Chuyên đề 10: PASSIVE VOICE (CÂU BỊ ĐỘNG: CÓ ĐỦ BE VÀ V3/ed))
Active: Chủ động
Passive: Bị động
S + be* + V3/ed + by + O
(* be chia theo thì của V)
Ex: They are painting the house.
→ The house is being painted.
They had destroyed all the documents when we arrived.
→ All the documents had been destroyed when we arrived.
*Cách xác định Tân ngữ(O):
- O = Danh từ(N)
= a/an/the+ N/adj+N
= this/that +N số ít( không có s)
= these/those + N số nhiều (có s)
= TTSH + N hoặc N1’s N2 (Mai’s house)
= many/some/ a lot of/ plenty of + N số nhiều
= few/a few +N
-Mẹo :+ Tân ngữ(O) đứng sau động từ(V)
+ Nhìn phía sau nếu có giới từ/ thời gian/ nơi chốn/dấu hiệu của các thì(yet,now,….) thì đó là tân
* Chú ý:
- Nếu S trong câu CĐ là I,we, you, they,he,she, it, people, đuôi body/one thì không cần ghi by+O
- Nếu không có trong danh sách S mà được bỏ by+O thì đổi S ở câu CĐ về thành by+O.
- by+ O+ t/g
-nơi chốn + by+O.
- Khi trong câu chủ động có 2 tân ngữ( người và vật) thì đưa tân ngữ nào ra làm chủ ngữ cũng
được, tuy nhiên, tân ngữ chỉ người được sử dụng nhiều hơn.( nếu đưa O vật ra làm chủ ngữ thì
phải tự thêm giới từ to/for)
Ex: My mother bought me a new shirt.
I was bought a new shirt by my mother.
A new shirt was bought for me by my mother.
* Những động từ đi với to: V+ S.O S.T= V+ S.T to S.O
bring/brought, give/gave/given,hand, lend,offer, owe ,pass, pay, post, promise, read, sell/sold, send,
show, take, teach/taught, tell/told, throw, write/wrote/written, feed, describe
* Những động từ đi với for: V+ S.O S.T= V+ S.T for S.O
Book, build, buy/bought, choose, cook, find/found, get,make/made, supply, order, leave, fetch, pick,
Chú ý: provide S.O with S.T = provide S.T for S.O: cung cấp
* Các bước đổi sang câu bị động:
- B1: Đưa O ở cuôi câu ra đầu câu làm chủ ngữ.
-B2: Xác định thì trong câu để biết mà đưa về bị động của thì đó.
-B3: Nhìn xem S trong câu CĐ có nắm trong danh sách được bỏ by+O hay không
+ Nếu có thì bỏ by+O
+ Nếu không có thì chép lại S trong câu CĐ đổi thành by+O.
-B4: nơi chốn+ by+O
By+ O + thời gian
*Đổi các thì sang BĐ:( Nối điểm cuối của câu chủ động và điểm đầu (be) của câu BĐ lại thành một
Active (chủ động)
Passive (Bị động) : be+ v3/ed
S + am / is / are + v3/ed
S + V2 /ed
S + Was / Were + v3/ed
S + am / is / are + being + v3/ed
S+ was/were + V-ing
S+ was/were + being+ v3/ed
S + have / has + V3/ed
S+ have / has + been + v3/ed
S + had + V3/ed
S + had + been + v3/ed
S + have to + V bare
S + have to + be + V3/ed
ought to (Be nguyên mẫu)
S + Is/ am/ are +going +to-inf
S+Is/ am/ are +going +to be + v3/ed
(Be nguyên mẫu)
" By whom + be+ O+ V3/ed?
"Who + be + O+ V3/ed + by?
Vd: - By whom was this novel written ?
hoặc: Who was this novel written by ?
Who + V + O…?
Ex: Who wrote this novel ?
-was( I, he, she, it, S ít)
-were( you, we, they, S nhiều)
-have( I, we, you, they, S nhiều)
-has(he, she, it, S ít)
- is( he/she/it/ S ít)
-am( I )
-are( we,you,they, S nhiều)
1. John delivers the newspapers every morning.
"The newspapers are delivered by John every morning.
