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Wine science Principles and Applications


Third Edition

Wine
Science
Principles
and
Applications


This page intentionally left blank


Third Edition

Wine
Science
Principles
and
Applications


Ronald S. Jackson, PhD

AMSTERDAM • BOSTON • HEIDELBERG
LONDON • NEW YORK • OXFORD • PARIS
SAN DIEGO • SAN FRANCISCO
SYDNEY • TOKYO
Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier


Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier
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First edition 1994
Second edition 2000
Third edition 2008
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1


The book is dedicated to the
miraculous microbes that can turn a
marvelous fruit into a seraphic beverage,
to God who has given us the ability to
savor its finest qualities and pleasures,
and to my mother and father, to whom
I will eternally owe a debt of gratitude
for their unwavering support.


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Contents

About the Author xiii
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii

2
Grape Species and Varieties

1

Introduction 15
The Genus Vitis 16
Geographic Origin and Distribution of
Vitis and Vitis vinifera 19
Domestication of Vitis vinifera 21
Cultivar Origins 26
Grapevine Improvement 31
Standard Breeding Techniques 31
Genetic Engineering 33
Clonal Selection 34
Somaclonal Selection and Mutation 38
Grapevine Cultivars 38
Vitis vinifera Cultivars 39
Interspecies Hybrids 43
Suggested Readings 45
References 46

Introduction
Grapevine and Wine Origin 1
Commercial Importance of Grapes and Wine
Wine Classification 6
Still Table Wines 8
Sparkling Wines 9
Fortified Wines (Dessert and
Appetizer Wines) 10
Wine Quality 10
Health-related Aspects of Wine
Consumption 11
Suggested Readings 13
References 13

5

vii


viii

Contents

3
Grapevine Structure and Function
Vegetative Structure and Function 50
The Root System 51
The Shoot System 56
Tendrils 61
Leaves 62
Reproductive Structure and Development
Inflorescence (Flower Cluster) 67
Berry Growth and Development 74
Suggested Readings 98
References 100

67

Consequences of Pathogenesis for Fruit
Quality 183
Examples of Grapevine Diseases and Pests 185
Harvesting 212
Criteria for Harvest Timing 212
Sampling 215
Harvest Mechanisms 216
Measurement of Vineyard Variability 220
Suggested Readings 221
References 223

5
Site Selection and Climate

4
Vineyard Practice
Vine Cycle and Vineyard Activity 108
Management of Vine Growth 111
Yield/Quality Ratio 111
Physiological Effects of Pruning 114
Pruning Options 116
Pruning Level and Timing 117
Bearing Wood Selection 122
Pruning Procedures 122
Training Options and Systems 123
Canopy Management and Training System
Development 132
Selected Training Systems 132
Ancient Roman Example 137
Control of Vine Vigor (Devigoration) 139
Rootstock 140
Vine Propagation and Grafting 144
Multiplication Procedures 144
Grafting 146
Soil Preparation 149
Vineyard Planting and Establishment 149
Irrigation 150
Timing and Need for Irrigation 155
Water Quality and Salinity 156
Types of Irrigation 157
Fertilization 160
Factors Affecting Nutrient Supply and
Acquisition 160
Assessment of Nutrient Need 163
Nutrient Requirements 165
Organic Fertilizers 172
Disease, Pest, and Weed Control 175
Control of Pathogens 177

Soil Influences 240
Geologic Origin 240
Texture 240
Structure 241
Drainage and Water Availability 242
Soil Depth 243
Soil Fauna and Flora 243
Nutrient Content and pH 245
Color 245
Organic Content 246
Topographic Influences 246
Solar Exposure 247
Wind Direction 248
Frost and Winter Protection 248
Altitude 248
Drainage 249
Atmospheric Influences 249
Temperature 251
Solar Radiation 259
Wind 263
Water 264
Suggested Readings 265
References 266

6
Chemical Constituents of
Grapes and Wine
Introduction 270
Overview of Chemical Functional Groups
Chemical Constituents 274
Water 274

271


Contents

ix

Sugars 274
Pectins, Gums, and Related
Polysaccharides 275
Alcohols 276
Acids 278
Phenols and Related Phenol (Phenyl)
Derivatives 281
Aldehydes and Ketones 300
Acetals 301
Esters 301
Lactones and Other Oxygen Heterocycles
Terpenes and Oxygenated
Derivatives 304
Nitrogen-containing Compounds 305
Sulfur-containing Compounds 307
Hydrocarbons and Derivatives 309
Macromolecules 309
Vitamins 311
Dissolved Gases 311
Minerals 316
Chemical Nature of Varietal Aromas 317
Appendix 6.1 320
Appendix 6.2 321
Appendix 6.3 322
Suggested Readings 322
References 323

Effects of Malolactic Fermentation 391
Origin and Growth of Lactic Acid Bacteria 394
Control 401
Appendix 7.1 403
Appendix 7.2 404
Suggested Readings 404
References 406

