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vocab lesson 2

1. Acquire – acquired – acquires – acquiring – acquisition - acquisitions
acquisition noun

ADJ

Thing you have
obtained

Act of obtaining
something

latest, new, recent

data, language, property
complete, make

V + ACQUISITION

Example
Language acquisition begins
in the first months of a baby's

life.
The company has just made
another acquisition.

2. Adjust – adjusted – adjusting – adjustment – adjustments – adjusts – readjust –
readjusted – readjusting – readjustment – readjustments – readjusts
adjustable adj.
V
ADV

fully

Be
The straps are fully adjustable to fit any size.

adjust verb
change
sth
slightly
+ slightly
+ finely
+ automatically
ADV

+ carefully

Example

get used to
new
situation

Example

+ It is important to have
equipment that can be
finely adjusted.
+ Children are sensitive
to disapproval and
adjust their behaviour


accordingly.

+ quickly,
rapidly
+ gradually,
slowly

+ accordingly
+ downwards,
upwards
PREP

V+ ADJUST

for

+ This estimate may
have to be adjusted
downwards.
Salaries are adjusted
for inflation.

To
+ be difficult
+ be hard to
+ need
+ take time to
+ try to

+ She will gradually
adjust to her new
role.
+ It may take a little
time to adjust to the
climate here.


2

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
adjustment noun
small change
made

Example

process of
changing

Example

+ delicate, fine,
minor, slight,
small

ADJ

+ successful

+ important,
major,
significant

+ emotional,
personal,
social

+ appropriate,
necessary
+ automatic
+ financial
+ make
V + ADJUSTMENT

+ need, require

PREP

+ for
+ in
+ to

+ The mechanic
made the necessary
adjustments to the
engine.
+ a cut of 1.5% in
real terms (after
adjustment for
inflation)
+ adjustments in
the exchange rates

+ to

+ The company's
adjustment to the new
markets has been
successful.

+
a few minor
adjustments to the
timetable
+ a period of
adjustment
PRASES

+ the
process of
adjustment

+ There was a long
period of adjustment
under the new boss.
+
The
process
of
adjustment to life in
another country can be
very difficult.

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3

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
3. Affect – affected – affecting – affective – affectively – affects – unaffected affection
affect verb
Influence
+ greatly,
materially,
radically,
significantly,
very much

Make
somebody
sad/angry

Example

Example

+ Sales did not seem
unduly affected.

+ barely, hardly,
not unduly không quá mức

+ deeply,
profoundly

ADV

+ slightly
+ clearly
+ directly
+ indirectly

Her death affected
him deeply.

+ adversely,
badly, seriously,
severely

V+ AFFECT

+ be likely to

developments that are
likely to affect the
environment

unaffected adj.
V

ADV

PREP

+ appear, be, seem
+ remain
+ altogether, completely, entirely, quite, totally,
wholly
+ almost, virtually
+ largely
+ comparatively, relatively
+ apparently, seemingly
by

She was seemingly unaffected by
his presence.

He appeared totally unaffected by
this experience.

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4

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
affection noun
ADJ

V + AFFECTION

+ deep, genuine,
great, real, special,
strong, warm
+ mutual
+ feel, have, hold sb
in, retain
+ display, express,
give sb, show (sb)
+ get, receive
+ crave, neead,
want
+ gain, win
+ alienate

+ He was held in great affection by hundreds of students.
+ He just wants a bit of affection.
+ She had tried hard to win his affection.

+ He'll be remembered with genuine affection.
PREP

+ with
+ for
+ to/towards

+ I have a deep affection for his mother.
+ The teacher showed affection towards all her pupils.

PHRASES

+ a display of
affection
+ a feeling of
affection
+ love and affection
+ the object of sb's
affections
+ a sign of affection,
a show of affection

+ I don't go in for public displays of affection.
+ a strong feeling of affection
+ I yearn for the love and affection I once had.
+ The object of his affections was a young opera singer.

