Tải bản đầy đủ

TÀI LIỆU HƯỚNG DẪN PHẦN THI VIẾT TIẾNG ANH B1

TÀI LIỆU HƯỚNG DẪN PHẦN THI TIẾT ANH B1
PHẦN THI VIẾT (ESSAY WRITING)
THEO CHUẨN VSTEP CỦA BỘ GIÁO DỤC & ĐÀO TẠO
GENERAL FORM OF AN ESSAY:
1. Introduction
2. Body Paragraphs
3. Conclusion

1) Introduction (Introductory paragraph)
You should do just two things:

State the topic of the essay, using some basic facts (that you may be able to
take from the question)

Say what you are going to write about (thesis statement)
2) Body Paragraphs
You should have 2 or 3 body paragraphs - no more, and no less.
For your body paragraph, each paragraph should contain one controlling idea, and
have sentences to support this.
3) Conclusion (Concluding paragraph)
The conclusion only needs to be one or two sentences, and you can do the following:


Re-state what the essay is about (re-write the last sentence of your introduction
in different words)

Give some thoughts about the future (optional)
** Common types of essay in Vstep Writing Task 2:
1. Opinion (Agree or Disagree) essay
2. Advantages and Disadvantages essay
3. Problems and Solution/ Causes and Solution essay
WRITING TASK 2: USEFUL LANGUAGE
Introducing the topic
 Some people argue that…
 Have you ever considered…?
 The question raises the issue of…
Stating an opinion (thesis statement)
 I believe that…
 It is my belief that…
 This essay will argue that…
Indicating the scope of the essay
 In this essay, I will state…
 This essay will examine…




… will be covered in this essay.

Giving reasons
 One reason for this is that…
 This can be explained by…
 This can be attributed to the fact that…
Giving further reasons
 Not only that, but…
 A further reason is…
 It should also be stated that…
Citing general opinions
 It has been claimed that…
 It is widely believed that…
 There is a widespread belief that…
Refuting opinions


 I would dispute this, however.
 However, this is not necessarily the case.
 There are some faults with this reasoning, however.
Hedging strategies
 It could be argued that…
 One explanation might be that…
 This suggests that…
Strengthening an argument
 There can be no doubt that…
 Therefore, we can say beyond any doubt that…
 These are just some of the reasons why…
Concluding and summarising
 To sum up, … / In summary, … / In short, …
 Overall, … / On the whole, …
 To return to my original idea, …

(A) THESIS STATEMENT
A Thesis Statement is an essential and crucial part
of an essay because it tells the reader what your essay is
going to be about. It is the last sentence in the introduction
and may include an opinion.
A thesis statement serves as a summary of the
argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.
* Remember:
 Don’t use questions in the introduction; the thesis statement is not a question.
 Make it clear what you are going to write about briefly.






If it’s an opinion essay, make your opinion clear in the thesis statement
The thesis statement comes after paraphrasing the question.
The thesis statement should always conclude the topic and one controlling idea

* For each essay type this is what should be in the Thesis statement:
1. Opinion essays: write your opinion or how you feel about the topic.
2. Advantages Disadvantages essays: outline 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage.
3. Problem Solution essays: outline 1 or 2 problems and possible solutions.
Here is an example introduction, with the thesis in bold:
Due to the increase in global trade, many of the goods that we consume every day
are made in a different country and then transported over a long distance in order
to reach us. In my opinion, this trend has more disadvantages than advantages.
You would then go on to write about the advantages and disadvantages of global trade
(focusing more on the disadvantages as you think there are more of these).

(B) INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH:
In the writing for task 2, you must write an essay
within only 40 minutes. In this time, you need to analyze
the question, brainstorm ideas to write about, formulate
an essay plan, and then write your response. So, you
need to use your time carefully. You need a good essay
introduction, but one thing you do not want to do is spend too long writing it so that
you end up rushing your paragraphs. Your paragraphs are the most important
thing as they contain all your supporting arguments and demonstrate how good you
are at organizing your ideas.
You therefore need a method to write your essay introduction fairly quickly.
When you write an introduction, you should make sure you do two things:
1.
Write a sentence introducing the topic and giving some background
facts about it
2.
Tell the reader what you are going to be writing about
Make sure your whole introduction is under 55 words or it will be too long.
How you do this will vary depending on the question, but here is an example:
Example 1:
Blood sports have become a hot topic for debate in recent years. As society
develops it is increasingly seen as an uncivilized activity and cruel to the helpless
animals that are killed. Blood sports should be banned.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Sample essay introduction:
Despite the fact that killing animals for sport is popular in modern society, it
remains a contentious issue. I believe that blood sports are cruel and uncivilized
and so should be banned as soon as possible.
As you can see, the first sentence consists of the topic plus some background
facts on the topic which have been taken from the rubric.


