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Environmental law, policy, and economics reclaiming the environmental agenda


Environmental Law, Policy, and Economics


Praise for Environmental Law, Policy, and Economics
‘‘The inclusion of environmental science in the context of a treatise on environmental law,
policy, and economics makes this book one of the most comprehensive, useful, and timeless
treatments on the subject to date.’’
—Jennifer Sass, Senior Scientist, Natural Resources Defense Council
‘‘This book is a timely and important contribution, written by authors who combine decades
of academic excellence with significant real life experiences. It demonstrates the cutting edge
potential for law to become a policy tool that can drive sustainable innovation when applied
by knowledgeable and capable practitioners. The vast and comprehensive scope is both broad
and deep; the synthesis of complex interconnections is a welcome tour de force.’’
—Ted Smith, Founder and former Executive Director, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition and
Coordinator, International Campaign for Responsible Technology
‘‘This book explores not only the basic environmental pollution control laws but also, and of
fundamental importance, the ways in which these laws do or do not lead to cleaner production. Its explanations of various concepts and legal tools will be useful to both students and
practitioners.’’
—John C. Dernbach, Professor of Law, Widener University Law School
‘‘A comprehensive and invaluable compendium of two decades of scholarship and jurisprudence on the legal, social, and economic dimensions of pollution regulation, control, and prevention. Written largely from an American perspective, the volume draws important lessons

from the comparative, European experience, as well.’’
—David A. Sonnenfeld, Professor and Chair, Department of Environmental Studies, SUNY
College of Environmental Science and Forestry
‘‘Highly recommended for use both in the classroom and the law o‰ce. It is not only a highly
useful treatise on the field, but a convincing a‰rmation of the central role law plays in environmental protection.’’
—William Futrell, President, Sustainable Development Law Associates


Environmental Law, Policy, and Economics
Reclaiming the Environmental Agenda

Nicholas A. Ashford
Charles C. Caldart

The MIT Press
Cambridge, Massachusetts
London, England


6 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical
means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in
writing from the publisher.
For information about special quantity discounts, please email special_sales@mitpress.mit.edu
This book was set in Times New Roman on 3B2 by Asco Typesetters, Hong Kong.
Printed on recycled paper and bound in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Ashford, Nicholas Askounes.
Environmental law, policy, and economics : reclaiming the environmental agenda / Nicholas A. Ashford,
Charles C. Caldart.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-262-01238-6 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Environmental law—United States. 2. Environmental
policy—United States. I. Caldart, Charles C. II. Title.
KF3775.A967 2007
344.7304 0 6—dc22
2007001995
10 9 8 7

6 5 4 3



2 1


Dedicated to the committed government employees, activists, scholars, and far-sighted
firms who have helped protect the environment and public health.



Contents in Brief

Foreword by William K. Reilly
Acknowledgments
Introduction

xxix
xxxi
xxxiii

1

The Nature and Origins of Environmental Contamination

2

Nature and Assessment of the Harm

3

Economics and the Environment

127

4

Addressing Pollution Through the Tort System

189

5

Administrative Law: The Roles of Congress, the President, the
Agencies, and the Courts in Shaping Environmental Policy

241

6

The Clean Air Act and the Regulation of Stationary Sources

343

7

The Regulation of Mobile Sources Under the Clean Air Act

461

8

Protection of Surface Waters, Wetlands, and Drinking Water: The
Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act

579

Regulation of Hazardous Wastes: RCRA, CERCLA, and Hazardous
Waste Facility Siting