2. My mother wrote that letter.
"That letter was written by my mother.
* Các dạng hình thức đặc biệt của BĐ:
have/has/had + S.O(người) +V- bare + sth
(have S.O do S.T)
get/ got + S.O(người) + to-inf + sth
(get s.O to do S.T)
Have/has/had+sth(vật) + V3/ed by O người
(have S.T done)
Get/got+ sth(vật) + V3/ed by O người
get S.T done
S + hear/heard + O + V bare: chứng kiến hết
Smell/smelt, feel/felt, watch/ catch/caught
S + hear + O + V-ing :chứng kiến 1 phần
S + make + O + V-bare
BĐ: S + be + heard + to-inf
S người + need + to-inf + O (vật)
S (vật)+ need + v-ing
to be + V3/ed
It is your duty to do something
You are supposed to do something (bổn
phận của bạn là….)
Ex: It’s your duty to lock all the doors.
You are supposed to lock all the doors.
2/ It's impossible to+Vinf
VD: It's impossible to solve this problem.
>> This problem can't be solved.
-->bị động: S + can't + be +V3/ed
S+ be + made + to-inf
Be chia theo thì của Make
3/ It's necessary to + Vinf
--> bị động: S + should/ must + be +V3/ed
VD: It's necessary for you to type this letter.
>> This letter should/ must be typed by you.
* BĐ của từ chỉ ý kiến:
- Các từ chỉ ý kiến(V1) gồm: say/said, tell/told, think/thought, know/knew, report, rumour, believe….
CĐ: S1( people, they/we)+V1(say/said/think/thought/believe/know) (that) +S2+V2+O(chép
< Người ta nói/nghĩ/bảo…….. rằng>
BĐ: C1: It
C2: S2 +
is/was + V3/ed
(phụ thuộc vào V1
và đưa V1 về BĐ)
S2 +V2 +O (Chép nốt)
HT:is/am/are + V3/ed +
to_inf( nếu ko thỏa mãn V1(HT) that V2(QK)
thì đưa V2
Phụ thuộc V1
to have V3/ed
(nếu thỏa mãnV1(HT: Vs/es/bare) ….that
Vd: People saythat he is 150 years old.
→ It’s said that he is 150 years old /
"He is said to be 90 years old.
*Chú ý: - Khi mượn it thì còn that
- Khi đưa S2 ra đầu câu thì không còn that mà phải đưa V2 về to-inf hoặc to have V3/ed
- cách 1 và cách 2 đều giống be + V3/ed( đưa V1 về BĐ)
- Khi dùng cách 2 nhớ bỏ will/would đi
- khi thấy People/They " thì đó là câu CĐ
- Khi thấy It is/was+ V3/ed " thì đó là cách 1
- Khi thấy S2(sau that) ra đầu câu ở " thì đó là cách 2( nhớ bỏ that và đưa V về to inf/to have
People say that he was crazy.
→ Cách 1: It is said that he was crazy. Or
→ Cách 2: He is said to have been crazy. ( to have been vì say(HT) và was(QK).
Ex: People say that money brings happiness.
→ Cách 1: It is said that money brings happiness.
→ Cách 2: Money is said to bring happiness.( Dùng to bring vì say và bring cùng thì)
They say that the flood destroyed the village.
" it is said that the flood destroyed the village.
" the flood is said to have destroyed the village.
" the village is said to have been destroyed by the flood.
3. Imperative(câu mệnh lệnh: ko có chủ ngữ mà bắt đầu là Vbare): let + O+ be V3/ed
Ex: a. Open the door ---> Let the door be opened.
b. They let him go out ---> He was allowed to go out / He was let to go out.
4. Sau những động từ: like, hate, love, want, wish, prefer, hope.
Ex: He wants KHA to take photographs→ He wants photographs to be taken by KHA.
Ex: He does not like people laughing at him. --> He does not like being laughed at.
5- Need + to be + V3 / Vo ED = Need + Voing
Ex: Your shirt needs to be ironed / Your shirt needs ironing.
