# Solution manual fundamentals of electric circuits 3rd edition chapter11

Chapter 11, Problem 1.
If v(t) = 160 cos 50t V and i(t) = –20 sin(50t – 30°) A, calculate the instantaneous power
and the average power.

Chapter 11, Solution 1.

v( t ) = 160 cos(50t )
i( t ) = -20 sin(50t − 30°) = 2 cos(50t − 30° + 180° − 90°)
i( t ) = 20 cos(50t + 60°)
p( t ) = v( t ) i( t ) = (160)(20) cos(50t ) cos(50t + 60°)
p( t ) = 1600 [ cos(100 t + 60°) + cos(60°) ] W
p( t ) = 800 + 1600 cos(100t + 60°) W

1
1
Vm I m cos(θ v − θi ) = (160)(20) cos(60°)
2
2
P = 800 W
P=

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Chapter 11, Problem 2.
Given the circuit in Fig. 11.35, find the average power supplied or absorbed by each
element.

Figure 11.35
For Prob. 11.2.
Chapter 11, Solution 2.
Using current division,

j1 Ω

I2

I1
Vo

-j4 Ω

I1 =

j1 − j 4
− j6
(2) =
5 + j1 − j 4
5 − j3

I2 =

5
10
(2) =
5 + j1 − j 4
5 − j3

2∠0o A

5Ω

.

For the inductor and capacitor, the average power is zero. For the resistor,
1
1
P = | I1 |2 R = (1.029) 2 (5) = 2.647 W
2
2
Vo = 5I1 = −2.6471 − j 4.4118
1
1
S = Vo I * = (−2.6471 − j 4.4118) x 2 = −2.6471 − j 4.4118
2
2

Hence the average power supplied by the current source is 2.647 W.
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Chapter 11, Problem 3.

A load consists of a 60- Ω resistor in parallel with a 90 µ F capacitor. If the load is
connected to a voltage source v s (t) = 40 cos 2000t, find the average power delivered to

Chapter 11, Solution 3.

I
+

90 µ F

˚

40∠0

⎯⎯

C
R

1
1
=
= − j 5.5556
−6
jω C j 90 x10 x 2 x103

I = 40/60 = 0.6667A or Irms = 0.6667/1.4142 = 0.4714A
The average power delivered to the load is the same as the average power absorbed by
the resistor which is
Pavg = |Irms|260 = 13.333 W.

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Chapter 11, Problem 4.

Find the average power dissipated by the resistances in the circuit of Fig. 11.36.
Additionally, verify the conservation of power.

Figure 11.36
For Prob. 11.4.

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Chapter 11, Solution 4.

We apply nodal analysis. At the main node,
I1

20∠30o V

+

5 Ω I2

Vo

j4 Ω

8Ω

–j6 Ω

20 < 30o − Vo Vo
V
=
+ o
⎯⎯
→ Vo = 5.152 + j10.639
5
j 4 8 − j6
For the 5-Ω resistor,
20 < 30o − Vo
= 2.438 < −3.0661o A
I1 =
5
The average power dissipated by the resistor is
1
1
P1 = | I1 |2 R1 = x 2.4382 x5 = 14.86 W
2
2

For the 8-Ω resistor,
V
I 2 = o = 1.466 < 71.29o
8− j
The average power dissipated by the resistor is
1
1
P2 = | I 2 |2 R2 = x1.4662 x8 = 8.5966 W
2
2
The complex power supplied is
1
1
S = Vs I1* = (20 < 30o )(2.438 < 3.0661o ) = 20.43 + j13.30 VA
2
2
Adding P1 and P2 gives the real part of S, showing the conservation of power.
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Chapter 11, Problem 5.

Assuming that v s = 8 cos(2t – 40º) V in the circuit of Fig. 11.37, find the average power
delivered to each of the passive elements.

Figure 11.37
For Prob. 11.5.
Chapter 11, Solution 5.

