# công thức viết lại câu ôn thi tốt nghiệp THPT quốc gia

Chuyên đề 4: VIẾT LẠI CÂU TỔNG HỢP
1. S+ have/has + not/n’t + V3/ed + O+ for + khoảng thời gian(số+ thời
gian(hour/day/week/month/year/age)
→ S +last+ V2/ed + O+ khoảng t/g + ago
→ It is + khoảng t/g + since + S+ (last) +V2/ed +O
Vd: I haven’t seen him for 2 weeks
→ It is 2 weeks since I last saw him
→ I last saw him 2 weeks ago.
2. S+ have/has + not/n’t + V3/ed + O+

for + khoảng thời gian
since+ mốc t/g(năm, mệnh đề t/g(S+V)
→ S+ last+ V2/ed +O +when +mệnh đề thời gian(S+V)
→ The last time +S + V2/ed+ O+ was +
in năm/tháng
khoảng t/g +ago

Nếu sau since là MĐề t/g thì nhớ đổi since " when

When + Mđề t/g " since+ mđề( đổi when thành since)

Nếu sau for là khoảng t/g thì đổi for " was+ khoảng t/g +ago.

Nếu sau since là năm/tháng thì đổi since "was +in+năm/tháng.
Ex: I haven’t heard him since August.
→ The last time I heard him was in August.
I haven’t seen him since I was a student.
→ I last saw him when I was a student.
3. not/never + before = It/This is the first time: đây là lần đầu tiên
S+ have/has + not/never + V3/ed + O+ before
→ It/This is the first time +S + have/has + (ever) +V3/ed +O
Vd: I haven’t seen that man here before.
→ It’s the first time I have seen that man here.
4. S+ have/has + not/never + V3/ed + such (a/an) + Adj+ N +before.
→ It/This is the first time +S + have/has + (ever) +V3/ed + such (a/an)
→It/This is the most +Adj dài +N
+S+ have/has (ever)+ V3/ed
→ S+ have/has + not/never + V3/ed + a more +Adjdài
+than this
one.
Vd: I haven’t seen such an amazing film before
→ This is the first time I have seen such an amazing film
→ It is the most amazing film I have ever seen.

5. S + started/began +V_ing/to_inf +O+ khoảng t/g+ ago

→ S+ have/has been + V_ing +O+ for + khoảng t/g.( nhớ bỏ started/began đi, nhớ đổi ago
thành for)
→S+ have/has +V3/ed +O+ for + khoảng t/g
Vd: I began to play soccer ten years ago
→ I have been playing soccer for ten years.
6. S+ suggested +V_ing( đề nghị)
→ S+ suggested +that+ S +

should + Vbare
Vbare

Vd: She suggested taking a rest
→ She suggested that they take a rest.
7. It +takes/took + O(người) + t/gian + to_inf (mất ai đó bao lâu để làm gì)
→ S(người) +spend/spent + t/gian+ (on)+ V_ing
Vd: It took him ten days to finish the work.
→ He spent ten days on finishing the work.
8.

get +O (người)+ to_inf (nhờ ai) = get/have +O(vật) +V3/ed
have+ O(người) + Vbare
vd: I get the man to wash my car
→ I get my car washed by the man
9. This is the first time+ have/has + V3/ed  S +V (TO BE) + not used to + Ving
< Đây là lần đầu tiên >
< Không quen làm việc gì >
Vd: This is the first time I have ever travelled by plane
 I am not used to traveling by plane
10. It + is+ khoảng thời gian + since + S +V2/ed

 S + have/ has +V3/ed + for + khoảng thời gian
vd: It’s 5 years since we started learning English
 I have started learning English for 5 years
11.S+ V2/ed + khoảng thời gian + ago
 It + is + khoảng thời gian + since + S + V2/ed
Vd: I went to Hue 6 months ago
 It’s 6 months since I went to Hue
12. The last time+ S+V2/ed + O + was+ time
< Lần cuối cùng làm gì >
→ S+ have/ has + not + V3/ed + O+ for(khoảng thời gian) /since (năm, mốc thời
gian)
→ S+ last + V 2/ed + time
Vd: Mary last met her husband yesterday/ The last time Mary met.... was yesterday
 Mary has not met her husband since yesterday.
13. No sooner+ had+ S + V3/ed than S + V2/ed(chẳng bao lâu thì)
= Hardly/scarely + had+ S + V3/ed when S + V2/ed