303

7
Fermentation
Basic Procedures of Wine Production 333
Prefermentation Practices 334
Destemming 334
Sorting 335
Crushing 336
Supraextraction 336
Maceration (Skin Contact) 336
Dejuicing 340
Pressing 340
Must Clarification 343
Adjustments to Juice and Must 344
Alcoholic Fermentation 352
Fermentors 352
Fermentation 355
Biochemistry of Alcoholic Fermentation 358
Yeasts 363
Environmental Factors Affecting
Fermentation 373
Malolactic Fermentation 388
Lactic Acid Bacteria 389

8
Postfermentation Treatments and
Related Topics
Wine Adjustments 418
Acidity and pH Adjustment 419
Sweetening 421
Dealcoholization 422
Flavor Enhancement 422
Sur lies Maturation 422
Color Adjustment 423
Blending 424
Stabilization and Clarification 425
Stabilization 425
Fining 435
Clarification 438
Aging 441
Effects of Aging 443
Factors Affecting Aging 448
Rejuvenation of Old Wines 451
Aging Potential 451
Oak and Cooperage 452
Oak Species and Wood Properties 452
Barrel Production 457
Chemical Composition of Oak 466
Oxygen Uptake 469
In-barrel Fermentation 470
Advantages and Disadvantages of Oak
Cooperage 470
Alternative Sources of Oak Flavor 471
Other Cooperage Materials 472
Cork and Other Bottle Closures 473
Cork 473
Cork Faults 481
Alternative Bottle Closures 484
Cork Insertion 486
Bottles and Other Containers 488
Glass Bottles 489
Bag-in-box Containers 492
Wine Spoilage 493
Cork-related Problems 493
Yeast-induced Spoilage 494


x

Contents

Bacteria-induced Spoilage 496
Sulfur Off-odors 499
Additional Spoilage Problems 502
Accidental Contamination 504
Suggested Readings 506

World Wine Regions 589
Western Europe 590
North Africa and the Near East 619
Far East 619
Australia and New Zealand 620
South Africa 625
South America 627
North America 630
Suggested Readings 636
References 638

References 507

9
Specific and Distinctive
Wine Styles
Sweet Table Wines 520
Botrytized Wines 521
Nonbotrytized Sweet Wine 526
Red Wine Styles 527
Recioto-style Wines 527
Carbonic Maceration Wines 529
Sparkling Wines 538
Traditional Method 538
Transfer Method 546
Bulk Method 547
Other Methods 548
Carbonation 548
Production of Rosé and Red
Sparkling Wines 548
Effervescence and Foam Characteristics
Fortified Wines 552
Sherry and Sherry-like Wines 552
Porto and Port-like Wines 560
Madeira 563
Vermouth 564
Brandy 565
Suggested Readings 570
References 571

11
Sensory Perception and
Wine Assessment

548

10
Wine Laws, Authentication,
and Geography
Appellation Control Laws 577
Basic Concepts and Significance 577
Geographic Expression 579
Detection of Wine Misrepresentation and
Adulteration 586
Validation of Geographic Origin 586
Validation of Conformity to Wine Production
Regulations 588

Visual Sensations 641
Color 641
Clarity 643
Viscosity 643
Spritz (Effervescence) 643
Tears 643
Taste and Mouth-feel 644
Taste 644
Factors Influencing Taste Perception 646
Mouth-feel 648
Taste and Mouth-feel Sensations in
Wine Tasting 651
Odor 652
The Olfactory System 652
Odorants and Olfactory Stimulation 655
Sensations from the Trigeminal Nerve 657
Odor Perception 657
Factors Affecting Olfactory Perception 660
Odor Assessment in Wine Tasting 662
Off-odors 662
Wine Assessment and Sensory Analysis 664
Conditions for Sensory Analysis 665
Wine Score Cards 667
Number of Tasters 668
Tasters 669
Training 669
Measuring Tasting Acuity and Consistency 669
Wine-tasting Technique 670
Appearance 670
Orthonasal Odor 671
In-mouth Sensations 672
Finish 674
Assessment of Overall Quality 674
Wine Terminology 674
Statistical and Descriptive Analysis of Tasting
Results 675
Simple Tests 675


Contents

xi

Analysis of Variance 676
Multivariate Analysis and Descriptive
Analysis of Wine 676
Objective Wine Analysis 677
Appendix 11.1 678
Suggested Readings 679
References 679

12
Wine and Health
Introduction 686
Metabolism of Alcohol 687
Physiological Actions 688
Food Value 689
Digestion 689
Phenolic Bioavailability 690
Antimicrobial Effects 691
Cardiovascular Disease 691

Antioxidant Effects 694
Vision 694
Neurodegenerative Diseases 695
Osteoporosis 695
Gout 695
Arthritis 695
Diabetes 695
Goitre 696
Kidney Stones 696
Cancer 696
Allergies and Hypersensitivity 696
Headaches 698
Dental Erosion 700
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome 700
Contraindications 700
Wine and Medications 701
Suggested Readings 701
References 702