4. Afraid - aide – aid – bridesmaid – first aid – maid – paid – raid- staid - unpaid
afraid adj.
V

ADV

PREP
PHRASES

+ be, feel, look, seem
+ become, grow
+ make sb
+ deeply, desperately, extremely, horribly,
mortally, really, terribly, very
+ a bit, half, a little, rather, slightly
+ almost
+ just, simply
+ genuinely
+ physically
+ suddenly
+ for
+ of
nothing to be afraid of

+ What has made you so deeply afraid
of your boss?
+ She was tense, almost afraid to
open the letter.
+ He was half afraid to look at her.
+ You do know, don't you? You are
just afraid to tell me.
+ He stopped abruptly, suddenly
afraid to say the words out loud.
+ Roger was very afraid for her.
+ Charlie is afraid of marriage.
Don't worry. There's nothing to be

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5

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
afraid of.

aid noun
Money, food, etc

+ emergency
+ humanitarian

ADJ

+ cash,
development,
economic, financial,
food, legal, medical,
military, relief
+ federal,
government, state
+ bilateral, external,
foreign,
international,
overseas

Example

Help

Example

+ Legal aid (=
government
money for legal
advice) is a
fundamental
part of our
system of
justice.

Person/thing
that helps

Example

+ effective,
essential,
excellent,
important,
useful, valuable
+ classroom,
teaching,
training
+ audio-visual,
computer, visual

+ The country
relies
on
foreign aid

+ hearing,
walking
+ memory
+ buoyancy (nổi)
+
collecting
money in aid
of charity.

+ In, of
+ with/without
the

PREP

+ appeal for, call for
+ extend, give (sb),
grant (sb), provide
(sb with), send (sb)
V+ AID

AID + N

+ get, receive |
depend on, rely on
+ promise
+ cut (off), suspend,
withdraw, withhold
+ agency, worker
+ budget, package,
programme

+ The country's
president
has
appealed
for
international aid
in the wake of
the disaster.
+ The British
government has
now suspended
humanitarian
aid to the area.

+ ask
enlist

for,

+ come/ go to
sb's (=
to
help
someone)

+ She is now
able to walk
with the aid
of a stick.

To

+ We enlisted
the aid of
John and his
family.
+
She
screamed
loudly and two
people came
to her aid.

+ a $14 million
aid package

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+ essential
aids to
learning


6

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
aide noun
Example
ADJ

PREP
V+ AFFECT

+ close, trusted
+ senior, top
+ junior
+ personal, presidential, royal

one of the prime minister's closest
aides

To

He served as an aide to the former
president.

act as, serve as, work as

Bridesmaid noun
Example
ADJ

chief

V+ BRIDESMAID

toast

The bridegroom asked the guests to stand and then toasted the
bridesmaids.

first aid noun
Example
ADJ

emergency

V+ FIRST AID

+ administer, give
+ receive
+ be trained in

FIRST AID + N

+ box, kit, manual
+ course
+ post

+ While one of you gives first aid, the other should call an
ambulance.
+ At least one member of staff should be trained in first aid.
+ Medics were bringing casualties to the first-aid post.

maid noun
Example
+ dairy, kennel, kitchen,
laundry, parlour, scullery
+ They had a daily maid, but no live-in servants

ADJ

+ lady's, personal
+ daily

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ĐÀ O TIÊN


7

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
paid adj.
Example
V
ADV

be
+ highly, well
+ badly, poorly

+ a well-paid job
+ poorly paid workers

staid adj.
Example
V
ADV

+ be, feel, look, seem
+ become, get, grow
+ positively, very
+ rather

+ He had grown staid and dull.
+ The locals were a very staid lot.
+ a rather staid and old-fashioned hotel

unpaid adj.
Example
V
ADV

+ be
+ remain
+ leave sth
+ virtually

+ customers who leave their bills unpaid till the last minute
+ the virtually unpaid labour of large peasant families.

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8

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
raid noun
Surprise attack

ADJ

+ daring
+ destructive, heavy,
major
+ punitive,
retaliatory, revenge
+ dawn, daylight,
night
+ border, crossborder
+ air, bombing
+ commando,
guerrilla

Example
+ táo bạo
+ phá hoại,
nặng, chủ yếu
+ trừng phạt, trả
đũa, trả thù
+ bình minh,
ánh sáng ban
ngày, đêm
+ biên giới, qua
biên giới
+ không khí,
đánh bom
+ commando,
du kích
+ Five civilians
died in the
raid.

