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Mệnh Đề Quan Hệ
A Theory:
Defining adjective clauses

Non- Defining adjective clauses

Restrictive relative clauses
- Là một thành phần của câu;

Non- Restrictive relative clauses
Là phần thêm vào để giải thích hay thêm thông tin

nó xác định hay phân loại tiền

cho tiền ngữ. Nếu bỏ mệnh đề tính từ, tiền ngữ vẫn

ngữ, và không thể bỏ.

có nghĩa đầy đủ.

Ex: The house which is on the

Ex: That boy, who is sitting in the front row, is the

street corner is a library.

best in class.

- Khi S: the man, the boy, the

- Khi S: a famous name ( Ha Long /

girl, a woman, a man, the

Mr.Brown….), this/that/these/those..+ N…
- Using commas (,) between clauses


- No using commas (,) between - Can’t use That
- That can be replaced Who /
Whom/ Which…
Mệnh đề tính từ hay mệnh đề quan hệ (MĐQH) được đặt sau danh từ để bổ nghĩa, nó
được nối bởi các đại từ quan hệ ( Relative pronouns) : WHO, WHOM, WHICH,

WHO : Thay thế cho người, làm chủ từ trong MĐQH.
EX: - I need to meet the boy. The boy is my friend's son.
—» I need to meet the boy who is my friend's son.


WHOM : Thay thế cho người, làm túc từ trong MĐQH.
EX: - I know the girl. You spoke to this girl.
—» I know the girl whom you spoke to.
*NOTE: Đứng sau đại từ quan hệ
who thường là một động từ, còn sau đại từ quan hệ whom thường là một danh


WHICH :Thay thế cho vật, đồ vật. Vừa làm chủ từ, vừa là túc từ trong
EX: - She works for a company. It makes cars.
—» She works for a company which makes cars.

IV. WHERE : thay thế cho nơi chốn: there, at that place,... . Làm chủ từ, túc từ trong
EX: - The movie theater is the place. We can see films at that place.
—» The movie theater is the place where we can see the films.
*NOTE: Đứng sau đại từ quan hệ which thường là một động từ, còn sau đại từ quan
hệ where thường là một danh từ. Sau đại từ quan hệ which còn là một danh từ khi nơi
chốn là bổ nghĩa cho một động từ như visit...

WHOSE:Thay thế cho sở hữu của người, vật (his-, her-, its-, their-, our-, my-,
-'s )
EX: - John found the cat. Its leg was broken.
—» John found the cat whose leg was broken.


THAT : thay thế cho người, vật. Làm chủ từ, túc từ trong MĐQH.
EX: - I need to meet the boy that is my friend's son.
- She has a car that is made in Japan.
*NOTE: ( quan trọng, cần chú ý )
* Không được dùng that trong những trường hợp :
+ Mệnh đề quan hệ không có giới hạn (Non- Defining)
EX: - Mary, ( who / that ) sits next to me, is good at maths.
—» Mary, who sits next to me, is good at maths. ( Không được dùng that )
+ Sau giới từ :

EX: - The girl to ( whom / that ) I was talking yesterday is my sister.
—»The girl to whom I was talking yesterday is my sister.( Không được dùng
that )
* Bắt buộc dùng that trong những trường hợp :
+ Sau danh từ chỉ cả người lẫn vật :
EX: - I saw a lot of people and vehicles that were moving to the market.
+ Sau những danh từ ở dạng so sánh cực cấp ( superlative ) :
EX: - Yesterday was one of the hottest days that I have ever known.
+ Sau những cách nói mở đầu bằng ' It is/was...'
EX: - It is the teacher that is important, not the kind of school he teaches in.
+ Sau 'all, everybody, everything, nothing, nobody,...'
EX: - Answer all the questions that I asked.
VII. WHY : thay thế cho cụm trạng từ chỉ lí do : for that reason.
EX: - Tell me the reason. You are so sad for that reason.
—» Tell me the reason why you are so sad.
VIII. WHEN : Thay thế cho cụm từ chỉ thời gian : then, at that time, on that day....
EX:- Do you remember the day. We first met on that day.
—» Do you remember the day when we fisrt met ?
*NOTE: ( bổ sung thêm )
- Ta có thể lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ whom, which khi nó là túc từ ( tân ngữ ) trong MĐQH
có giới hạn ( mệnh đề bổ nghĩa cho 1 danh từ đứng trước chưa xác định ), không được
dùng với mệnh đề không có giới hạn ( mệnh đề bổ nghĩa cho 1 danh từ đứng trước đã
xác định rồi ).
EX: - I know the boy whom you spoke to.
—» I know the boy you spoke to.
I. Who