Converting the circuit into the frequency domain, we get:
1Ω

8∠–40˚

I1Ω =

P1Ω =

+

2Ω

j6

–j2

8∠ − 40°
= 1.6828∠ − 25.38°
j6(2 − j2)
1+
j6 + 2 − j2
1.6828 2
1 = 1.4159 W
2

P3H = P0.25F = 0

I 2Ω =
P2Ω =

j6
1.6828∠ − 25.38° = 2.258
j6 + 2 − j2
2.258 2
2 = 5.097 W
2

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Chapter 11, Problem 6.

For the circuit in Fig. 11.38, i s = 6 cos 10 3 t A. Find the average power absorbed by the
50- Ω resistor.

Figure 11.38
For Prob. 11.6.

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Chapter 11, Solution 6.
⎯⎯
→ jω L = j103 x 20 x10−3 = j 20
1
1
40µF →
=
= − j25
jωC j10 3 x 40x10 − 6

20 mH

We apply nodal analysis to the circuit below.
Vo

+

20Ix

Ix
j20
6∠0o

50

–j25

10

V − 20I x
V −0
−6+ o
+ o
=0
10 + j20
50 − j25
Vo
But I x =
. Substituting this and solving for Vo leads
50 − j25

1
20
1
1
⎜⎜
⎟⎟Vo = 6

+
⎝ 10 + j20 (10 + j20) (50 − j25) 50 − j25 ⎠

1
20
1
⎜⎜
⎟⎟Vo = 6

+
⎝ 22.36∠63.43° (22.36∠63.43°)(55.9∠ − 26.57°) 55.9∠ − 26.57° ⎠
(0.02 − j0.04 − 0.012802 + j0.009598 + 0.016 + j0.008)Vo = 6
(0.0232 – j0.0224)Vo = 6 or Vo = 6/(0.03225∠–43.99˚ = 186.05∠43.99˚
For power, all we need is the magnitude of the rms value of Ix.
|Ix| = 186.05/55.9 = 3.328 and |Ix|rms = 3.328/1.4142 = 2.353
We can now calculate the average power absorbed by the 50-Ω resistor.
Pavg = (2.353)2x50 = 276.8 W.
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Chapter 11, Problem 7.
Given the circuit of Fig. 11.39, find the average power absorbed by the 10- Ω resistor.

Figure 11.39
For Prob. 11.7.
Chapter 11, Solution 7.
Applying KVL to the left-hand side of the circuit,
8∠20° = 4 I o + 0.1Vo

(1)

Applying KCL to the right side of the circuit,
V
V1
8Io + 1 +
=0
j5 10 − j5
10
10 − j5
Vo =
V1 ⎯
⎯→ V1 =
Vo
But,
10 − j5
10
Vo
10 − j5
Hence,
8Io +
Vo +
=0
j50
10
I o = j0.025 Vo

(2)

Substituting (2) into (1),
8∠20° = 0.1 Vo (1 + j)
80∠20°
Vo =
1+ j
I1 =

Vo
8
=
∠ - 25°
10
2

P=

1
⎛ 1 ⎞⎛ 64 ⎞
2
I1 R = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟(10) = 160W
2
⎝ 2 ⎠⎝ 2 ⎠

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Chapter 11, Problem 8.
In the circuit of Fig. 11.40, determine the average power absorbed by the 40- Ω resistor.

Figure 11.40
For Prob. 11.8.

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Chapter 11, Solution 8.
We apply nodal analysis to the following circuit.
V1 Io -j20 Ω

V2
I2

j10 Ω

6∠0° A

0.5 Io

40 Ω

At node 1,
6=

V1 V1 − V2
V1 = j120 − V2
+
j10
- j20

(1)

At node 2,
0 .5 I o + I o =

But,
Hence,

V2
40

V1 − V2
- j20
1.5 (V1 − V2 ) V2
=
- j20
40
3V1 = (3 − j) V2
Io =

(2)

Substituting (1) into (2),
j360 − 3V2 − 3V2 + j V2 = 0
j360 360
V2 =
=
(-1 + j6)
6 − j 37
I2 =

V2
9
=
(-1 + j6)
40 37
2

1⎛ 9 ⎞
1
2
⎟ (40) = 43.78 W
P = I2 R = ⎜
2 ⎝ 37 ⎠
2

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Chapter 11, Problem 9.
For the op amp circuit in Fig. 11.41, Vs = 10∠30° V rms . Find the average power
absorbed by the 20-k Ω resistor.