Vd: No sooner had he gone home than the phone rang
14. Vế 1(S+ V2/ed) . Then vế 2 (S+ V2/ed).
After S+ had + V3/ed(chia vế 1), S+ V2/ed(chia vế 2) .
S+ V2/ed (chia vế 2) after S+ had + V3/ed(chia vế 1).
1. Julia cleaned the house. Then she went shopping.
"After Julia had cleaned the house she went shooping.

15. As soon as / Just immediately
→ No sooner + had + V3/ed (vế sau as soon as/just immedidately)+ than +
S+V2/ed(vế còn lại
→Hardly / Scarely+ had + V3/ed + When + S+V2/ed < Chẳng bao lâu… thì….>
Vd: The bomb went off as soon as the police got out of the house
→No sooner
had the police gone than the bom went off.
→Scarely/ hardly had the police gone when the bomb went off.
16.

(N)
(N)
(N)
(N)

Vd: The boy is both smart and careful
→ The boy is not oonly smart but also careful
17. S+ no longer+verb(t)= S+ doesn’t/ don’t/didn’t + Vbare inf ……..any more (ko
còn……)
=No longer do/does/did + S+ V bare inf
=s + be(db) + no longer …..= No longer +be + S
Vd: He no longer eats cake.
→ He doesn’t eat cake any more.
→ No longer does he eat cake
→ He is no longer…. (cái này e ko hiểu lắm
18. S+ be+not + EITHER +adj +OR +be(not) +adj < vừa….vừa…./ hoặc….hoặc>

Vd: The theatre was not clean and not comfortable
→ the theatre was neither clean nor comfortable.
19. It is kind/nice of s.o+ to inf
= Snguoi+be+ kind/nice + to inf
vd: it is kind of you to give me money
→ You are kind to give me money
20. once/twice/half + số..+ times as + adj/adv +as + S+ V
vd: She types twice as fast as I
21.It+ V+ such+ (a/an)+ adj+ N+ that….

→ The + N+V+so+ adj+ that (quá…. đến nỗi)
Vd: It was such a beautiful girl that everybody loved her.
→ The girl is so beautiful that everybody loved her.
Vd: The film is so boring that I can’t watch it
→ The film is too boring for me to watch.
Lưu ý: khi dùng too….to phải ở thể KĐ

Vd:The water is too hot for me to drink→The water is not warm enough for me to drink
24. S+ should/ought to/ had better +Vbare(nên)
→ It’s time for O(người) to_inf (Đã tới lúc)
→ It’s time+ S+ V2/ed
Vd: You should go to bed.
→ It’s time for you to go to bed
→ It’s time you went to bed.
25
Even though + S+V( mệnh đề là còn S và thì V) =
từ: The +N)
Although
→ Much as+ S+V
→ Despite the fact that +S+ V
Vd: Although he is strong, he lost the game.
→ Much as he is strong, he lost the game
→ Strong as he is, he lost the game
→ No matter how strong he is, he lost the game
→ However strong he is, he lost the game
→ Despite of the fact that he is strong, he lost the game
26. Because/since/ as (bởi vì) +S+ V
→ Because of
Due to
+V-ing/ N
Owning to
→ Because of the fact that +S+V
Vd: Because it rained heavily, he couldn’t go to school
→ Because of the fact that it rained heavily, he couldn’t go to school
→ Because of the heavy rain, he couldn’t go to school
*Cách đổi mệnh đề (S+V) sang cụm danh từ( N/V-ing):
a. S+ V

Despite + V_ing/N(cụm danh
In spite of

-C1: V-ing ( bỏ S, đưa V về nguyên mẫu rồi thêm –ing)
-C2:

S’s
+ V-ing ( đưa S về thành TTSH)
TTSH
Vd: Although my mother is sick
→ in spite of my mother’s being sick