693

The Right to Know: Mandatory Disclosure of Information Regarding
Chemical Risks

771

11

Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes

807

12

Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution
Reduction

879

Policies to Promote Pollution Prevention and Inherent Safety

967

9
10

13

1
45


viii

14

Contents in Brief

Epilogue—Beyond Pollution Control and Prevention: Sustainable
Development

1043

About the Authors
Index of Cases
Subject Index

1053
1055
1061


Contents in Detail

1

The Nature and Origins of Environmental Contamination
A. The Nature of the Problem: Pollution and Accidental Releases of
Chemicals into the Environment
 Christiani, David C. and Woodin, Mark A., ‘‘Specific
Air Pollutants Associated with Adverse Respiratory
E¤ects,’’ from Life Support: The Environment and
Human Health, pp. 15–37 (2002)
 Hu, Howard and Kim, Nancy K., ‘‘Drinking-Water
Pollution and Human Health,’’ from Critical
Condition: Human Health and the Environment,
pp. 31–48 (1993)
 Bowen, E. and Hu, H., ‘‘Food Contamination Due to
Environmental Pollution,’’ from Critical Condition:
Human Health and the Environment, pp. 49–69
(1993)
 Montague, Peter, ‘‘Environmental Trends,’’ Rachel’s
Environment and Health Weekly, no. 613, August 27
(1998)
 Roe, David, et al., Environmental Defense Fund,
‘‘Executive Summary,’’ from Toxic Ignorance: The
Continuing Absence of Basic Health Testing for
Top-Selling Chemicals in the United States (1997)
B. The Causes of Pollution and Accidental Releases
1. Increases in the Production and Use of Chemicals, and
Changes in the Nature of Chemical Contamination
 Commoner, Barry M., ‘‘A Reporter at Large: The
Environment,’’ The New Yorker, pp. 46–71, June 15
(1987)

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x

Contents in Detail

2. Public Goods, the Tragedy of the Commons, and Free-Rider
Problems: The Destructiveness of Pursuing Narrow SelfInterest
 Hardin, Garrett ‘‘The Tragedy of the Commons,’’
162 Science 1243, 1244–1245 (1968)
a. Pursuing Self-Interest as a Pathway to an Improved
Environment
 Ridley, M. and Low, B. S., ‘‘Can Selfishness Save the
Environment?,’’ The Atlantic Monthly, pp. 76–86,
September (1993)
b. Moral Appeal
 Durnil, G. K., ‘‘A Conservative Speaks,’’ Rachel’s
Environment and Health Weekly, no. 424, January 12
(1995)
3. Pollution as an Economic Problem
 Ru¤, Larry, ‘‘The Economic Common Sense of
Pollution,’’ from Economics of the Environment,
pp. 3–19 (1972)
 Ashford, N. and Heaton, G., ‘‘Environmental and
Safety Regulation: Reasons for their Adoption and
Possible E¤ects on Technological Innovation,’’
Environmental Policy and Law, vol. 1, pp. 171–172
(1975/76)
 Morgan, Granger, ‘‘Risk Management Should Be
About E‰ciency and Equity,’’ from Environmental
Science & Technology, pp. 32A–34A, January 1
(2000)
4. Limits to Growth
C. Pollution and Accident Control, Mitigation, and Prevention
D. The Focus of Traditional Environmental Law
E. Beyond Pollution and Accident Control and Prevention:
Sustainable Production and Products
2

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25

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34
35
41
42
43

Nature and Assessment of the Harm

45

A. Life Cycle Analysis and the Biological Impact Pathway
 Ashford, N. A., Hattis, D. B., Heaton, G. R., Katz,
J. I., Priest, W. C. and Zolt, E. M., ‘‘Life Cycle
Models for the Production, Use, and Disposal of
Chemicals,’’ from Evaluating Chemical Regulations:

45


Contents in Detail

Trade-o¤ Analysis and Impact Assessment for
Environmental Decision Making, pp. 19–25 (1980)
 Ashford, N. A., Hattis, D. B., Heaton, G. R., Katz,
J. I., Priest,W. C. and Zolt, E. M., ‘‘The Biological
Impact Pathway,’’ from Evaluating Chemical
Regulations: Trade-o¤ Analysis and Impact
Assessment for Environmental Decision Making,
pp. 20, 22–25 (1980)
B. Environmental and Ecosystem Degradation
C. Human Health Risks
1. Classical Categorization: The Dose Makes the Poison
a. Exposure and Dose
b. Dose-E¤ect and Dose-Response Relationships
 Ashford, N. A., ‘‘Exposure to Toxic Materials
and Carcinogens,’’ from Crisis in the Workplace,
pp. 115–124 (1976)
 Ashford, N. A., Hattis, D. B., Heaton, G. R., Katz,
J. I., Priest, W. C. and Zolt, E. M., ‘‘Relating
Exposure to Damage,’’ from Evaluating Chemical
Regulations: Trade-o¤ Analysis and Impact
Assessment for Environmental Decision Making,
pp. 5–25 to 5–27 (1980)
c. Categorization of Health E¤ects Resulting from Exposures
to Chemicals
 Ashford, N. A., Hattis, D. B., Heaton, G. R., Katz,
J. I., Priest, W. C. and Zolt, E. M., ‘‘Taxonomy of
Biological E¤ects with Di¤erent Dose-Response
Implications,’’ from Evaluating Chemical Regulations:
Trade-o¤ Analysis and Impact Assessment for
Environmental Decision Making, pp. 5–27 to 5–31
(1980)
d. In vitro Studies
e. Structure-Activity Relationships
2. Multistage Disease Processes: The Dose Plus the Host Makes
the Harm
a. Endocrine Disruption
 Environmental Protection Agency, ‘‘Overview of the
Endocrine Disruptor Issue,’’ from Endocrine
Disruptor Screening Program: Report to Congress
(2000)

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Contents in Detail

b. Low-Level Chemical Sensitivity
 Ashford, Nicholas A., ‘‘Low-Level Chemical
Sensitivity: Implications for Research and Social
Policy,’’ from Toxicology and Industrial Health:
Special Issues on Multiple Chemical Sensitivity,
15(3–4), pp. 421–427, April–June (1999)
c. Toxicant-Induced Loss of Tolerance: A New Theory of
Disease?
 Ashford, Nicholas A., and Miller, C. S., ‘‘Low-Level
Exposures to Chemicals Challenge Both Science and
Regulatory Policy,’’ from Environmental Science and
Technology, pp. 508A–509A, November (1998)
d. Cancer, Repair Mechanisms, and Hormesis
D. The Basics (and Limitations) of Risk Assessment
1. Risk Assessment Methodology
 Heyvaert, Veerle, ‘‘What Is Risk Assessment?,’’ from
Reconceptualizing Risk Assessment, Reciel 8(2): 135–
143 (1999)
 Masters, G. M., ‘‘Risk Assessment,’’ from
Introduction to Environmental Engineering and
Science, p. 117 et seq. (1998)
2. The Limits of Risk Assessment
 Heyvaert, Veerle, ‘‘[The] . . . Trouble with Risk
Assessment,’’ from Reconceptualizing Risk
Assessment, Reciel 8(2): 135–143 (1999)
3. Epidemiology
 Monson, Richard, ‘‘Epidemiology and Risk,’’ from
Chemical Risk Assessment and Occupational Health,
pp. 39–41 (1994)
 Teta, M. Jane, ‘‘Epidemiology in Occupational
Health Risk Assessment,’’ from Chemical Risk
Assessment and Occupational Health, pp. 57–66
(1994)
 Needleman, Carolyn, ‘‘Applied Epidemiology and
Environmental Health: Emerging Controversies,’’
American Journal of Infection Control 25(3): 262–
274 (1997)
E. Scientific Uncertainty, Values, and Implications for Policy: Can a
‘‘Safe’’ Level of Exposure be Unequivocally Determined?

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Contents in Detail

xiii





3

Ashford, N. A. and Miller, C. S., ‘‘Public Policy
Response,’’ Environmental Science and Technology
508A–509A, November (1998)
Ashford, N. A., ‘‘Science and Values: Can They Be
Separated,’’ Statistical Science 3(3): 377–383 August
(1988)