1. The girl is Jane. She studied at university three years ago.
-> The girl________________________________________________
2. A girl was injured in the accident. She is now in hospital
-> A girl__________________________________________________
3. There's the boy. He broke the window.
-> There is the boy__________________________________________
4. The man was sick. He looked very pale.
-> The man________________________________________________
5. The man is playing tennis. He is a famous player.
-> The man________________________________________________
6. The man is talking to my father. He spent 15 minutes measuring our kitchen.
-> The man________________________________________________
7. The children went to New York. They speak English.
-> The children________________________________________________
8. The woman is standing over there. She is my sister.
-> The woman________________________________________________
9. The boys came late. They were punished.
-> The boys________________________________________________
10. There are the policemen. They caught the thief.
-> There are the policemen____________________________________
II. Which
1. The book is on the table. It is mine.
-> The book________________________________________________
2.The letter hasn't arrived yet. I posted it three days ago.
-> The letter________________________________________________
3. The sweets are delicious. I bought them yesterday
-> The sweets______________________________________________
4. I gave you a book. It had many pictures
-> I gave you a book_________________________________________

5. That's the dictionary. Bill gave it to me for Christmas
-> That’s the dictionary______________________________________
6. I’m reading the book. I bought it in 1996
-> I’m reading the book______________________________________
7. The street leads to my school. It is very dirty in rainy seasons
-> The street_______________________________________________
8. The novel read two days ago. It had 450 pages.
-> The novel_______________________________________________
9. The computer is old. I have used it for 10 years.
-> The computer____________________________________________
10. The car parked in front of my house. It had black.
-> The car________________________________________________
III. Whom
1. Do you like the people? Sarah invited them to her party
-> Do you like the people____________________________________?
2. The man is John. We are talking to him.
-> The man________________________________________________
3. The girl is a famous singer. I wanted to meet her.
-> The girl________________________________________________
4. I know the girl. I spoke to this girl.
-> I know the girl___________________________________________
5. I remembered the man. I had seen him at the concert.
-> I remembered the man_____________________________________
6. The boy is my nephew. You met him at the party.
-> The boy________________________________________________

7. The woman is wearing a pink hat. I met her at the supermarket yesterday.
-> The man________________________________________________
8. The boy is Tom . We spoke to him last week.
-> The boy________________________________________________
9. The chilren broke the window. We punished them yesterday.
-> The children____________________________________________
10. The lady came to the meeting late yesterday morning. I would like talk to her.
-> The lady________________________________________________
IV. Whose
1. I met a friend . Her daughter is a famous singer.
-> I met a friend____________________________________________
2. This is the boy. His father lived in London three years ago.
-> This is the boy__________________________________________
3. Jack is my new friend. His parents come from China.
-> Jack is my new friend_____________________________________
4. The girl is studying maths in this classroom. Her mother went on abroad last year.
-> The girl________________________________________________
5. That is the man. His family moved to the flat two months ago.
-> That is the man___________________________________________
6. I spoke to the girl. His mother is a famous doctor.
-> I spoke to the girl_________________________________________
7. We met the boy . His invention was famous in the world.

-> We met the boy___________________________________________
8. I’ll introduce you to the man. His support for the project is essential
-> .I’ll introduce you to the man________________________________
9. Harry is an engineer. His wife has just given birth to twins
-> Harry is an engineer_______________________________________
10. This is the woman. Her daughter is a director of a big company.
-> This is the woman_________________________________________
V. Where
1. I recently went back to Paris. I was born there nearly 50 years ago.
-> I recently went back to Paris_________________________________

2. That's the palace. The Queen lives in it.
-> That is the palace__________________________________________
3. Here is a postcard of the village. We spent three days there.
-> Here is a postcard of the village_______________________________
4. This is the hotel. He has stayed there for three weeks.
-> This is the hotel____________________________________________
5. Paris is the capital. We lived there 5 months ago.
-> Paris is the capital __________________________________________
6. That's the house. I was born in it.
-> That’s the house_____________________________________________

7. This is a big class . There are 50 students studying in it.
-> This is a big class____________________________________________
8. Hoa Binh is a small village. I was born and grew up there.
-> Hoa Binh is a small village____________________________________
9. That is a flat. He met Jane there 4 years ago.
-> That’s a flat________________________________________________
1/ 4th June is the day . I was born on that day .