The second sentence then gives the writers opinion and tells us that in the essay
the writer will be arguing the reasons why it is cruel.
The topic does not have to be in the first sentence, but it should be made clear
somewhere in the introduction. You must always have a thesis.
***PARAPHRASING
Another important point - don't copy from the question! You must paraphrase
(put it in your own words). To do this you can use synonyms and move the order of
the sentence around.
Using some of the same words is acceptable, but don't copy whole phrases.
You can see how the question above has been paraphrased. All the information
is from the question, but it has been written in a different way and has not been copied.
***Further Essay Introduction Examples
Example 2:
According to a recent study, the more time people use the Internet, the less time
they spend with real human beings. Some people say that instead of seeing the
Internet as a way of opening up new communication possibilities world wide, we
should be concerned about the effect this is having on social interaction.
How far do you agree with this opinion?
Sample essay introduction:
A recent study has shown that as people use the Internet more, they are spending
less time with human beings. I believe that although this has increased the
communication around the world in positive ways, it has also led to negative
effects on the day-to-day social interaction of human beings.
Example 3:
Unemployment has become an increasing problem in the recent past.
What factors contribute to an increase in unemployment and what steps can be
taken to solve the problem?
Sample essay introduction:
Over recent years, the level of unemployment has been increasing at an alarming
rate in many countries around the world. This essay will discuss the reasons for
this increase and consider what practical solutions are available.
Example 4:
Some people think children in secondary school should study international news
as part of the curriculum. Others think that this would be a waste of time as there
are already too many subjects for children to concentrate on.
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Sample essay introduction:
While some people are of the opinion that it would be useful to include
international news as a subject in the school curriculum, others believe that this
is a waste of students’ time because they are already overloaded with subjects to
study. This essay will examine both sides of the issue.


(C) CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH
You should do three things in your conclusion:
1.
Use a concluding phrase (In short, / In
conclusion, / To conclude,)
2.
Restate the thesis statement in different words
3.
Give some personal opinions, hopes, fears, or
recommendations about the future (optional)
Take a look at this essay question and introduction. The thesis statement is in bold:
Question:
Blood sports have become a hot topic for debate in recent years. As society
develops it is increasingly seen as an uncivilized activity and cruel to the helpless
animals that are killed. Blood sports should be banned.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Sample essay introduction:
Despite the fact that killing animals for sport is popular in modern society, it
remains a contentious issue. I believe that blood sports are cruel and uncivilized
and so should be banned as soon as possible.
Sample essay conclusion:
To conclude, it is clear that blood sports must be prohibited as no civilized
society should allow the pain and suffering of animals simply for fun.
For your final sentence, you can give some personal opinions, hopes, fears, or
recommendations about the future.
I hope that governments around the world discuss this issue with haste and
forbid this inhumane type of sport as soon as possible.
This then, is the full essay conclusion:
To conclude, it is clear that blood sports must be prohibited as no civilized
society should allow the pain and suffering of animals simply for fun. I hope
that governments around the world discuss this issue with haste and forbid this
inhumane type of sport as soon as possible.
***Further Essay Conclusion Examples
Question 1:
Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine.
However, at best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be
dangerous.
To what extent do you agree with this statement?
Introduction:
Alternative medicine is not new. It is accepted that it pre-dates conventional
medicine and it is still used by many people all over the world. I am unconvinced
that it is dangerous and feel that both alternative and conventional medicine can
be useful.