Robbery
from a
building

Example

+ on a/the

PREP

+ against

+ by

+ armed,
smash-andgrab

+ police

+ drug/drugs
+ dawn,
daylight,
night
+ daring

+

+ on

+ during/in
a/the

+ The jewels
stolen in the
raid .

+ during
a/the

+ in a/the

+ The raids
against Norway
continued.
+ The town
suffered several
raids by
Vikings.

+ by
+ on
+ She was
shot during an
armed raid on
a security van.

V+ RAID

+ bombers
carrying out
daylight raids
over northern
France.

+ plan
+ carry out
+ foil

Two
customers
have foiled a
smash-andgrab raid on a
local shop.

He was
injured during
a police raid
on
his
nightclub.
+ The drugs
seized in last
night's raid
+ A raid by
drugs squad
detectives

+ on
+ Raids on
houses
in
Catholic areas
of the city.

+ air raids on
Liverpool
+ carry out, conduct,
make
+ launch, mount,
stage
+ lead sb in
+ suffer

Example

+ dawn, early
morning

+ bank, post
office, shop

+ during/in a/the
+ He led his
men on a crossborder raid.

Surprise
visit by
police

+ carry out,
launch,
stage

+
Police
staged
an
early
morning raid
on
the
premises.

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9

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
5. Allocate – allocates – allocation
allocate verb
Example
+ for

+ More money should be allocated for famine relief.

+ to
+ efficiently
+ randomly

+ More funds will now be allocated to charitable organizations.

V

ADV

Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.

allocation noun
Process of
giving sth
out

ADJ

Example

+ efficient,
inefficient
+ random
+ budget, grant
+ housing, land,
resource, time

Amount
given to sb
+ big,
generous,
large
+ modest
+ total
+ give

V+ ALLOCATION

+ make

Example

+ The allocation must
be made according to a
strict set of criteria.

+ get, receive
+ increase, up
+ cut, reduce

+ The school gave
them a generous
allocation of money
with
which
to
purchase books.
+ The charity is trying
to get its allocation
upped for next year.

6. Alter – alteration – alterative - falter
alteration noun
Example

ADJ

V +ALTERATION
PREP

+
dramatic,
extensive,
fundamental,
major, material,
radical,
significant,
substantial
+ minor, slight,
small, subtle
+ make
+ need, require
+ in
+ to

+ The leaflets require no alteration from year to year.
+ There will be no alteration in corporation tax.
+ We will have to make a slight alteration to the plans.

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10

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
alternative noun
Example

ADJ

V +ALTERATIVE

PREP

PHRASES

+ attractive, constructive,
effective, good, radical, useful
+ acceptable, available,
credible - đáng tin cậy,
possible, practical, real,
realistic, reasonable,
satisfactory, serious, suitable,
viable
+ clear, obvious
+ cheap, healthy, interesting,
safe
+ have
+ offer, provide
+ seek
+ find
+ for
+ to
+ have little/no alternative (but
to)
+ leave sb with no alternative
(but to)

+ Is there a viable alternative to prison?

+ a healthier alternative to fizzy drinks

+ We have two alternatives.
+ His idea seemed to offer a possible alternative.
+ seeking alternatives to nuclear power
+ We'll have to find an alternative.
+ There is no alternative for those with no car of
their own.
+ Is there an alternative to surgery for this
complaint?
+ She had no alternative but to do as he said.
+ He was left with no alternative but to hobble to
the nearest telephone box.

alter verb
Example

ADV

PHRASES

+ considerably,
dramatically,
drastically,
fundamentally,
greatly,
radically,
significantly,
substantially
+ slightly
not alter the fact
that

+ He had not altered greatly in the last ten years.

Unemployment has come down slightly but this does not alter the
fact that it is still a major problem.

falter verb
Example
ADV
V+ FALTER

+ slightly
+ never
begin to

+ His courage never faltered.
The economy is beginning to falter.