2/ May Day is the day . People hold a meeting on that day .

3/ Summer is the time . The weather is very hot then .

4/ I don’t like Summer . It’s often hot then .

5/ We have not decided the day . I’ll go to London on that day .

6/ 7:30 is the time . My plane will arrive then .

7/ We first met in 1945 . The revolution took place then .

8/ I don’t know the time. She will come back then.

→ I don’t know the time when she will come back.

9/ Sunday is the day _____ we usually go fishing on .

10/ Sunday is the day _____ we usually go fishing .

11/ I’ll never forget the day ____I first met her .

12/ A night is the time of the day which it is dark outside .

1/ I don’t know the reason. You didn’t go to school for that reason.

1/ I do not know the reason . She left school for it .

1/Dublin is the capital of Ireland. It is my favourite city.

2/Amelia speaks English and Chinese fluently. Her mother is from Shanghai.

3/This smartphone takes great photos. I bought last week.

4/ Buckingham Palace is in the centre of London. The Queen of England lives in.

5/ Ferraris are very expensive. They are made in Italy

6/ Russell Crowe was born in New Zealand. He starred in Gladiator.

7/ Emily is in my English class. Her brother is a singer,

8/ Mr Kemp is going to retire next year. He teaches us Physics.

9/ The White House is in Washington DC. The US president lives in

10/ My brother earns a lot of money. He works in Warsaw.

11/ Venice is a very old city. It is in Italy.

12/ The Ritz Hotel is very expensive. We stayed last year.

13/ John Lennon was a member of The Beatles. He was born in 1940,

14/ My car broke down again. I bought last month.

15/ Molly speaks French very well. Her father is from Paris.

16/ Valencia is a great place. Valencia is due east of Madrid.

17/Jimbo is living in Thailand now. Jimbo got divorced last year.

18/ Clare is a good teacher. I don't like Clare very much.

19/ My greasy neighbour stinks of after-shave. My greasy neighbour is a bus driver.

20/ Almeria is very dry. The beaches of Almeria are wonderful.

21/ The school was built in 1907. The school has about 800 students.

22/ The government handled the diplomatic crisis badly. The government is facing
corruption charges.

23/ The Plaza Redonda square is near the cathedral. They hold a market in The Plaza
Rodonda square every Sunday. (use WHERE)

24/ Samantha is coming to the party.Samantha's mother is mayoress of this town

25/ The Flaca pub rocks. I met my girlfriend in The Flaca.

26/ My grandmother came from the North of England. She is dead now.

27/ I spoke to Fred. He explained the problem.

28/ The old man looked at the tree. He had often sat under

29/ We stopped at the museum. we'd never been into.

30/ She's studying maths. Many people hate it.

31/ I've just met Susan. Her husband works in London.

32/ He had thousands of books. He had read most of them.

33/ The writer has just published his second novel. He lives in this luxurious mansion.

34/ My sister is a lawyer. She is five years younger than me.

35/ Next summer I’m going to India. I’ve never been before.

36/ He didn’t even say “Thank you”. I found really rude.

37/ My boss travels to Paris regularly. His wife is French.
38/ My new coat is very warm and comfortable. I bought it in New York.

39/ Jim is my best friend. I’ve known him for years.

40/ Lady Gaga is only 24. She is a well-known star.

41/ Tom Cruise is a famous American actor. He has starred a lot film.

42/ Queen Elizabeth II has been the queen of England for 57 years now. She is 83.

43/ London is one of the largest cities in the world. It is the capital of England.

44/That is the woman. She keeps this library.

45/Here is the book. It is on wild animals.

46/The teacher is Mr Trung. He is reading in the library.

47/The long table is for reading. It is in the middle of the room.

48/The large room is the library. It is near the principal’s office.

49/Jack has many dictionaries. They are kept for reference.

50/The woman is Mrs Tam. She works in the library.

51/John is the boy. He plays the guitar.

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