Conclusion:
To sum up, I strongly believe that conventional medicine and alternative
therapies can and should coexist. They have different strengths and can both be
used effectively to target particular medical problems. The best situation would
be for alternative therapies to be used to support and complement conventional
medicine.
Question 2:
Some people believe the aim of university education is to help graduates get better
jobs. Others believe there are much wider benefits of university education for
both individuals and society.
Discuss both views and give your opinion.
Introduction:
These days, more and more people are making the choice to go to
university. While some people are of the opinion that the only purpose of a
university education is to improve job prospects, others think that society and the
individual benefit in much broader ways.
Conclusion:
All in all, I believe that although a main aim of university education is to get the
best job, there are clearly further benefits. If we continue to promote and
encourage university attendance, it will lead to a better future for individuals and
society.
Question 3:
Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today.
What are the causes of global warming and what measures can governments and
individuals take to tackle the issue?
Introduction:
Probably the most worrying threat to our planet at the present time is global
warming. This essay will examine the reasons why global warming is occurring
and discuss some possible solutions.
Conclusion:
To conclude, although global warming is a serious issue, there are steps that
governments and individuals can take to reduce its effects. If we are to save our
planet, it is important that this is treated as a priority for all concerned.

(D) HOW TO RECOGNIZE TYPES OF ESSAY
Here are the signals to identify each type of essay with useful language, model
structure and examples followed
1. Opinion Questions (Agree or Disagree)
* Signals words/ phrases/ sentences:


- What is your opinion?
- Do you agree or disagree?
- To what extent do you agree or disagree?
* Useful language:
- Introduction:
o Agree: Personally, I agree that…
o Disagree: Many people argue that…. However, I believe that…
o Neutral: To a certain extent I agree that… However, I also believe that…
- Body
+ On the one hand… On the other hand, …
+ Firstly/Secondly/Thirdly
+ However,.../ Nevertheless,.../ etc.
- Conclusion
+ In short,.../ In summary,.../ In conclusion,.../ To conclude,...
* Example:
Some people believe that unpaid community service should be a compulsory part
of high school programmes (for example working for a charity, improving the
neighborhood or teaching sports to younger children).
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
* Model structure:

* Model essay:


It is argued that volunteering should be made part of the school curriculum.
This essay agrees with that suggestion completely because of the benefits it brings to
pupils. The essay will first look at how voluntary work can help students develop soft
skills and then discuss how these extracurricular activities are valued by universities
and employers.
Education should not be limited to strictly academic pursuits and those in
education should also develop life skills, such as teamwork, empathy and selfdiscipline, and one of the best ways to hone these aptitudes is through community
service. Serving those less fortunate than ourselves teaches us many lessons including
how to work with people from other backgrounds and the value of hard work. For
example, I personally volunteered to spend 6 weeks in Africa teaching disadvantaged
children and this led to a much higher work ethic when I returned to my studies.
Many colleges and companies are also increasingly looking for this type of
experience. Most school leavers have the same grades and charitable works can help
set you apart from the herd. For example, Cambridge and Oxford receive thousands of
applications from straight-A students every year and can only accept a small
percentage of applicants. What you have done outside the classroom is often the thing
that differentiates you from everyone else and gets you that coveted spot.
In conclusion, teenagers should be made to partake in unpaid work as part of
their schooling because it will help them learn things they wouldn’t ordinarily learn
from their teachers and it will also boost their chances of getting into third level
education.
2. Advantages and Disadvantages Questions:
* Signals words/ phrases/ sentences:
- Advantage = benefit, profit, merit, positive aspect, strong point.
- Disadvantage = drawback, negative aspect, weak point.
* Useful language:
- Introductory paragraph
+. Nowadays,…
+. In these days,…
+. There is an irrefutable fact that…
- Advantages:
+. The first/main/greatest/important advantage of …. is ….
+. One/another additional advantage/benefit …. is ….
+. What makes …important… is …
+. One/Another point in favor of …. is …
- Disadvantages:
+. The first/main/greatest/ most serious disadvantage of …. is ….
+. One/another/an additional disadvantage of …. is ….
+ The most negative thing about… is…
+ Points against include…
+ One of many disadvantages is…
+ Although … has many advantages, there still exist some noteworthy
disadvantages.