122

123

Economics and the Environment

127

A. Introduction
B. The Economic Value of Environmental Amenities, Resources, and
Quality
C. Market Imperfections as the Basis for Government Intervention
1. Externalities
2. Imperfect Information
3. Imperfect Competition
4. Market-Related Inequities and Injustices
D. Economic E‰ciency and the Technological Dynamic
E. The Use of Cost-Benefit Analysis as a Means of Evaluating and
Designing Options for Environmental Regulation
1. Problems in Estimating Environmental Policy Benefits
a. Valuing Health-Related Benefits
b. Valuing Environmental Resources and Amenities
2. Problems in Estimating Environmental Policy Costs: Static
versus Dynamic Assumptions About Technological Responses
3. Problems in Selecting the Discount Rate
4. Problems of Equity and Ethics
5. Misuses and Abuses of Cost-Benefit Analysis
6. The Value of Transparency
7. Trade-o¤ Analysis as an Alternative to Cost-Benefit Analysis
F. Prioritizing Environmental Problems Within and Among Di¤erent
Problem Areas
1. Perceptual and Political Influences on Risk-Based Priority
Setting
2. The Inherent Nonuniformity in Priority Setting
G. Law and Economics as Competing Frameworks for
Environmental Decision Making: The Polluter Pays Principle and
the Precautionary Principle
H. Schools of Economic Discourse and Policy Formulation
References

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4

Contents in Detail

Addressing Pollution Through the Tort System

189

A. Introduction
1. The Common Law: Court-Made Law (and Policy)
2. The Relationship Between the Common Law and Statutory
Law
B. The Tort System
1. The Basic Functions of Tort Law
2. The Available Remedies
a. Monetary Damages
b. Injunctive Relief
3. The Central Elements of a Tort Claim
a. In General
b. Tort Suits Against the Government
C. The Four Classic Environmental Tort Claims
1. Negligence
2. Nuisance
a. Private Nuisance
b. Public Nuisance
3. Trespass
4. Strict Liability for Abnormally Dangerous Activity
D. Products Liability Claims
 Beshada v. Johns-Manville Products Corp., 447 A.2d
539 (N.J. 1982)
E. The Technology-Forcing Potential of Tort Law
 The T. J. Hooper 60 F.2d 737 (2d Cir. 1932)
F. Drawbacks to Using the Tort System as a Pollution Reduction
Tool
1. The Financial Investment Necessary to Mount a Credible Case
2. The Di‰culty in Moving Beyond Current Industry Practice
3. The Di‰culty in Proving Proximate Causation
4. The Di‰culty in Presenting ‘‘Novel’’ Scientific or Engineering
Testimony
5. The Lengthy Delay Between Causation and Remedy
6. The Di‰culty in Securing an Injunction Against Ongoing
Industrial Activity
 Boomer et al. v. Atlantic Cement Company, Inc, .26
N.Y.2d 219, 257 N.E.2d 870 (1970)

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206
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Contents in Detail

5

Administrative Law: The Roles of Congress, the President, the
Agencies, and the Courts in Shaping Environmental Policy
A. Questions to Consider when Analyzing a Regulatory Framework
B. The Constitutional Basis for Health, Safety, and Environmental
Regulation
1. Direction from the Legislative Branch
a. The Substantive Statutory Mandate
b. The Commerce Clause
c. The ‘‘Regulatory Takings’’ Issue
d. The Delegation Doctrine
e. The Procedural Mandate
f. Interpreting the Statutory Mandate
g. Statutory Amendment and Informal Controls
h. Federal Regulatory Authority and the States
 New York v. United States, 505 U.S. 144 (1992)
2. Direction from the Executive Branch
 Schultz, William B. and Vladeck, David C., ‘‘An
Obstacle to Public Safety,’’ The Washington Post,
May 10, 1988, p. 20
3. Direction from the Judicial Branch
 Ferguson, J. H. and McHenry, D. E., ‘‘Constitutional
Courts,’’ from The American System of Government,
pp. 441–453 (1981)
 Llewellyn, K. N., ‘‘This Case System: What to Do
with the Cases,’’ from The Bramble Bush, pp. 41–45
(1981)
 Baker, Russell ‘‘Lawyers for Cars,’’ The New York
Times, June 8 (1983)
C. Administrative Rulemaking
1. The Distinction between Rulemaking, Adjudication, and
Enforcement
2. A General Look at Rulemaking under the Administrative
Procedure Act
3. Negotiated Rulemaking
 Susskind, Lawrence and McMahon, Gerard, ‘‘The
Theory and Practice of Negotiated Rulemaking,’’
from Yale Journal on Regulation 133 (1985)
 Caldart, Charles C. and Ashford, Nicholas A.,
‘‘Negotiation as a Means of Developing and
Implementing Environmental and Occupational