Figure 11.41
For Prob. 11.9.
Chapter 11, Solution 9.
This is a non-inverting op amp circuit. At the output of the op amp,
⎛ Z ⎞
⎛ (10 + j 6) x103 ⎞
Vo = ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ Vs = ⎜ 1 +
⎟ (8.66 + j 5) = 20.712 + j 28.124
(2 + j 4) x103 ⎠

⎝ Z1 ⎠
The current through the 20-kς resistor is
Vo
Io =
= 0.1411 + j1.491 mA
20k − j12k
P =| I o |2 R = (1.4975) 2 x10−6 x 20 x103 = 44.85 mW
Chapter 11, Problem 10.
In the op amp circuit in Fig. 11.42, find the total average power absorbed by the resistors.

Figure 11.42
For Prob. 11.10.
Chapter 11, Solution 10.
No current flows through each of the resistors. Hence, for each resistor,
P = 0 W . It should be noted that the input voltage will appear at the output of
each of the op amps.
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Chapter 11, Problem 11.
For the network in Fig. 11.43, assume that the port impedance is
Z ab =

R
1+ ω R C
2

2

2

−1
∠ − tan ωRC

Find the average power consumed by the network when R = 10 kΩ , C = 200 nF , and
i = 2 sin(377t + 22º) mA.

Figure 11.43
For Prob. 11.11.
Chapter 11, Solution 11.
ω = 377 ,
R = 10 4 ,
C = 200 × 10 -9
ωRC = (377)(10 4 )(200 × 10 -9 ) = 0.754

tan -1 (ωRC) = 37.02°
Z ab =

10k
1 + (0.754) 2

∠ - 37.02° = 7.985∠ - 37.02° kΩ

i( t ) = 2 sin(377 t + 22°) = 2 cos(377 t − 68°) mA
I = 2 ∠ - 68°
2

⎛ 2 × 10 - 3 ⎞
⎟ (7.985∠ - 37.02°) × 10 3
S=
=⎜

2 ⎟⎠

S = 15.97∠ - 37.02° mVA
I 2rms Z ab

P = S cos(37.02) = 12.751 mW

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Chapter 11, Problem 12.
For the circuit shown in Fig. 11.44, determine the load impedance Z for maximum power
transfer (to Z). Calculate the maximum power absorbed by the load.

Figure 11.44
For Prob. 11.12.

Chapter 11, Solution 12.
We find the Thevenin impedance using the circuit below.
j2 Ω

4Ω

-j3 Ω

5Ω

We note that the inductor is in parallel with the 5-Ω resistor and the combination is in
series with the capacitor. That whole combination is in parallel with the 4-Ω resistor.

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Thus,

5xj2 ⎞

4⎜⎜ − j3 +
5 + j2 ⎟⎠ 4(0.6896 − j1.2758) 4(1.4502∠ − 61.61°)

=
=
Z Thev =
5xj2
4.69 − j1.2758
4.86∠ − 15.22°
4 − j3 +
5 + j2
= 1.1936∠ − 46.39°
ZThev = 0.8233 – j0.8642 or ZL = 0.8233 + j0.8642Ω.
We obtain VTh using the circuit below. We apply nodal analysis.
j2 Ω

I
4Ω

–j3 Ω

V2

+

o

40∠0 V
+

VTh

5Ω

V2 − 40 V2 − 40 V2 − 0
=0
+
+
4 − j3
j2
5
(0.16 + j0.12 − j0.5 + 0.2)V2 = (0.16 + j0.12 − j0.5)40
(0.5235∠ − 46.55°)V2 = (0.4123∠ − 67.17°)40