S’s
+ N ( bỏ be, đưa adj về N)
TTSH
Vd: Because she is sick
→ Because of her sickness
→ The + N ( bỏ be, đưa adj về N)
Vd: It is rainy
→ The rain
→ The adj + N( đưa động từ về N, đưa adv về thành adj( bỏ ly))
Vd: It rained heavily
→ The heavy rain.
e. The
+N+ be
TTSH
turn
→ The
+N ( bỏ be/turn đi)
TTSH
Happ
Tired
Foggy
Kind
Noi

Happiness
Tiredness
Fo
Kindness

Difficultse

y
No
Dif

Sickiculty

Sickness

Dark

Darkness

27.
because
(not) to-inf
S+ V+ so that
+S+want to → S+V+ so as (not) to
in order that
<để mà>
in order (not) to
Vd: Mary went shopping because she wanted to buy some jeans.
→ Mary went shopping in order to/ so as to/to buy some jeans.

28. In spite of/ Despite

+N/ cụm N /V-ing

→ Despite the fact that+ S+V < Bất chấp>
Vd: In spite of getting high salary, he isn’t happy.
→ Despite the fact that he gets high salary, he isn’t happy.
29. Although/ Even though+ S +V → In spite of/despite + V-ing/ cụm N
< Mặc dù>
< Bất chấp>
Vd: Although/ even though she was ill, she tried to go to school.
→ Inspite of her illness/ Despite her being ill, she tried to go to school
30. To-inf/ V-ing + be+ adj
Vd: Playing games is really exciting → It is really exciting to play computer.
31. Having+ V3/ed + O , S+ V2/ed
→ After +S+ had+ V3/ed(vế 1), S+ V2/ed(vế 2)
Vd: Having finished her English course, she applied for a job.
→ After she had finished her English course, she applied for a job
32. S+ V+ allow + O + to-inf
→ S+let +O + Vbare < cho phép ai làm gì>
Vd: My mother allows me to eat out. → my mother lets me eat out
33. S+ find+ it+ easy/dificult + to-inf
→ S+ find+ no difficulty/ ease in+ V-ing < nhận thấy khó/ dễ làm gì đó…>
" S+ be + not used to +V-ing
" S+ have trouble/problem/difficulty in +V-ing
Vd: Carol finds it easy to make friends
→ Caral finds no dificulty in making friends
" Carol is not used to making friends.

34. S1+ be + the +so sánh nhất + S2 + have/ has ever + V3/ed
→ S2 + have/has + never + V3/ed + such (a/an) + adj+noun + (like+danh từ riêng)
Vd: Mary is the most intelligent girl I have ever met.
→ I have never met such an intelligent girl like Mary.
35. I would like/ want+ S.O + to- inf → Do you mind if +S+V (thì hiện tại đơn)
Would you mind + V-ing/
Would you mind if +S+V (thì quá khứ)+…?

< Bạn có phiền khi làm….>
Vd: I would like you to open the window

Do you mind if you open the window?

Would you mind if you opened the window?

36.

Would you mind opening the window?

S + like/prefer + V-ing + (O) to + V-ing + (O)

→ S+ would rather + V (bare-inf ) + than+ V (bare-inf )
< Thích làm gì….. hơn làm thứ khác >
Vd: Henry likes going fishing better than going swimming
→ henry would rather go fishing than go swimming
Vd: My mother advised me to travel by train
→ I had better travel by train.
38. S+like/love + ST
→ S+ be+ fond of/interested in/ keen on +ST + V-ing
Vd: I love fishing  I am interested in fishing / I am fond of/ keen on fishing

39. Would you like +
to-inf ?
→ S+ invited +SO + to-inf/N
offered+ to inf/N
< Lời mời, đề nghị ai đó>
Vd: Would you like to go swimming with me? → She invited me to go swimming
40.
CĐ: S1( people, they/we)+V1(say/said/think/thought/believe/know) (that) +S2+V2+O(chép
nốt)
< Người ta nói/nghĩ/bảo…….. rằng>
BĐ: C1: It

C2: S2 +

is/was + V3/ed
(phụ thuộc vào V1
và đưa V1 về BĐ)

that

S2 +V2 +O (Chép nốt)

HT:is/am/are + V3/ed +

to_inf( nếu ko thỏa mãn V1(HT) that V2(QK)
thì đưa V2

QK:was/were +V3/ed
Phụ thuộc V1

to have V3/ed
(nếu thỏa mãnV1(HT: Vs/es/bare) ….that
(QK: was/were/last/ago/

về to-inf)

yesterday/năm qk)
Vd: People say/think that he is 150 years old.
→ It’s said/thought that he is 150 years old / He is said/thought to be 90 years old.

