.9
7
9.95
0.96
12.3
2
15.6
7
4.22
12.7
8

6.39
6.58
4.47
6.41
4.17
1.62
6.03
3.17
0.21
4.72
2.04
1.15
4.17


18
3.2.2 Protein digestibility and apparent ileal amino acid
digestibility (AIAAD) of some rich enegry feedstuffs
The rich enegry feestuffs were low digestive protein, ranged
from 54.2% in whear bran to 72.2% in high quality (see table 3.17). In
a same kind of raw meterial, the better quality, the higher digestibility
of the protein was. The results showed that the high fiber content, the
less prorein digestibility was and vice versa. The finding of the
research was similar to the conclusion of Petterson (1996). But the
result (<65%) was lower than the result of Ninh Thị Len (2010)
(>65%).
Table 3.17: Protein digestibility and AIAADof some rich enegry
feedstuffs (%) (n= 4)
Protein Lys
Met
Thr
Try
70.0abc
75.7a
75.0ab
74.7a
81.7a
72.2a
80.3a
80.7a
73.4a
84.3a
ab
a
ab
a
70.4
79.4
76.8
72.2
84.3a
62.2cde
77.5a
76.7ab
73.8a
83.7a
de
a
ab
a
60.9
76.4
75.9
74.5
83.2a
62.2cd
77.3a
77.9ab
75.8a
84.7a
54.2e
77.5a
74.7ab
75.3a
81.3a
bcd
a
b
a
63.9
77.5
72.6
79.3
83.7a
62.7bcd
60.8b
63.9c
61.0b
65.0b
abcd
a
ab
a
65.8
75.2
76.1
79.0
83.0a
65.0abcd
77.7a
73.5ab
75.8a
83.0a
abcd
a
ab
a
67.0
78.0
76.4
74.7
84.1a
64.7
76.1
75.0
74.1
81.8
X
SEM
3.25
3.42
3.10
3.57
2.05
P
<0.001 <0.001
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
abcde
: means in the same row with different superscript differ significantly at
level P<0.05
Cassava root
High quality maize
Maize
High quality rice
bran bran
Rice
High quality wheat
bran
Wheat bran
Broken rice
Cassave residue
Extracted rice bran
Barley
Wheat flour

The more fiber content, the lower AIAAD the material was
and vice versa (see table 3.17). The result was agreed with the
published data of Mosenthin (1994), and Lenis (1996). Among esstial
AA, the digestibility was highest to trytopan (81.8%%) and lowest to


19
Isoleucine (73%). The AIAAD in cassave residue was lowest between
the rich enegry feedstuffs (P<0.05).
3.2.3 Protein digestibility and apparent ileal amino acid
digestibility (AIAAD) of some rich protein feedstuffs
The protein digestibility of some rich protein feedstuffs was
showed in table 3.18. The more protein content, the higher protein
digestibility the material was. The protein digestibility was highest in
soybean meal (82%) and lowest in palm kernel (63.4%) between kinds
of the rich oil feedstuffs.
Table 3.18 Protein digestibility and AIAAD of some rich protein
feedstuffs (%)(n= 4)
Protein
Lys
Met
Thr
Try
Soybean meal 44
81.9ab
79.5ab 78.8
77.9abcd 83.1
(India)
Soybean meal 47
82.1ab
80.8a
79.2
81.2ab
84.4
ab
ab
(USA) 50
Fishmeal
81.9
80.7
78.4
80.5abcd 84.8
Fishmeal 65
85.0a
81.5a
79.1
81.7a
85.6
cd
ab
Meat meal
73.6
80.4
76.6
80.0abcd 85.6
Coconut oil cake
68.9de
75.5b
73.6
76.1abcd 82.5
bcd
ab
Sesame oil cake
74.7
79.8
74.0
73.9d
81.6
Groundnut oil cake 69.2de
76.4ab 76.9
79.2abcd 83.9
DDGS
70.8de
78.8ab 75.7
76.0abcd 82.8
abc
ab
Roasted soybean
80.3
80.0
79.7
80.8abc
84.4
abcd
ab
abcd
MBM
77.0
79.7
78.1
78.8
83.8
Palm kernel cake
63.4e
77.3ab 76.9
74.4cd
84.1
bcd
ab
bcd
Rapeseed oil cake
75.7
78.3
73.9
74.8
84.8
75.7
79.1
77.0
78.1
84.0
X
SEM
3.24
2.20
3.39
2.65
2.33
P
<0.01
0.01 0.128
<0.01 0.461
abcde