- Concluding paragraph:
I would therefore argue that although there are advantages/ disadvantages of
the current trend to …, they are outweighed by the disadvantages/ advantages
- Switching to talking about the other:
+ On the other hand,…/ Nevertheless,...
+ Looking at the other side of the argument,…
+ Switching from the pros to the cons,…
* Example:
Computers are being used more and more in education.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages and give your own opinion.
* Model structure:

* Model essay:
It is argued that technology is playing an every increasing role in schools and
universities. This essay will firstly, discuss student freedom as one of the main
advantages of this and secondly, outline decreasing levels of face to face contact as
one of the main disadvantages.
One of the principle advantages of an increase in the use electronic devices in
education is the autonomy it provides students. Students have the freedom to focus on
whatever topic or subject they want and study it in depth through the internet. A prime
example of this is the amount of online university courses available to students,
covering a myriad of subjects, that up until recently were unavailable to most learners.
This has resulted in more people studying third level degrees than ever before, at a
pace and schedule that suits them.


The main disadvantage associated with increasing use of technology in
education is the decrease in face to face interaction between students. Students spend
more time looking at computer screens by themselves than interacting with each other.
For instance, the recent explosion in smart phone use has been at the expense of
genuine human interaction. This results in soft skills, such as verbal communication
and empathy, being effected.
In conclusion, the benefits technology brings to education, such as student
autonomy, must be weighed against the drawbacks, such as negative effects on human
interaction. Overall, the educational benefits outweigh the disadvantages because
human beings will always want human contact and most people will not solely use IT
for education.
3. Problem and Solution Questions:
* Signals words/ phrases/ sentences:
- Problem/ Cause.
- Solution.
* Useful language:
- Cause:
+ Since/ Because
+ Because of/ Owing to/ Due to (the fact that)
+ The reason that…/why…/for… is that…
+ This matter/problem… | can be attributed to …/ is resulted from
+ … lead to this prolem…
- Effect:
+
+
+
+

Thus/Therefore/Consequently.
As a result/consequence,…
The result of … is/would be/could be…
… would/could result in

- Solutions:
+ One possible/notable way to solve/overcome/deal with/mitigate the problem
would be/is …
+ People/Goverment/The society/Individuals/ Each individual should focus
his/their attention on + Ving.
- Introduction
+ It is true that…
+ Although there are undoubtedly some problems/ negative consequences/
effects of this trend, measures can be taken to mitigate these potential
consequences/ problems
- Body
Paragraph 1: Problems
+ The main/first/most obvious/most apparent/most noteworthy/most important
issue/problem/matter.
+ Another problem/pressure | Additional problem(s) | What is of equal
seriousness/importance is….


Paragraph 2: Solutions
There are several actions that could be taken to eradicate the problems
described above. Firstly, a simple solution would be… . A second measure
would be…
SAMPLE OUTLINE for PROBLEMS and SOLUTIONS ESSAY
It is true that —topic—. Although there will undoubtedly be some negative
consequences of this trend, societies can take steps to mitigate these potential
problems.
Several related problems can be anticipated when –—topic–—. The main issue is that
——problem 1–—. Explanation/example——–. Further pressures will include —–
problem 2——–Explanation/example——. —Topic— can also result in —–problem
3——–Explanation/example—
There are several actions that governments could take to solve the problems described
above. Firstly, a simple solution would be to —–solution 1——–
Explanation/example–——. A second measure would be —–solution 2 ——–
Explanation/example——–. Finally, —solution 3 —Explanation/example—–.
In conclusion, various measures can be taken to tackle the problems that are certain to
arise as——topic—–.
* Example:
Students are becoming more and more reliant on computers.
What are some of the problems associated with reliance on computers, and what
are some of the possible solutions?
* Model structure:


* Model essay:
Learners are becoming ever more dependent on technology, such as the
internet and mobile devices. This essay will discuss one of the main problems
associated with dependence on computers and suggest a viable solution.
The principal problem with over reliance on technology, such as tablets and
computers, is plagiarism. Students often use search engines to answer a question and
simply copy the text from a website, rather than thinking about the question. This
practice is not only prohibited in schools and universities, but also stunts a student’s
intellectual development. For example, many teachers complain that students copy
web pages straight from Wikipedia word for word rather than giving a reasoned
answer to their questions.
A solution to this worrying problem is asking students to email their answers to
teachers and teachers using anti-plagiarism software to detect copying. Moreover,
students would be made aware of this practice and this would inspire them to answer
questions using their own words, rather than someone else’s. For instance, many
universities already use this kind software to scan course work for plagiarism and it
could be extended to include all homework, by learners in both secondary and tertiary
education.
In summary, one of the main problems with over-use of technology in education
is plagiarism and this can be solved through the use of plagiarism detection software.
It is predicted that more and more students’ will email their work to their teacher and
this work will be scrutinised for plagiarism.
For higher mark, you not only follow the things mentioned above but also have proper
grammar, suitable vocabulary and relevant ideas to solve the question.

(E) HOW TO WRITE EACH TYPE OF ESSAY:

I. How to write the Advantages and Disadvantages essay:
Remember, the examiner is marking you on how you express, organize and support
your ideas. They aren’t judging you on your opinion. As long as it’s logical and
cohesive (your argument is supported and your ideas stick together) and written
clearly, you will get a higher mark.
You can follow this 4-paragraph structure:
 Introduction – introduce topic and state your thesis statement.
 Benefits – give examples and supporting details
 Drawbacks – give examples and supporting details
 Conclusion – restate your opinion (this is a very short paragraph – probably 1
to 2 sentences)
For example: Nowadays, people tend to live in countryside. They prefer to settle their
lives in quiet rural areas. Write an essay to discuss benefits and drawbacks of
countryside life.
OUTLINE (not fully written out):
1. Introduction
– Write the general statement (paraphrase).


In recent years, there has been growing an arguable idea that …
– Write the thesis statement.
This following essay will aim to present both advantages and disadvantages of living
in countryside.
2. Benefits
On the one hand, there are a number of/several/many/numerous/some noteworthy
benefits to living in countryside.
 (first benefit + example):
Firstly, the main/major/most important advantage of living in countryside is +
Noun phrase/ that people can get/enjoy/gain/have … For example, …


(second benefit + example):
Secondly, a further/another/an additional advantage of living in countryside is
+ Noun phrase/ that people can get/enjoy/gain/have … For instance, …



(third benefit + example):
Moreover, living in countryside
brings/supplies/furnishes/provides/makes/helps (us) … Actually, …

3. Drawbacks
On the other hand, rural life also has/associates with/involves (a number
of/several/many/some) drawbacks.
 (first drawback + example):
First of all, one disadvantage of living in countryside is + Noun phrase/ that
people can get/face up to/have … Particularly, …


(second drawback + example):
Second of all, living in countryside results in/causes/ leads to/bring
about/involve/contributed to… This can be demonstrated that …



(third drawback + example):
In addition/besides, … may be caused/resulted from*/created/generated by
living in countryside. In fact, …

4. Conclusion
– Restate the thesis statement (paraphrase):
In conclusion, there are not only advantages but also disadvantages of living in
countryside.
– Write a final comment:
Ones need to be very alert and balance both sides so that we can get several profits.
Note: Some IELTS tests will ask you to state “outweigh” idea. Write a five-paragraph essay with the
structure of Introduction – Benefit 1 – Benefit 2 – Drawback 1 – Conclusion or Introduction –
Drawback 1 – Drawback 2 – Benefit 1 – Conclusion.
* Model question and essay:
Question:


People now have the freedom to work and live anywhere in the world due to the
development of communication technology and transportation.
Do the advantages of this development outweigh the disadvantages?
Essay:
These days many people choose to live or work in other countries, which has
been made possible because of the convenience of air travel and modern
communications. I believe that this has more benefits than drawbacks.
The disadvantage of this development is the distance that is put between family
members. If a person moves away it is true that air travel and devices such as skype
mean that communication and contact can be maintained. However, it is likely that a
person will only be able to return one or two times a year during holidays, and
speaking on skype or via email is not the same as face-to-face contact.
Despite this, there are significant advantages it can bring to people’s lives.
Firstly, it means that people have the opportunity to see other parts of the world and
the way people live. For example, people from the West often go to work in Asia or
the Middle East and visa-versa. This enriches many people’s lives as they get to learn
about other languages, traditions, cultures and different ways of working from their
own country.
In addition to this, on a wider level it may also benefit other countries. If
someone moves abroad for work, it is usually because their skill is required there. To
illustrate, nurses and Doctors often move to work in hospitals in other countries when
there is a shortage, so this is very valuable to the place they move to.
I would therefore argue that although there are disadvantages of the current
trend to live and work abroad, they are outweighed by the advantages. It can enrich
people’s lives and lives of the people in the countries that they move to.
(283 words.)