41.S+ V(KĐ) + so sánh hơn( adv/adj ngắn_ er/ dài_est) + THAN + S+ V
→ S + V(PĐ) + AS + adj/ adv + AS + S
Vd: He is handsomer than his brother  His brother is not as handsome as he is
42. It + be + (high) time + for S.O. + to-inf(đã tới lúc)
 It + be + (high) time + S + V2/ed (thì qk)
Vd: It’s time for us to go home → It’s time we went home
43. Nhờ ai đó làm gì:
Active(CĐ): ask/request/get/ want + O( người) + to-inf

Have
+O(người) +Vbare
Have
Vd: I had the boy polish my shoes

44. Whose + N + is + this/ that/…?
→ Who + do/does/did/ this/that+ N ít + belong to? < Vật gì của ai vậy? >
Whose + N + are + these/those…?
→ Who + do/did+ these/those+ N nhiều + belong to?
Vd: Whose book is this? 
Who does this book belong to?
45.
Dạng 1 : S1 + V1 + Because / Because of + S2 + V2/(Noun phrase)
If (chia vế sau because)
Dạng 2 :

MĐC ( vế còn lại)

S1 + V1 + So / Therefore
S2 + V2
As a result / That’s why
If ( chia vế 1)

-

,

, MĐC (chia vế 2)

B1: Xác định câu đó thuộc dạng gì.
B2: Xác định từng vế ở HT hay QK:
+ Nếu ở hiện tại( is/am/are/don’t/doesn’t/Vs/es/bare/now/today…..) thì chia Đk2
If S + V2/ed , S+ would/could + Vbare
+Nếu ở quá khứ(was/were/V2/ed/yesterday/ago/….) thì chia Đk3
If + S+ had + V3/ed, S + would/could have V3/ed
-B3: Xác định từng vế là KĐ hay PĐ để đổi ngược lại( nhớ đổi cả hai vế)
- B4: Nhớ bỏ because/so/that’s why/therefore
*Chú ý: any(PĐ) đổi thành some(KĐ)
- Vế nào cũng phải thực hiện đủ bước 2(đổi thì, đổi ngược lại)
Dạng 3: If đổi sang unless:

Mệnh đề if
Mệnh đề chính
Dạng 1: If + PĐ (not)
- Vế sau giữ nguyên

Unless + KĐ
Dạng 2: If +KĐ
- Đổi ngược lại
KĐ → PĐ

PĐ → KĐ

Unless ( Vế này giữ nguyên KĐ)
*Quy tắc đổi KĐ → PĐ:
PĐ → KĐ
-Vđb( is,am,are,was,were,would,could,should,will…..)
KĐ:
S + Vđb
(bỏ not)
↑↓
↓↑
PĐ:
S+ Vđb + not
(thêm not)
- V thường:
KĐ:
Vs/es
(bỏ doesn’t thêm s/es)
↑↓
↓↑
PĐ: doesn’t +Vbare
( bỏ s/es)
- Vbare:
KĐ: S nhiều( I,we,you,they) +Vbare
(bỏ don’t)
↑↓
↓↑
PĐ:
don’t+ Vbare
(thêm don’t)
- V2/ed (QKĐ):
KĐ: V2/ed
(thêm ed hoặc đưa V1 về V2)
↑↓
↓↑
PĐ: didn’t + Vbare (thêm didn’t +
bỏ ed
)
Đưa V2 về V1
Vd: If you don’t work hard, you won’t pass the exam
Unless you work hard, you won’t pass the exam.
Dạng 4: But for/ Without(nếu không có) + N
ĐK 2: But for + N, S+ would/could + Vbare
= But for the fact that + S+ V2/ed, S + would/could + Vbare
= if it weren’t for +N, + would/could + Vbare
ĐK 3: But for + N, S+ would/could + have+ V3/ed
= But for the fact that + S+ had V3/ed, S+ would/could + have+ V3/ed
= if it hadn’t been for +N, S+ would/could + have+ V3/ed
Dạng 5 :
Vbare
+ OR + S+ will+ Vbare
= Unless you + V bare(chia vế 1)
, S+ will+ Vbare( nhớ bỏ or)(chép lại vế2)
= If you don’t + V bare
, S+ will+ Vbare
= If you aren’t
, S+ will+ Vbare
Ví dụ:

46.

Study hard or you will fail the exam.
= Unless you study hard, you will fail the exam.
= If you don’t study hard, you will fail the exam.
If+S+ V + (not)
Unless +
S+ V KĐ < Nếu ….không…>

Vd: If you don’t work hard, you won’t pass the exam
Unless you work hard, you....
47. S+ V (not)…+ anymore/ any longer.
→ No longer + V + S < Không còn nữa >
Vd: She wasn’t a famous singer anymore/any longer
→ No longer was she a famous singer.
48. This is the first time+ have/has + V3/ed  S +V (TO BE) + not used to + V-ing
< Đây là lần đầu tiên >
< Không quen làm việc gì >
Vd: This is the first time I have ever travelled by plane
 I am not used to traveling by plane
49. It + is+ khoảng thời gian + since + S +V2/ed

 S + V + have/ has +V3/ed + for + khoảng thời gian
vd: It’s 5 years since we started learning English
 I have started learning English for 5 years
50.
Remember + to-inf
Vd: Remember to send me a letter
 Don't forget to send me a letter
46. A hơn B (than)= B không bằng A(as):
B hơn (trái nghĩa A) A( than)

Don't forget to-inf

+than + B +V

C2:→ B +V1(KĐ) + So sánh hơn( adj/adv trái nghĩa) +than + A+V2
Lưu ý: - Nếu V1 là Vđb (is/am/are/will/can/….) thì V2 được lặp lại Vđb
Nếu V1 là Vs/es thì V2 mượn trợ động từ does: He,she,it
Nếu V1 là Vbare thì V2 mượn trợ động từ do: I, we, you, they
Nếu V1 là V2/ed thì V2 mượn trợ động từ did
Vd: My house is bigger than your house
→ Your house is not as big as mine
→ Your house is smaller than mine
Nam plays football better than I do
→ I don’t play football as well as Nam does
47. Không ai.. tốt hơn A(than)= không ai… bằng A(as) → A là nhất
-Nobody/one in+N1 +V(KĐ)+ so sánh hơn( (adj/adv ngắn –ER) ) + than +A+V
→ A +V+ the + so sánh nhất+ N( boy/girl/ student/….) + in+ N1
→A+ V+ the+so sánh nhất ( THE adj/adv ngắn + EST) +in+ N1
Vd: Nobody in class is taller than Huy
→ Huy is the tallest student in class

Nobody in class is as beautiful as Lan
→ Lan is the most beautiful girl in class
48. not/never…..before( chưa bao giờ trước đó) = This is the first time (đây là lần đầu tiên)
S+ have/has + not/never + V3/ed + such (a/an) + Adj+ N +before .
→ It/This is the first time +S + have/has + (ever) +V3/ed + such (a/an) +Adj +N
→It/This is the most +Adj dài +N
+S+ have/has (ever)+ V3/ed
→ S+ have/has + not/never + V3/ed + a more+Adjdài +than this one.( ko có cái/người nào hơn
cái/người này)
49. The N ít of N1 + so sánh hơn +than+ that of+ N2

50.The + N nhiều( có s) of N1+ so sánh hơn+ than + those of N2
51. as + many/few + N đếm được +as
As+ much/little+ N ko đếm được +as
52. one of + the+ so sánh nhất
53. The more the merrier: Càng đông càng vui
54. TTSH+ N + so sánh bằng(as…as)