Thus,

V2 = 31.5∠–20.62˚V = 29.48 – j11.093V
I = (40 – V2)/(4 – j3) = (40 – 29.48 + j11.093)/(4 – j3)
= 15.288∠46.52˚/5∠–36.87˚ = 3.058∠83.39˚ = 0.352 + j3.038
VThev = 40 – 4I = 40 – 1.408 – j12.152 = 38.59 – j12.152V
= 40.46∠–17.479˚V

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We can check our value of VThev by letting V1 = VThev. Now we can use nodal analysis to
solve for V1.
At node 1,
V1 − 40 V1 − V2 V2 − 0
+
+
= 0 → (0.25 + j0.3333)V1 + (0.2 − j0.3333)V2 = 10
4
− j3
5
At node 2,
V2 − V1 V2 − 40
+
= 0 → − j0.3333V1 + (− j0.1667)V2 = − j20
− j3
j2
>> Z=[(0.25+0.3333i),-0.3333i;-0.3333i,(0.2-0.1667i)]
Z=
0.2500 + 0.3333i
0 - 0.3333i
0 - 0.3333i 0.2000 - 0.1667i
>> I=[10;-20i]
I=
10.0000
0 -20.0000i
>> V=inv(Z)*I
V=
38.5993 -12.1459i
29.4890 -11.0952i
Please note, these values check with the ones obtained above.
To calculate the maximum power to the load,
|IL|rms = (40.46/(2x0.8233))/1.4141 = 17.376A
Pavg = (|IL|rms)20.8233 = 248.58 W.

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Chapter 11, Problem 13.
The Thevenin impedance of a source is Z Th = 120 + j 60 Ω , while the peak Thevenin
voltage is VTh = 110 + j 0 V . Determine the maximum available average power from the
source.

Chapter 11, Solution 13.
For maximum power transfer to the load, ZL = 120 – j60Ω.
ILrms = 110/(240x1.4142) = 0.3241A
Pavg = |ILrms|2120 = 12.605 W.

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Chapter 11, Problem 14.
It is desired to transfer maximum power to the load Z in the circuit of Fig. 11.45. Find Z
and the maximum power. Let i s = 5cos 40t A .

Figure 11.45
For Prob. 11.14.

Chapter 11, Solution 14.
We find the Thevenin equivalent at the terminals of Z.
40 mF
7.5 mH

1
1
=
= j 0.625
jωC j 40 x 40 x10−3
⎯⎯
→ jω L = j 40 x7.5 x10−3 = j 0.3

⎯⎯

To find ZTh, consider the circuit below.

j0.3

-j0.625

8Ω

12 Ω

ZTh = 8 − j 0.625 + 12 // j 0.3 = 8 − j 0.625 +

ZTh

12 x0.3
= 8.0075 − j 0.3252
12 + 0.3

ZL = (ZThev)* = 8.008 + j0.3252Ω.

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To find VTh, consider the circuit below.
-j0.625

8Ω

I1
5∠0o

j0.3

12 Ω

+
VTh

By current division,
I1 = 5(j0.3)/(12+j0.3) = 1.5∠90˚/12.004∠1.43˚ = 0.12496∠88.57˚
= 0.003118 + j0.12492A
VThev rms = 12I1/ 2 = 1.0603∠88.57˚V
ILrms = 1.0603∠88.57˚/2(8.008) = 66.2∠88.57˚mA
Pavg = |ILrms|28.008 = 35.09 mW.

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Chapter 11, Problem 15.
In the circuit of Fig. 11.46, find the value of ZL that will absorb the maximum power and
the value of the maximum power.