: means in the same row with different superscript differ significantly at
level P<0.05

The average protein digestibility was about 75% in the rich
protein feedstuffs. The results were matched with results of Green
(1988), in which the protein digestibility and AIAAD of soybean meal
was higher than those of groundnut oil cake and sunflower flour
(P<0.05). To soybean feedstuff, the protein digestibility of soybean


20
meal (81.9 and 82.1%) was higher than those of roasted soybean
(80.3%). The result was likely to the published data of Marty and
Chevez (1995), Fan (1995), and Le Van Tho (2000).
The AIAAD was different between the feedstuffs (see 3.18).
The AIAAD of the protein feedstuffs from animal by-products (such
as fishmeal, meat meal, etc) was higher than those of the protein
feedstuffs from agricultural by-products. It might due to the fiber
content in the protein feedstuffs fromagriculteral by-products was
higher than those of the protein feedstuffs from animal by-products.
The findings were likely results Zhengqun Liu (2016), and Chen Liang
(2015).
3.3 Determining the optimom level of AIAAD for commercial pigs
3.3.1 Effect of different levels of AIAAD to growth performance
on experimental pigs
Different levels of AIAAD was effected to growth
performance and development of experimental pigs, that was showed
in table 3.19. The final weight was significant difference and tented to
higher weight if the pigs fed with higher AIAAD level in diets, ranged
from 97.3 kg/head of pigs in treatment 1 to 103.3 kg/head of pigs in
treatment 3 (p<0.001).
Table 3.19 Growth performance of experimental pigs
Treat1 Treat2 Treat3 Treat4
SEM
P
(n=5)
(n=5)
(n=5)
(n=5)
IW (kg/head)
20.1
20.1
20.2
20.3
0.298
0.647
 0.3
 0.3
 0.3
 0.3
FW (kg/head)
97.3c
100.7b 103.3a 102.7a 0.869
<0.001
 1.0
 1.1
 0.7
 0.5
BWG, whole
77.2c
80.6b
83.1a
82.4a 0.827
<0.001
trial (kg/head)
 1.2
 0.9
 0.5
 0.5
Daily BWG
643.2c 672.0b 692.5a 687.0a 6.895
<0.001
(g/head/day)
 10.2
 7.2
 4.1
 4.2
Converting %
95.7
100
103.0
102.2
abc
Note: means in the same row with different superscript differ significantly at level
P<0.05
The data was presented by X  SD; IW: initial weight; FW: final weight;
BWG: body weight gain


21
The Daily body weight gain and Body weight gain of whole
trial were higher when the levels of AIAAD were higher in diets. The
BWG whole trial and daily BWG parameters were lowest in the pigs
of treatment 1 (77.2 kg/head and 643 g/head/day) and highest in pigs
of treatment 3 (83.1 kg/head and 692 g/head/day) (p<0.001). Besides,
the parameter was no significant difference between treatment 3 and
treatment 4 (p>0.05). The levels of AIAAD in diets and Body weight
gain were correlated together with R2 = 0.968 and presented by the
equation:
y = -1.030X2 + 6.973X + 71.138
From this quaratic, the levels of AIAAD in diet should be
formulated 13.8% higher than those of NRC to get the highest final
body weight at the same farming time.
Remark: the data analysis of the research showed that he
AIAAD level as NRC’s recommentdion will not supply enough the
demand of pigs, therefore, the AIAAD level should be given more
from at least 12-14% compared to the AIAAD level of NRC
recommendation to fulfill the AA needed of pig requirement and the
highest of the final body weight.