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11

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2

7. Advocate
advocate noun
Somebody
who support
sth

ADJ

+ ardent,
enthusiastic,
firm, great,
outspoken,
powerful,
staunch

Example

Lawyer

Example

thẳng thắn, mạnh mẽ,
kiên cường
+ She's a staunch
advocate of free trade.

defence

+ chief, leading,
main, principal
PHRASES

+ for
PREP

+ He is one of the
leading advocates for a
more modern style of
worship.

+ of
+ an advocate
pacifism

of

advocate verb
Example
ADV
PHRASES

+ seriously,
strongly
+ be widely
advocated

+ Heart specialists strongly advocate low-cholesterol diets.
+ These policies have been widely advocated.

8. Ambitious – ambiguity ambiguous adj.
Example

ADV

V

+ highly, very
+ rather, slightly,
somewhat
+ deliberately,
intentionally
+ be
+ remain
+ make sth, render sth

+ cố tình, cố ý

+ I suspected that he was being deliberately ambiguous.
+ The paragraph is rendered ambiguous by the writer's
careless use of pronouns.

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ĐÀ O TIÊN


12

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
ambiguity noun
Example
ADJ
QUANT

+ possible, potential
+ moral, sexual
degree, element

V + AMBIGUITY

+ lead to
+ avoid
+ reduce
+ remove, resolve (loại
bỏ, giải quyết)

AMBIGUITY + V

arise, occur

PREP
PHRASES

+ There is a degree of ambiguity in this statement.
+ Incorrect choice of words leads to ambiguity for the
reader.
+ The document has been carefully written to avoid
ambiguity.
+ They had to change some of the wording in the document
to resolve the ambiguity.
+ Ambiguity arises when students' spoken English is very
limited.
+ There will always be some ambiguity about what actually
happened.
+ There was some ambiguity in what he said.

+ about
+ in
a source of ambiguity

9. Analyse
Example

ADV

V + ANALYSE

+ carefully, critically,
fully, in depth/detail,
painstakingly,
scientifically,
systematically
+ attempt to, try to
+ be difficult to, be
impossible to
+ be possible to

+ The results must be analysed in detail.

+ The precise reasons for the disaster are difficult to
analyse.

10.Anticipate
anticipate verb
Example
PHRASE

+ be eagerly/keenly
anticipated
+ be widely
anticipated

+ one of the most eagerly anticipated arts events of the
year
+ It is widely anticipated that she will resign.

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13

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2
anticipation noun
Example
ADJ

V + ANTICIPATION
PREP

PHRASES

+ great, keen
+ eager, excited,
happy, pleasurable
+ growing
be full of
+ in
+ of
+ a feeling/sense of
anticipation, a
shiver/thrill of
anticipation (hồi hộp)

+ We look forward to your lecture with eager anticipation.
a feeling of pleasurable anticipation
+ There is growing anticipation that the prime minister will
have to resign.
+ We are full of anticipation, and can't wait to visit you.
+ People are buying extra groceries in anticipation of
heavy snowstorms.
+ The unexpected news sent a thrill of anticipation
through the group.

11. Amend – amendment amendment noun
Example

ADJ

V+ AMENDMENT

PREP

+ important, major,
significant
+ minor, slight, small
+ draft, proposed
+ detailed
+ constitutional
+ introduce, make
+ draft
+ move, propose, put
forward, suggest, table
+ withdraw
+
accept,
adopt,
approve, carry, pass,
ratify, support, vote for
(Chấp nhận, thông qua,
phê duyệt, thực hiện,
thông qua, phê chuẩn,
hỗ trợ, bình chọn )
+ oppose, reject (phản
đối, từ chối)
+ be subject to ( chống
lạI)
+ without
+ to

+ A major
legislation.

amendment was introduced into the

+ The committee does not adequately consult others when
drafting amendments.

+ He moved an amendment limiting capital punishment
to certain very serious crimes.
+ She withdrew her amendment and left the meeting.
+ Parliament accepted the amendment and the bill was
passed. On a free vote, the amendment was carried by
292 votes to 246.
+ The programme is subject to amendment.