Figure 11.46
For Prob. 11.15.
Chapter 11, Solution 15.
To find Z Th , insert a 1-A current source at the load terminals as shown in Fig. (a).
1Ω
-j Ω
1
2
+
2 Vo

jΩ

Vo

1A

(a)
At node 1,

Vo Vo V2 − Vo
+
=
1
j
-j

⎯→ Vo = j V2

(1)

At node 2,
1 + 2 Vo =

V2 − Vo
-j

⎯→ 1 = j V2 − (2 + j) Vo

(2)

Substituting (1) into (2),
1 = j V2 − (2 + j)( j) V2 = (1 − j) V2
1
V2 =
1− j
V
1+ j
Z Th = 2 =
= 0.5 + j0.5
1
2
Z L = Z *Th = 0.5 − j0.5 Ω
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We now obtain VTh from Fig. (b).

1Ω

12∠0° V

-j Ω
+

+

+

Vo

jΩ

2 Vo

Vth

(b)
12 − Vo Vo
=
1
j
- 12
Vo =
1+ j
2 Vo +

– Vo − (- j × 2 Vo ) + VTh = 0
(−12)(1 − j2)
VTh = (1 - j2) Vo =
1+ j
2

Pmax =

VTh
8RL

2

⎛12 5 ⎞
⎟⎟
⎜⎜
⎝ 2 ⎠
= 90 W
=
(8)(0.5)

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Chapter 11, Problem 16.
For the circuit of Fig. 11.47, find the maximum power delivered to the load ZL.

Figure 11.47
For Prob. 11.16.
Chapter 11, Solution 16.
1
1
=
= − j5
jωC j 4 x1 / 20
We find the Thevenin equivalent at the terminals of ZL. To find VTh, we use the circuit
shown below.
0.5Vo

ω = 4,

1H

jωL = j 4,

⎯→

⎯→

1 / 20F

2Ω

4Ω

V1

V2
+

+
10<0o
-

+
Vo
-

-j5

j4

VTh
-

At node 1,
10 − V1
V
V − V2
= 1 + 0.5V1 + 1
2
− j5
4

⎯⎯→

5 = V1 (1.25 + j0.2) − 0.25V2

(1)

At node 2,

V1 − V2
V
+ 0.25V1 = 2
j4
4

⎯→

0 = 0.5V1 + V2 (−0.25 + j 0.25)

(2)

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Solving (1) and (2) leads to

VTh = V2 = 6.1947 + j 7.0796 = 9.4072∠48.81o
To obtain RTh, consider the circuit shown below. We replace ZL by a 1-A current source.
0.5V1

2Ω

4Ω

V1

-j5

V2

j4

1A

At node 1,

V − V2
V1
V
+ 1 + 0.25V1 + 1
=0 ⎯
⎯→
2 − j5
4
(3)

0 = V1 (1 + j 0.2) − 0.25V2

At node 2,
1+

V1 − V2
V
+ 0.25V1 = 2
4
j4

⎯→

− 1 = 0.5V1 + V2 (−0.25 + j 0.25)

(4)

Solving (1) and (2) gives
V
Z Th = 2 = 1.9115 + j 3.3274 = 3.8374∠60.12 o
1

Pmax =

| VTh | 2
9.4072 2
=
= 5.787 W
8RTh
8 x1.9115

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Chapter 11, Problem 17.
Calculate the value of ZL in the circuit of Fig. 11.48 in order for ZL to receive maximum
average power. What is the maximum average power received by ZL?

Figure 11.48
For Prob. 11.17.

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Chapter 11, Solution 17.
We find R Th at terminals a-b following Fig. (a).

-j10 Ω

30 Ω
a

b

40 Ω

j20 Ω
(a)

Z Th = − j10 + 30 || j20 + 40 =

(30 − j10)(40 + j20)
= 20 Ω = ZL
70 + j10

We obtain VTh from Fig. (b).

I1

I2

-j10 Ω

30 Ω
j5 A

+ VTh −
40 Ω

j20 Ω
(b)

Using current division,
30 + j20
I1 =
( j5) = -1.1 + j2.3
70 + j10
40 − j10
I2 =
( j5) = 1.1 + j2.7
70 + j10
VTh = 30 I 2 + j10 I 1 = 10 + j70

Pmax =

VTh
8RL

2

=

5000
= 31.25 W
(8)(20)