6- It + be + adj+ to-inf + sth
Passive: It + be + adj + for sth + to be + V3 / Vo ED
Ex: - It is important to finish this exercise.
=>It is important for this exercise to be finished
MẸO LÀM TRẮC NGHIỆM
- Nếu thấy O (tân ngữ) ở cuối câu ra đầu câu ở thì đó là dấu hiệu của câu BĐ, nhớ chọn đáp án có đủ
BE + V3/ed, cẩn thận câu đó có dấu hiệu của thì gì để đưa về BĐ của thì đó
- Nếu chủ ngữ là vật ở trước gạch chân thì đa số chọn đáp án BĐ ( Be + V3/ed)
- Nơi chốn đứng trước by + O
- Thời gian đứng sau by + O
- Trạng từ (có đuôi ly) thì nó đứng giữa BE và V3/ed
- Nếu có dấu hiệu của HTHT (have/has + V3/ed) như just, ever, never, already thì những dấu hiệu đó sẽ
đứng sau have/has
- Nếu thấy S ở đầu câu trong câu CĐ là I, We, You, They, He, She, It, đuôi body/one thì khỏi cần ghi BY
+ O nữa trong câu BĐ.
- Nếu S trong câu CĐ là Nobody/Noone thì trước khi bỏ BY + O nhớ trả thêm NOT sau động từ đặc biệt
- Nếu sau have/has/had là tân ngữ người nhớ chọn nguyên mẫu không TO
- Nếu sau have/has/had là tân ngữ vật nhớ chọn V3/ed.
- get/got + tân ngữ người + nhớ chọn to inf( nguyên mẫu có TO).
- get/got + tân ngữ vật + nhớ chọn V3/ed.
- Sau câu BĐ (be V3/ed):
+) nhớ chọn TO HAVE V3/ed nếu thỏa mãn HT(is/Vs,es/Vbare) that QK (last, yesterday, ago,in + năm
+) nhớ chọn nguyên mẫu có TO ( nếu ko thỏa mãn HT that QK)
Choose the word or the phrase (A, B, C, or D) that best completes the sentence.
1. The new motorway _______ and built last year.
B. was planned
C. was planning
D. had planned
2. The report _______ by the committee of experts yet.
A. hasn’t examined
B. hasn’t been examined
C. is examined
3. Many U.S. cars _______ in Detroit, Michigan.
B. have manufactured
C. are manufactured
D. are manufacturing
4. What will happen if the air_______?
A. was polluted
B. be polluted
C. is polluted
D. has polluted
5. Barbara is said _______ part in the beauty contest next month.
A. to take
D. to have taken
6. A railway bridge has already_______ over the river.
A. been erected
C. in construction
D. being built
7. Vitamin C _______ by the human body. It gets into the bloods stream quickly.
A. absorbs easily
B. is easily absorbing
C. is easily absorbed
D. absorbed easily
8. My father is said _______ from a serious disease last month.
A. to suffer
B. to have suffered
9. Let’s go ahead and do it now. Nothing _______ by waiting.
A.will be accomplished
C. has accomplished
10. He said that his homework _______ at that time.
A. was doing
C. was being done
D. is being done
11. This house ________ since last month.
A. was built
C. has built
D. has been built
12. Renoir is one of the most popular French impressionist painters. His paintings _______ masterpieces
all over the world.
A. had considered
B. are considering
C. are considered
13. Food _______ direct to the market by trucks.
B. can be delivered
D. can be deliver
14. Mr. Green was reported _______ in the accident.
C. to have died
D. to be died
15. The application form _______ to the university before May31st.
A. must send
B. must be send
D. must be sent
16. Today, many serious childhood diseases ________ by early immunization.
A. are preventing
B. can prevent
D. can be prevented
17. John is thought _______ very rich.
B. to be
18. We can’t go along here because the road is _______.
A. been repaired
B. being repaired
18. Up to now, we _______ 5 tests by our teacher.
A. have given
B. have been giving
C. have been given
D. are being given
20. Do you believe that such a problem can _______?
B. be solving
C. is solved
D. be solved
21. This is a very popular TV program. Every week it _______by millions of people.
A. has been watched
B. is watched
D. was watched
22. They_______ some new classrooms in our school.
A. have just built
B. has just built
C. had just been built
D. have just been built
23. The manager had his secretary(thư ký) ______ the report for him.
A. to have typed
D. to type
24. They are having their house _______ by a construction company.
A. to paint
C. being painted
25. Dad, I want to have my bike _______. It looks so ugly.
A. to repaint
26. I had my sister ________ me to school every day.
B. to take
27.Mr. Pike ____________the most famous archaeologist in our city.