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244
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260
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Contents in Detail

Health and Safety Policy,’’ from Harvard
Environmental Law Review 141 (1999)
D. Citizen and Corporate Access to the Administrative Process
1. Initiation of Rulemaking
2. Access to Agency Proceedings and Records
3. Access to Advisory Committees
4. Access to the Courts
5. Monetary Limitations on the Availability of Review
6. Bypassing the Agency: Citizen Enforcement Through the
Private Right of Action
E. The Role of the Courts in Reviewing Agency Decision Making
1. Five Judicial Limitations on Agency Authority
2. The Scope of Factual Review
 Motor Vehicle Manufacturers’ Association v. State
Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company, 463
U.S. 29 (1983)
3. Judicial Review of Agency Decisions Not to Act
F. Two General Environmental Mandates to Agencies: The National
Environmental Policy Act and the Endangered Species Act
1. The National Environmental Policy Act
a. The Environmental Impact Statement
b. The Council on Environmental Quality
2. The Endangered Species Act
6

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315
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338

The Clean Air Act and the Regulation of Stationary Sources

343

A. Origins and Overview of the Clean Air Act
1. Origins
2. Structure and Overview of the Clean Air Act
B. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Criteria
Pollutants
 Lead Industries Association, Inc. v. Environmental
Protection Agency, 647 F.2d 1130 (D.C. Cir. 1980)
 American Petroleum Institute v. Costle, 665 F.2d 1176
(D.C. Cir. 1981)
 American Lung Association v. Environmental
Protection Agency, 884 F. Supp. 345 (D. Arizona
1994)
 American Trucking Associations, Inc. v.
Environmental Protection Agency, 175 F.3d 1027
(D.C. Cir. 1999)

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Contents in Detail

xvii

Environmental Protection Agency v. American
Trucking Associations, Inc, 531 U.S. 457 (2001)
C. State Implementation Plans
 Union Electric Co. v. Environmental Protection
Agency, 427 U.S. 246 (1976)
D. Additional Regulation of Stationary Sources
1. Section 111 Standards
a. New Source Performance Standards
i.
In General
ii. What Is a ‘‘New’’ or ‘‘Major Modified’’ Source?
 Portland Cement Association v. Ruckelshaus, 486 F.2d
375 (D.C. Cir. 1973)
iii. Alternative Standard-Setting Criteria
b. Designated Pollutants
2. Additional Emission Standards Designed to Achieve or
Maintain Ambient Air Quality Standards: Nonattainment and
the Prevention of Significant Deterioration
a. Nonattainment Policy
i.
In General
ii. Specific Requirements for Ozone, CO, and Particulates
b. Nondegradation Policy (Prevention of Significant
Deterioration)
i.
In General
ii. Specific Requirements
c. The Applicability of the Bubble Policy in Nonattainment
and PSD Areas
 Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense
Council, 467 U.S. 837 (1984)
3. Visibility Protection
 Central Arizona Water Conservation District v. United
States Environmental Protection Agency, 990 F.2d
1531 (9th Cir. 1993)
4. Acid Rain Controls and the SO2 Allowance Trading System
5. Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants
a. Section 112 Before the 1990 Amendments
 Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. v.
Environmental Protection Agency, 824 F.2d 1146
(D.C. Cir. 1987)
b. Section 112 After the 1990 Amendments


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Contents in Detail

i.
ii.