+ The new clause was accepted without amendment.
+ an amendment to the Clean Water Act

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14

VOCABULARY FOR IELTS – LESSON 2

12. Analogy – analogous
analogy noun
Example
ADJ

V + ANALOGY
ANALOGY + V

+ appropriate,
useful
+ close, obvious
+ draw, make,
suggest, use
+ fit, hold
+ by (to/with)

apt,
+ A close analogy with the art of singing can be made.
+ She drew an analogy between running the economy and
a housewife's weekly budget.
+ The Wild West analogy does not fit here.
+ We can understand this theory by analogy with human
beings.
+ She suggested an analogy between the human heart
and a pump.
+ The computer is a useful analogy for the brain.
+ There is an analogy here with the way an engine works.

+ between
PREP

+ for

PHRASES

+ with
argument by/from
analogy

Argument from analogy is not always valid.

analogous adj.
Example
V
ADV

be
closely | directly,
exactly | broadly,
roughly
+ to

PREP

+ with

The two situations are roughly analogous.
+ The company is in a position closely analogous to that of
its main rival.
+ The national debt is analogous with private debt.

13.Apparent
apparent adj.
Example
V

ADV

PREP

+ be, seem
+ become
+ make sth
+ Glaringly (hiển nhiên),
strongly, very
+ fully, quite
+ increasingly
+ all too
+ quickly, soon
+ immediately, instantly
+ easily, readily
+ clearly
+ painfully
to

+ It soon became apparent that the company was losing money.
+ He made it apparent that he was very annoyed.

+ His unhappiness was all too apparent.
+ The extent of their injuries was not immediately apparent.
+ Local suspicion of the incomers was painfully apparent.

His lack of experience was quite apparent to everyone.

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approach verb

Come
nearer

Example

Come
nearer in
time

Example

Speak to
sb, usually
to ask for
sth

Example

Come close in
amount/
quality/ style
+ closely

+ slowly

ADV

PREP

+ cautiously,
warily, with
caution
( thận trọng)

From

fast,
rapidly

The army
approached
from the
south.

The time is fast
approaching
when we will
have to replace
these old
machines.

directly

It's best to
approach her
directly.
+ not nearly,
not remotely

+ about
+ for

+ be easy
to
V+
APPROACH

+ be
difficult to

+ Have you
approached
John about
doing a concert?
+ I approached
the bank for a
loan.

She found her
father difficult
to approach.

Example
+ Wordswort 's
verse movement
closely
approaches that
of Gray.
+ There is no other
player
even
remotely
approaching her
calibre.


approach noun

Way of dealing with sb/sth

Example

+ conventional, orthodox - chính
thống, traditional
+ alternative, different, fresh, new,
novel
cautious, conservative
+ direct, no-nonsense, positive,
practical, pragmatic - thực dụng,
problem-solving, rational, useful

ADJ

+ indirect
+ formal
+ informal
+ right
+ wrong
+ creative, innovative
+ flexible
+ analytical, scientific, structured,
systematic, theoretical
+ holistic, integrated –Toàn diện, tích
hợp
+ basic, general
+ objective
+ simplistic

+ We need to try
alternative
approaches to the
problem.

Act of
coming
nearer

Example

Discussion
with sb in
order to
ask them
for sth

Example


Way of dealing with sb/sth

Example

Act of
coming
nearer

Example

make

The aircraft had to
make
a
steep
approach
to
the
landing strip.

+ Some teachers
have a more formal
approach to
teaching.
V + APPROACH

+ have
+ adopt, develop, take, try, use
+ favour, prefer

+ We need to adopt
a more pragmatic
approach.

Discussion
with sb in
order to
ask them
for sth

Example

+ make

+ have,
receive

+ She favoured the
direct approach.

+ at the
… of

PREP

to

I liked her
approach to the
problem

+ The children fell
silent at the
approach of their
teacher.

+ with the
… of

+ The weather turned
colder with the
approach of autumn.

+ to

+ The plane crashed
during its approach
to the runway.

+ from

+ to

+ We've
received an
approach from
the director of a
rival firm.

+ We'll have to
make
an
approach to the
managing
director.




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