A. says to be
B. is said to be C. is said that C. said to be
28.Many people believe that God created the world.
A. It believes that God created the world.
B. The world is believed God created.
C. God is believed to create the world.
D. God is believed to have created the world.
29. John is said to have been stolen the money.
A. It is said that John steals the money.
B. It is said that John was stolen money.
C. People said John was stolen the money
D. People say that John steals the money
30. It is said that many people are homeless after the floods.
A. Many people say to be homeless after the floods.
B. Many people said are homeless after the floods.
C. Many people are said to be homeless after the floods.
D. Many people are said to have been homeless after the floods.
31. They think visiting the pyramids is interesting.
A. The pyramids are thought interesting to be visited.
B. It is thought the pyramids are visited interesting.
C. Visiting the pyramids is thought to be interesting.
D. Visiting the pyramids is thought to have been interesting.
32. The skyscraper is said to have been built in 1930.
A. They said the skyscraper was built in 1930.
B. It was said that the skyscraper was built in 1930.
C. They are said the skyscraper is built in 1930.
D. It is said that the skyscraper was built in 1930.
33. They predict that a heavy storm will come in the area.
A. A heavy storm is predicted to have come in the area.
B. It is predicted that a heavy storm would come in the area.
C. A heavy storm is predicted to come in the area.
D. It is predicted that a heavy storm came in the area.
34. John ______________The Great Pyramid of Giza.
A. said to have been visited
B. is said to have visited
C. is said to have been visited D. said to have visited.
35. People say that six out of the seven wonders of the ancient world were destroyed.
A. It was said that six out of the seven wonders of the ancient world were destroyed.
B. Six out of the seven wonders of the ancient world were said to be destroyed.
C. Six out of the seven wonders of the ancient world are said to have destroyed.
D. Six out of the seven wonders of the ancient world are said to have been destroyed.
36. It is believed that a buried treasure was hidden in the tomb.
A. They believed that a buried treasure was hidden in the tomb.
B. A buried treasure is believed that was hidden in the tomb.
C. A buried treasure is believed to hide in the tomb.
D. A buried treasure is believed to have been hidden in the tomb.
37. I hate_____________ personal questions by newly-acquainted friends
A. to be asking B. be asked
C. being asked D. of asking
38. Reagan__________ an actor years ago.
A. is said to be
B. was said being
C. was said have been
D. is said to have been
39. It__________ that learning a foreign language__________ a lot of time.
A. says / is taken
B. is saying / has been taken
C. is said / takes
D. was said / was taken.
40. The trees________________.
A. were grown by John yesterday in the backyard
B. were grown in the backyard yesterday by
C. were grown in the backyard by John yesterday
D. in the backyard were grown yesterday by
41. More than ten victims____________ missing in the storm last week.
A. are reported to be
B. are reported to have been
C. are reporting to have been
D. are reporting to be.
42. This car_____________________.
A. was manufactured in Japan by Toyota last year.
B. was manufactured by Toyota in Japan last year.
C. was manufactured last year in Japan by Toyota.
D. last year was manufactured in Japan by Toyota.
Choose the underlined word or phrase (A, B, C, or D) that needs correcting.
1. Two people got hurt in the accident and were took to the hospital by an ambulance.
2. The students helped by the clear explanation that the teacher gave.
3. The winner of the race hasn’t been announcing yet.
4. Progress is been made every day in all parts of the world.
5. I discovered that many strange things were happened last night.
6 He was seen go to the beach with some other people.
7. We can’t go along here because the road is repairing
8. I remember to be taken to the zoo when I was a child.
9. I have my teeth checking by the dentist.