Designation of Specific Hazardous Air Pollutants
Distinguishing Between ‘‘Major’’ and ‘‘Area’’ Sources
 National Mining Association v. Environmental
Protection Agency, 59 F.3d 1351 (D.C. Cir. 1995)
iii. Specific Emission Standards According to a Specified
Schedule
iv. Hazardous Air Pollution O¤sets
v. Reporting and Prevention of Accidental Chemical
Releases
6. Enforcement and the Title VI Operating Permits
7

443
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444
448
455
456
456

The Regulation of Mobile Sources Under the Clean Air Act

461

A.
B.
C.
D.

463
465
468
469
471
471

Our Ongoing Love A¤air with the Automobile
The Downside of Automobility
The Emergence of Air Pollution Legislation for Mobile Sources
The 1970 Clean Air Act Amendments
1. Emission Standards for New Motor Vehicles
a. Limits Set by Congress
 International Harvester Co., et al., v. Environmental
Protection Agency, 478 F.2d 615 (D.C. Cir. 1973)
b. Additional Limits Set by EPA
 Natural Resources Defense Council v. Environmental
Protection Agency, 655 F.2d 318 (D.C. Cir. 1981)
c. Federal Preemption (and the California Exception)
2. Regulation of Fuel Content—Product Ban as Technology
Forcing
 Ethyl Corp. v. Environmental Protection Agency, 541
F.2d 1 (D.C. Cir. 1976)
3. Transportation Controls and Inspection and Maintenance
Programs
E. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
1. Tier I Standards
2. Tier II Standards—Uniform Standards for Light-Duty Cars,
Trucks, and SUVs
3. New Measures Regulating Gasoline
4. Encouraging the Use of Alternative Fuels
5. Diesel Sulfur, Heavy-Duty Engine, Heavy-Duty Vehicle Rule
6. Emissions Rule for Nonroad Engines
7. The Mobile Source Air Toxics Program

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xix

F. Regulation of Fuel E‰ciency
G. Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions
 Massachusetts, et al. v. Environmental Protection
Agency, 127 S. Ct. 1438 (2007)
H. Beyond the Traditional Internal Combustion Engine
1. The New Breed of ICEs
2. Electric-Drive Vehicles
I. The Legacy of the Clean Air Act

547
568
569
572
576

Protection of Surface Waters, Wetlands, and Drinking Water: The
Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act

579

A. The Clean Water Act: Regulation of Point Source Discharges of
Pollutants to Surface Waters, Wetlands, and Sewage Treatment
Plants
1. The History and Development of the Federal Regulations
a. The 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act
Amendments
i.
Setting the National Goals
ii. The Absolute Prohibition Against Nonconforming
Discharges
iii. Broad (but Shrinking?) Definition of Navigable Waters
 Rapanos v. United States, 126 S.Ct. 2208 (2006)
iv. The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
(NPDES) Permit
v. National Technology-Based E¿uent Limits for
Industry
vi. Health-Based E¿uent Limits for Toxic Pollutants, Set
on a Pollutant-by-Pollutant Basis
vii. Technology-Based E¿uent Limitations and Public
Financing for Public Sewage Treatment Plants
viii. Federal Pretreatment Standards for Discharges into
Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants
ix. Ambient Water Quality Standards Set by the States
x. Data Generation and Data Disclosure
xi. A Strong Emphasis on Public Participation
xii. State Involvement in Implementation and Enforcement
b. The 1977 Clean Water Act Amendments
i.
The Division of Pollutants into Three Categories
ii. Technology-Based E¿uent Limits for Toxic Pollutants