TTSH +N’s
Mine
Yours
Vd: his drawings are as perfect as his instructors’s
mine
55.
a.If/as/when +S+ V, S+V
→ The + so sánh hơn+ S+V , the + so sánh hơn +S+V( bỏ if/as/when đi)
b. S+V+ many/much/a lot of+ N
→ The more +N +S+V
c. S+V+ many/much.
→ The more +S+V

*Lưu ý: Nếu thấy the + so sánh hơn ở đầu câu thì vế sau cũng phải đưa The+ so sánh hơn ra đầu câu
Nhớ bỏ if/as/when
Nếu sau many/much/a lot of có N thì phải mang N đặt sau the more
Vd: If you are happier, you look younger
→ The happier you are, the younger you look
56. The +N1 +V + the adj/adv ngắn_EST +N2 (boy/girl/student/one) +in+ nơi chốn
→ No other + N vật/người+ in nơi chốn + V +AS + adj/adv + AS +N1
→ No other +N vật/người+ in nơi chốn+ V+ so sánh hơn( adj/adv ngắn –ER ) + than
+N1
< Không có ai/ cái gì……hơn >
vd: The Mekong river is the longest one in Vietnam
→ No other river in Vietnam is as long as the Mekong river
→ No other river in Vietnam is longer than the Mekong river
57. S + V (do ST) in + time/ S+ spend + time + on doing ST
→ It take someone + time + to-inf < làm việc gì đó trong bao lâu >
Vd: Lan washes her clothes in 30 minutes / Lan spends 30 minutes on washing…..
→ It takes Lan 30 minutes to wash her clothes.
58. It + be + one’s duty + to-inf
→ S+ be + supposed + to-inf < Bổn phận phải làm điều gì>
Vd: It’s your duty to obey orders → You are supposed to obey the orders.
59.S+ be + sorry that + S + V

S + apologized (to S.O) + for + V-ing
Vd: I’m sorry that I broke that vase
→I apologized for breaking that vase.

< xin lỗi vì đã làm sai điều gì ….>

= However + adj/adv + s+ V( dù có … đi chăng nữa)
Vd: no matter how hard I try = However hard I try
61. perhaps = posible= might
62 .

63.

(Có lẽ)

When you arive = on arrival
As soon as
(Khi đến)
economic : kinh tế
Economical: tiết kiệm
Confident : tự tin
Confidental:bí mật

N

product= goods : sản phẩm
Production: sự sản xuất

64.S1+ will+ Vbare and then S2+ will+ Vbare
(Vế 1)
(Vế 2)
→ Chép vế 2: S2+ will+ Vbare as soon as S1+ Vbare (HTĐ) (Nhớ bỏ will và không chia
TLĐ sau as soon as)
65.S+ didn’t +Vbare +O + until+ t/g
→ It was not until+ t/g + that +S+ V2/ed+ O (nhớ bỏ didn’t)
→ Not until+ t/g+ did+ S +Vbare
66.Play/take an important role/part in + V-ing: đóng vai trò quan trọng
67. with a view to doing = so as to inf = in order to inf: để, với ý định
68. it comes as no surprise to s.o that S + V
= S+ be + not surprised that clause/by + N
Ex: it comes as no surprise to me that he broke their promises.
I am not surprised that he broke their promises.
68. be proud of = pride oneself on doing st
69. be unsuccessful in doing st = tried in vain to do st:
70: pretend to do = put on an act: giả vờ
71. Promise = give one’s word: hứa
72.Show/express one’s approval of = be in favour of: ủng hộ
73. make st famous = put s.o/s.t on the map: làm cho ai nổi tiếng
74. escape = make a getaway: trốn thoát
75 the boss of a small company = be a big fish in a small pond: là nhân vật quan trọng
76.contact s.o = keep/get in touch with s.o : giữ liên lạc với ai
77. on alternative days = take ( it in) turns to do: thay phiên
78. agree = see eye to eye with s.o : đồng ý
79.be against st= show / express one’s disapproval of st: ko ủng hộ
80. look on the bright side of st = be optimistic: lạc quan
81. nearly remember = be on the tip of one’s tongue: sắp nhớ ra
82: by no means: ko đáng tin cậy
83. remain impartial = not to take sides in: công bằng, ko thiên vị
84. stay with s.o = keep s.o company: ở với ai

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