II. How to write the Problems/Causes and Solution Essay:
You can follow this 4-paragraph structure:
 Introduction – introduce topic and state the thesis statement.
 Problems/Causes – give examples and supporting details
 Solutions – give examples and supporting details
 Conclusion – restate your opinion (this is a very short paragraph – probably 1
to 2 sentences)
For example: Nowadays, people say that our planet is seriously polluted and that
leads to low quality human life. Write an essay to discuss possible causes and
suggest measures for this problem
OUTLINE (not fully written out):
1. Introduction
– Write the general statement (paraphrase):
In recent years, many people have argued about a fact that …
– Write the thesis statement:
The following essay will aim to present not only possible causes but also potential
solutions.
2. Problems/ Causes


This problem/issue/phenomenon/situation/matter is possibly caused by many
contributing factors/principles/rationales/reasons/causes.
 First of all, the main/major/most important reason of this problem is + Noun
phrase/ that (clause) …


Second of all, this matter can be caused by/resulted from/generated
from/attributed to …



Last but not least, … also leads to/results in/ brings about/contributes
to/effects the situation.

3. Solutions
The problem can be successfully prevented by some potential measures.
 Firstly, one of notable/realizable measures to solve/overcome this problem is +
Noun phrase/ that (clause) …


Secondly, people/Government/the society/individuals/each individual should
focus his/their attention/responsibility on this matter.



Moreover/besides, … is also a resolution/
betterment/remedy/correction/alleviation to the situation.

4. Conclusion
– In conclusion, the aforementioned facts illustrate causes of pollution of the Earth.
– However, I am convinced that if the measured suggested above are properly carried
out, the situation will be improved.
Note: If the test asks you to write Problems – Solutions instead of Causes –
Solutions. Use Disadvantages for replacing Problems.
For example: Write an essay to discuss about problems of living in big cities and
suggest some measures to prevent us from detrimental effects. (Introduction –
Disadvantages – Solutions – Conclusion)
***Problem Solution Essay Questions:
Overpopulation of urban areas has led to numerous problems.
Identify one or two serious ones and suggest ways that governments and individuals
can tackle these problems.
Nowadays many people have access to computers on a wide basis and a large number
of children play computer games.
What are the negative impacts of playing computer games and what can be done to
minimize the bad effects?
The internet has transformed the way information is shared and consumed, but it has
also created problems that did not exist before.


What are the most serious problems associated with the internet and what solutions
can you suggest?
In the developed world, average life expectancy is increasing.
What problems will this cause for individuals and society?
Suggest some measures that could be taken to reduce the impact of ageing
populations.

III.

How to write the Agree or Disagree essay:

You can follow this 4-paragraph structure:
 Introduction – introduce topic and give your clear answer to the task question (I
fully agree or disagree with the claim)
 Main Reason #1 why you agree or disagree – give examples and supporting
details
 Main Reason #2 why you agree or disagree – give examples and supporting
details
 Main Reason #3 why you agree or disagree – give examples and supporting
details (optional)
 Conclusion – restate your opinion (this is a very short paragraph – probably 1 to 2
sentences)
For example: Nowadays, people say that living in big cities is better than living in
country because of many benefits.
OUTLINE (not fully written out):
1. Introduction
– Write the general statement (paraphrase).
– I completely agree with the statement. And in this essay, I will present my viewpoint
and opinion.
2. Main Reason #1
I believe people have more opportunities for self-development in big cities.
 (explanation)________________________________________________
 (example)___________________________________________________
 (supposition) ________________________________________________
3. Main Reason #2
Conditions in urban life, such as healthcare service and entertainment, are better than
those in rural life.
 (explanation)________________________________________________
 (example)___________________________________________________
 (supposition) ________________________________________________
4. Conclusion
– In conclusion, personally, I assume that city life is better than rural life.
– We should think deeply about the idea and choose the right point for life.