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Contents in Detail

Wyche, Bradford W., ‘‘The Regulation of Toxic
Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act: EPA’s TenYear Rulemaking Nears Completion,’’ from 15
Natural Resources Lawyer 511 (1983)
iii. Relaxation of Deadlines
c. The 1987 Water Quality Act Amendments
i.
A Renewed Emphasis on Water Quality-Based
Limitations for Toxic Pollutants
ii. An Increased Emphasis on Penalties
iii. Relaxation of Deadlines
2. The Technology-Based E¿uent Limitations in Detail
a. Industrial Source Limitations in General
 Dupont v. Train, 430 U.S. 112 (1977)
 EPA v. National Crushed Stone Association, 449 U.S.
64 (1980)
b. First-Tier Limitations for Existing Sources: BPT
c. Second-Tier Limitations for Existing Sources: BCT and BAT
d. Limitations for New Sources: BADT
e. Limitations for Public Sewage Treatment Plants
3. Water Quality-Based E¿uent Limitations
a. The State and Federal Roles in Setting and Revising
Ambient Water Quality Standards
b. The Mechanics of Establishing Water Quality Standards
c. Translating Ambient Standards into E¿uent Limitations
i.
The Total Maximum Daily Load
ii. The Section 304(l) Program for ‘‘Toxic Hot Spots’’
iii. The Mechanics of Establishing Water Quality-Based
E¿uent Limitations
d. Whole E¿uent Toxicity Standards
4. The Permitting Process in Detail
5. Regulation of Stormwater Discharges
6. Limitations on Discharges to Public Sewage Treatment Plants
7. Regulation of Toxic Chemicals in Sewage Sludge
B. The Clean Water Act: Protection of Surface Waters and Wetlands
from Nonpoint Source Pollution
C. The Clean Water Act: Protection of Surface Waters and Wetlands
from the Discharge of Dredged and Fill Material
1. The Section 404 Permit Program
2. The Application of the Section 404 Program to Wetlands


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D. The Protection of Public Water Systems: The Safe Drinking
Water Act
1. The City of New Orleans and the Origins of the Safe Drinking
Water Act
2. The 1974 Act: Establishing the Framework
a. Coverage: Public Water Systems
b. Federal Standards: Primary and Secondary Drinking Water
Standards
c. Notification to Consumers
d. State Implementation
e. Regulation of Underground Injection Wells
3. The 1986 Amendments: Mandating the Maximum
Contaminant Levels
 Natural Resources Defense Council v. EPA, 824 F.2d
1211 (D.C. Cir. 1987)
4. The 1996 Amendments: Scaling Back
9

Regulation of Hazardous Wastes: RCRA, CERCLA, and Hazardous
Waste Facility Siting
A. Overview
1. Nowhere to Hide: The Relationship Between Hazardous Waste
Regulation and Pollution Prevention
2. Activist Suburbs: The Revitalization of the Environmental
Movement and the Resulting Di‰culty in Siting Hazardous
Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities
3. The ‘‘Breakthrough’’ that Wasn’t: Constitutional Limitations
on Local Control of Hazardous Waste Shipment and
Treatment
 Chemical Waste Management, Inc., v. Guy Hunt,
Governor of Alabama, et al., 504 U.S. 334 (1992)
B. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Solid Waste
Disposal Act)
1. The History and Development of the Federal Regulations
2. The Broad Impact: A Federal ‘‘Tax’’ on Hazardous Waste
Generation
3. The Regulated Materials: Solid and Hazardous Waste
a. Solid Waste
b. Hazardous Waste
i. Characteristic Waste
ii. Criteria (Listed) Waste

xxi

674
675
676
677
677
680
680
681
682
682
689

693
694
694

696

699
699
708
708
711
711
712
713
713
713


xxii

Contents in Detail

iii. RCRA Definition Waste
iv. State Definition Waste
v. Ash Generated by Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators
 City of Chicago v. Environmental Defense Fund, 511
U.S. 328 (1994)
4. The ‘‘Cradle-to-Grave’’ System for Hazardous Waste
a. Notification and Identification
b. The Manifest System
c. The Permit Program
d. Performance and Monitoring Standards
5. The ‘‘Land Ban’’ and the Hazardous Waste Treatment
Standards
a. A Shift in the Burden of Proof
b. The BDAT Standards
 American Petroleum Institute v. United States EPA,
906 F.2d 729 (D.C. Cir. 1990)
6. Standards for Hazardous Waste Incinerators
7. Corrective Action and the CAMU
8. Underground Storage Tanks
9. The Regulation of Other Solid Waste
10. The Citizen Suit and Imminent and Substantial Endangerment
Provisions
 Dague v. City of Burlington, 935 F.2d 1343 (2d Cir.
1991)
C. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and
Liability Act (the Superfund Law)
1. Looking Both Ways: The Policy Impact of CERCLA
2. The President’s Authority to Take, Order, or Contract for the
Performance of Cleanup Action under CERCLA
a. Section 104
b. Section 106
3. Standardization and Prioritization
a. The National Contingency Plan
b. The National Priorities List
4. The Nature of Response Actions Under CERCLA
a. Removal Action
b. Remedial Action
i.
The Steps of a Remedial Action
ii. Cleanup Standards
5. The Hazardous Substance Superfund