3.3.2 Effect of different levels of AIAAD to feed intake and
Feed conversion ratio of experimental pigs
The feed intake (FI) whole trial of pigs between treatments
was sinificant differnt and ranged from 222.7 kg/head (treatment1) to
231.5 kg/head (treatment 3) (p<0.01). Compared to AIAAD level in
NRC diet (treatment 1), the diets with AIAAD levels higher than or
equal to those of NRC had higher feed intake than the lower AIAAD
levels in diets (P<0.05) (table 3.20). The average of daily feed intake
of whole trial ranged 1,856 – 1,929 g/head/day; the feed intake amount
was highest in pigs of treatment 3(1,929 g/head/day) (P<0.05).
The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significant difference
between thr treatments (see table 3.20). In whole trial, the FCR was
lowest in treatment 3 (2.79 kg FI/kg BWG), then, followed by the
treatment 4 (2.81 kg FI/kg BWG) and the highest was treatment 1
(2.89 kgFI/kg BWG) (P<0.001). The AIAAD levels in diets and FCR
was correlated with R2 = 0.812 and presented by the quaractic:


22
y = 0.019X2 -0.125X + 2.994
Form the quaratic calculation, the AIAAD levels in diets was
112.9% compared to those of the NRC (100% ). It meant the AIAAD
level for pig requirement was 12.9% higher than those of NRC
recommendation. The feed cost per each kg BWG was different but it
was not significant meaning between treatments for whole trial (table
3.20)
Table 3.20 FI and FCR for experiment pigs
Treat1 Treat2 Treat3 Treat4 SEM
P
(n=5)
(n=5)
(n=5)
(n=5)
FI whole trial
(kg/head)

222.7b
 3.37

228.2a
 3.02

231.5a
 2.81

231.3a
 2.50

2.940

0.001

Daily FI
(g/head/day)

1,856b
 28.1

1,901a
 25.1

1,929a
 23.4

1,928a
 20.8

24.50

0.001

FCR whole
trial (kg FI/kg
BWG)

2.89c
 0.01

2.83b
 0.01

2.79a
 0.02

2.81ab
 0.03

0.019

<0.001

Feed cost/kg
BWG whole
trial (VND)

2,9863b
 118

2,9709b
 91

2,9987b
 214

3,0495a
 298

198.2

<0.001

Note: abc means in the same row with different superscript differ significantly at level
P<0.05
The data was presented by X  SD; FI: feed intake: initial weight; FCR: feed
conversion ratio;BWG: ody weight gain.

In brief: The optimum level of AIAAD in diet for comercial
pigs (Duroc x (Yorkshire x Landrace) must be supplied 12-17% higher
than the level recommended by NRC, whereas the other nutrient
compositions followed by NRC recommendation.


23
4. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
4.1. Conclusion
 The rich negry feedstuffs had low Crude protein amount under
16% and their AA contents such as lysine, threonine, methionine
and tryptophan were were lower than the requirement for
commercial pig as well.
 The grains (cereal) used for feed ration had low crude protein,
crude fat and crude fiber amount compared to theirs brans.
 The rich protein feedstuffs had higher essential AA contents such
lysine, threonine, methionine and tryptophan compared to those
of the rich energy feedstuffs.
 The kinds of rich energy feedstuffs with high quality and low
fiber content had higher protein digestibility and AIAAD than
those of poor quality and high fiber content. Their apparent ileal
protein digestibility was relatively low (<65%).
 The rich protein feedstuffs from animal by-products with high
protein content had better digestibility than those of from
agricultural by-products with low protein content.
 The apparent ileal protein digestibility and AIAAD of the rich
enegry feedstuffs were lower than those of the rich protein
feedstuffs.
 The optimum level of AIAAD in diet for comercial pigs (Duroc
x (Yorkshire x Landrace) must be supplied 10 – 20% higher than
the level recommended by NRC but the highest result is supplied
12-17% higher than the level recommended by NRC, whereas
the other nutrient compositions followed by NRC (1998): ME
3,265 Kcal/kg, protein 18% for pig stage from 20-50 kg and
15.5% for pig stage from 50-100 kg. It meant the digestibility of
essential AA contained 0.86-0.90% lysine, 0.30 – 0.32%
methionine, 0.52 – 0.54% methionine+cystine, 0.59 – 0.62%
threonine, and 0.17 – 0.18% tryptophan in diet to pig stage from
20-50 kg. For pig stage from 50-100kg must be supplied the
digestibility of essential AA as followed 0.68 – 0.71% lysine,
0.26 – 0.27% methionine, 0.44 – 0.46% methionine+cystine,
0.49 – 0.51% threonine and 0.13 – 0.14% tryptophan. At the
essential AA contents, the growth performance and development


24
in pigs were the best with low feed cost per each kg body weight
gain.
4.2. Recommendation
It is suggested to use the results of the research as a reference
for studies related to nutrition in pig husbandry industry and apply the
new findings to pig feed mill production.


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