Note: If you agree that A > B. Use advantages of A and disadvantages of B for
supporting.
If you disagree that A > B. Use advantages of B and disadvantages of A for
supporting.
* Note: Some IELTS tests require you to write counter-argument paragraph for higher
mark, but not in VSTEP tests.
***Agree or Disagree Questions:
Some people think the main purpose of schools is to turn children into good
citizens and workers, rather than to benefit them as individuals.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
 1/ Agree:
People have different views about what the main purpose of schools should
be. Personally, I agree that a school’s role is to prepare children to be productive
members of society.
 2/ Disagree:
Many people argue that the main role of schools is to prepare children for their future
jobs. However, I believe that the purpose of education should be to help children to
grow as individuals.
 3/ Balanced view or neutral:
To a certain extent I agree that the role of schools is to prepare children to be
productive members of society. However, I also believe that the education process
has a positive impact on us as individuals.

***Model Agree or Disagree essay
1: Universities should accept equal numbers of male and female students in every
subject. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
In my opinion, men and women should have the same educational
opportunities. However, I do not agree with the idea of accepting equal proportions of
each gender in every university subject.
Having the same number of men and women on all degree courses is simply
unrealistic. Student numbers on any course depend on the applications that the
institution receives. If a university decided to fill courses with equal numbers of males
and females, it would need enough applicants of each gender. In reality, many courses
are more popular with one gender than the other, and it would not be practical to aim
for equal proportions. For example, nursing courses tend to attract more female
applicants, and it would be difficult to fill these courses if fifty per cent of the places
needed to go to males.
Apart from the practical concerns expressed above, I also believe that it would
be unfair to base admission to university courses on gender. Universities should
continue to select the best candidates for each course according to their qualifications.
In this way, both men and women have the same opportunities, and applicants know
that they will be successful if they work hard to achieve good grades at school. If a
female student is the best candidate for a place on a course, it is surely wrong to reject
her in favour of a male student with lower grades or fewer qualifications.


In conclusion, the selection of university students should be based on merit, and
it would be both impractical and unfair to change to a selection procedure based on
gender.
2: Some people believe that hobbies need to be difficult to be enjoyable.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Some hobbies are relatively easy, while others present more of a challenge.
Personally, I believe that both types of hobby can be fun, and I therefore disagree with
the statement that hobbies need to be difficult in order to be enjoyable.
On the one hand, many people enjoy easy hobbies. One example of an activity
that is easy for most people is swimming. This hobby requires very little equipment, it
is simple to learn, and it is inexpensive. I remember learning to swim at my local
swimming pool when I was a child, and it never felt like a demanding or challenging
experience. Another hobby that I find easy and fun is photography. In my opinion,
anyone can take interesting pictures without knowing too much about the technicalities
of operating a camera. Despite being straightforward, taking photos is a satisfying
activity.
On the other hand, difficult hobbies can sometimes be more exciting. If an
activity is more challenging, we might feel a greater sense of satisfaction when we
manage to do it successfully. For example, film editing is a hobby that requires a high
level of knowledge and expertise. In my case, it took me around two years before I
became competent at this activity, but now I enjoy it much more than I did when I
started. I believe that many hobbies give us more pleasure when we reach a higher
level of performance because the results are better and the feeling of achievement is
greater.
In conclusion, simple hobbies can be fun and relaxing, but difficult hobbies can
be equally pleasurable for different reasons.
3: Families who send their children to private schools should not be required to pay
taxes that support the state education system.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Some people believe that parents of children who attend private schools should
not need to contribute to state schools through taxes. Personally, I completely disagree
with this view.
For a variety of reasons, it would be wrong to reduce taxes for families who pay
for private education. Firstly, it would be difficult to calculate the correct amount of
tax reduction for these families, and staff would be required to manage this complex
process. Secondly, we all pay a certain amount of tax for public services that we may
not use. For example, most people are fortunate enough not to have to call the police
or fire brigade at any time in their lives, but they would not expect a tax reduction for
this. Finally, if wealthy families were given a tax discount for sending their children to
private schools, we might have a situation where poorer people pay higher taxes than
the rich.
In my opinion, we should all be happy to pay our share of the money that
supports public schools. It is beneficial for all members of society to have a highquality education system with equal opportunities for all young people. This will result
in a well-educated workforce, and in turn a more productive and prosperous nation.
Parents of children in private schools may also see the advantages of this in their own