714
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714
715
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720
720
720
721
724
725
725
726
738
740
742
743
743
744
749
749
751
751
752
753
753
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754
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754
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Contents in Detail

6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

10

11

The Liability of Responsible Parties to Pay the Cost of
Response Action
a. Who Is Liable?
b. Defenses to Liability
c. The Nature of the Liability
 U.S. v. Hercules, Inc., 247 F.3d 706 (8th Cir. 2001)
The Special Program for Remediating Federal Facilities
The Search for Innovative Cleanup Technologies
The Liability of Responsible Parties to Pay for Damage to
Natural Resources
The Citizen’s Role
Monetary Damages for Personal Injury and Damage to
Private Property

The Right to Know: Mandatory Disclosure of Information Regarding
Chemical Risks

xxiii

758
758
760
761
762
767
767
769
769
770

771

A. Worker Right to Know
1. The OSH Act
2. TSCA
3. The NLRA
B. Community Right to Know
1. EPCRA Reporting Generally
2. Chemical Release Reporting Under the TRI Program
C. Community Right to Know as a Spur to Risk Reduction
 Karkkainen, Bradley C., ‘‘Information as
Environmental Regulation: TRI and Performance
Benchmarking, Precursor to a New Paradigm?,’’
Georgetown Law Journal 257 (2001)

772
775
777
778
780
781
784
788

789

Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes

807

A. Overview
B. Theories of Enforcement: Compliance, Deterrence, and
Restitution
C. The Enforcers and their Roles
D. Enforcement in Practice: The Proverbial Nuts and Bolts
1. Monitoring, Reporting, and Record-Keeping Requirements
2. Inspections
 Marshall v. Barlow’s Inc., 436 U.S. 307 (1978)
3. Injunctions

807
808
809
810
810
810
810
816


xxiv

Contents in Detail





Weinberger, Secretary of Defense, et al. v. RomeroBarcelo et al., 456 U.S. 305 (1982)
United States Public Interest Research Group, et al.
v. Atlantic Salmon of Maine, LLC, et al., 339 F.3d 23
(1st Cir. 2003)

4. Penalties
5. Settlements
6. Enforcement Actions Against the Government
E. The Special Rules Governing Citizen Enforcement
1. Article III Principles: Standing and Mootness
 Gwaltney of Smithfield, Ltd. v. Chesapeake Bay
Foundation, Inc., et al., 484 U.S. 49 (1987)
 Friends of the Earth, Inc., et al. v. Laidlaw
Environmental Services (TOC), Inc., 528 U.S. 167
(2000)
2. The Relationship between Citizen Enforcement and
Government Oversight
3. Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation (SLAPP Suits)
12

Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution
Reduction
A. Direct Controls
 Ashford, Nicholas A., Ayers, Christine and Stone,
Robert F., ‘‘Using Regulation to Change the Market
for Innovation,’’ from Harvard Environmental Law
Review (No. 2), pp. 419–466 (1985)
B. Indirect Controls I: ‘‘Negative’’ Incentives
1. Emissions Charges
2. Tradable Emission Permits
a. Types of Permit Systems
b. Initial Allocation of Permits
c. Other Factors that Influence Trading
d. History, Evidence, and Analysis of E¤ectiveness of
Emissions Trading
 Burtraw, Dallas and Mansur, ‘‘Environmental E¤ects
of SO2 Trading and Banking,’’ Environmental Science
and Technology 33(20): 3489–3494 (1999)
 Ellerman, A. Denny, ‘‘Are Cap and Trade Programs
More E¤ective in Meeting Environmental Goals than

816

827
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836
838
838
838
841

852
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905

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