lives. For example, a company owner will need well qualified and competent staff, and
a well-funded education system can provide such employees.
In conclusion, I do not believe that any financial concessions should be made
for people who choose private education.
4: Some people think that all teenagers should be required to do unpaid work in
their free time to help the local community. They believe this would benefit both the
individual teenager and society as a whole. Do you agree or disagree?
Many young people work on a volunteer basis, and this can only be beneficial
for both the individual and society as a whole. However, I do not agree that we should
therefore force all teenagers to do unpaid work.
Most young people are already under enough pressure with their studies,
without being given the added responsibility of working in their spare time. School is
just as demanding as a full-time job, and teachers expect their students to do
homework and exam revision on top of attending lessons every day. When young
people do have some free time, we should encourage them to enjoy it with their friends
or to spend it doing sports and other leisure activities. They have many years of work
ahead of them when they finish their studies.
At the same time, I do not believe that society has anything to gain from
obliging young people to do unpaid work. In fact, I would argue that it goes against the
values of a free and fair society to force a group of people to do something against
their will. Doing this can only lead to resentment amongst young people, who would
feel that they were being used, and parents, who would not want to be told how to
raise their children. Currently, nobody is forced to volunteer, and this is surely the best
system.
In conclusion, teenagers may choose to work for free and help others, but in my
opinion, we should not make this compulsory.

(F) WRITING QUESTIONS FOR PRACTICE:
1. Government investment in the arts, such as music and theatre, is a waste of money.
Governments must invest this money in public services instead.
To what extent do you agree with this statement?
2. Education is not a luxury, but a basic human right and as such should be free for
everyone irrespective of personal wealth.
Do you agree or disagree?
3. Some people think that children's free time must include educational activities
otherwise they will waste their time.
What is your opinion?
4. Developed countries have created many environmental problems in the World,
particularly in their contribution to global warming.
Why is global warming a problem?
What can be done to reduce the dangers of global warming?


5. In order to solve traffic problems, governments should tax private car owners
heavily and use the money to improve public transportation.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of such a solution?
6. Global warming is one of the most serious issues that the world is facing today.
What are the causes of global warming and what measures can governments and
individuals take to tackle the issue?
7. Logging of the rain forests is a serious problem and it may lead to the extinction of
animal life and human life.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
8. Overpopulation of urban areas has led to numerous problems.
Identify one or two serious ones and suggest ways that governments and individuals
can tackle these problems.
9. Currently there is a trend towards the use of alternative forms of medicine.
However, at best these methods are ineffective, and at worst they may be dangerous.
To what extent do you agree with this statement?
10. Stress is now a major problem in many countries around the world.
What are some of the factors in modern society that cause this stress, and how can we
reduce it?
11. Do the dangers derived from the use of chemicals in food production and
preservation outweigh the advantages?
12. These days, we are seeing an increasing amount of violence on television, and this
is having a negative impact on children's behavior.
Do you agree or disagree?
13. There is an increasing trend around the world to have a small family rather than a
large family.
What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of having a small family rather
than a large family?
14. Smoking not only harms the smoker, but also those who are nearby. Therefore,
smoking should be banned in public places.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
15. Levels of youth crime are increasing rapidly in most cities around the world.
What are the reasons for this and suggest some solutions.
16. People use computers when they work or go banking, but some argue that it will
make people isolated and decrease their social skills.
To what extent do you agree with this viewpoint?
17. Nowadays many people have access to computers on a wide basis and a large
number of children play computer games.


What are the negative and positive impacts of playing computer games and what can
be done to minimize the bad effects?
18. As people live longer and longer, the idea of cloning human beings in order to
provide spare parts is becoming a reality. The idea horrifies most people, yet it is no
longer mere science fiction.
To what extent do you agree with such a procedure?



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×