Glossary 707
Index 719
Series 749


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About the Author

The author received his bachelor’s and maser’s degrees
from Queen’s University and doctorate from the University
of Toronto. His time in Vineland, Ontario, and subsequently on a sabbatical at Cornell University, redirected
his interest in plant disease toward viticulture and ecology. As part of his regular teaching duties, he developed
the first wine techonology course in Canada at Brandon
University. For Many years he was a technical advisor to
the Manitoba Liquor Control Commission, developed

sensory tests to assess candidates of its Sensory Panel, and
was a member of its External Tasting Panel. In addition
he is author of Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook,
Conserve Water Drink Wine, numerous technical reviews,
and an annual section in Tom Stevenson’s Wine Report.
Dr Jackson is retired from university activity and now concentrates his on writing. To contact the author send correspondence to his attention at Elsevier, 525 B Street, Suite
1900, San Diego, CA 92101–4495 USA.

xiii


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Preface

of Western Europe. Thus, caution must be taken in
extrapolating much of the information to warmer climates. The value of challenging established wisdom is
evident from the success of Australian wine produced
from cultivars grown in regions quite different from
their European birthplace. In addition, the oft-quoted
value of cooler mesoclimates must be qualified because
it is derived from cultivars that arose in moderate climates. Cultivars that originated in cold climates generally are considered to develop best in the warmest sites
of the ancestral region. Thus, for varieties derived in hot
regions, the most favorable conditions for flavor accumulation are likely to be considerably different from
those commonly quoted for moderate and cool climates.
Specific recommendations are avoided because of
the international scope of the work. Even books with a
regional focus find it difficult to give precise directions
due to the variability in regional and site specific conditions. Science can suggest guidelines and reasons for good
practice, and enunciate the potential advantages and

There are three pillars of wine science – grape culture,
wine production, and sensory analysis. Although it
is traditional to cover these topics separately, a joint
discussion is valuable and reinforces their natural
interrelationships.
Consistent with present biological thought, much of
wine science is expressed in terms of chemistry. Because of
the botanical nature of the raw materials and its microbial
transformation into wine, the physiology and genetics of
the vine, yeasts, and bacteria are crucial to an understanding of the origins of wine quality. Similarly, microclimatology and soil physicochemistry are revealing the vineyard
origins of grape quality. Finally, a knowledge of human
sensory psychophysiology is essential for interpreting wine
quality data. For those more interested in applications,
much of the scientific discussion has been placed so that
the practical aspects can be accessed without necessarily
reading and understanding the scientific explanations.
Much of the data used in the book is derived from a
few cultivars that originated in the cooler central regions

xv


xvi
disadvantages of particular options. However, it is the
grape grower and winemaker who knows the subtleties
of his or her sites, cultivars, and fermentation conditions.
Individual experimentation and data recording are the
only certain way for them to maximize grape potential.
One of the negative side-effects of our rapidly advancing (changing) state of knowledge is the confusion created as to what is the “truth.” Too often non-scientists
get annoyed with the inconstant recommendation from
“experts.” There is the misconception that scientists
know, rather than are searchers for the truth. For some,
this has resulted in their discarding technological advances
for ancient techniques. This certainly facilitates many
viniviticultural decisions, and can be used profitably in
the “back to nature” philosophy of winemaking. While
I cannot deny the commercial success some producers
have with this approach, it is not the route by which
quality wine will fill the supermarket shelf.
It is hoped that this book will help place our present
knowledge in perspective and illustrate where further
study is needed. It is not possible in a book to provide a
detailed treatment of all diverging views. I have chosen
those views that in my opinion have the greatest support, practical importance, or potential for significance.
In addition, several topics are quite contentious among
grape growers and winemakers. For some issues, further
study will clarify the topic; for others, personal preference will always be the deciding factor. I extend my
apologies to those who may feel that their views have
been inadequately represented.
The effects of global warming on viticulture is increasingly coming under investigation. However, its true influence is only speculation at the moment. Thus, these have

Preface
not been included. If some of the scenarios suggested
come to fruition, the effect will be horrific. Although some
famous vineyards may be under water, and grape adaptation to site be seriously dislocated, the more devastating
effects are likely to result from the extreme and destructive disruption of world agriculture, trade, and economy,
and the political and social strife that will follow.
Where no common chemical name is available or
preferred, I.U.P.A.C. terminology has been used. In
conformity with the International Code of Botanical
Nomenclature, grape cultivar names are noted by single
quotes (i.e. ‘Pinot noir’), in lieu of the other accepted
practice, placing cv. before the name. Except in tables,
the present-day practice of naming rootstock cultivars
with a number and the originator’s name is used, in lieu
of the number and a contraction of the originator’s
name (i.e. 3309 Couderc vs. 3309 C).
A list of Suggested Readings is given at the end of each
chapter to guide further study. Although several are in
languages other than English, they are excellent sources
of precise information. To have omitted them would have
done a disservice to those wishing to pursue the topics
concerned. In addition, References are given in the book
if the information is very specific or not readily available in the Suggested Readings. Further details can be
obtained from sources given for the figures and tables.
Samuel Johnson made a cogent observation about
the subject of this book:
This is one of the disadvantages of wine; it makes
man mistake words for thoughts.
Ronald S. Jackson


Acknowledgments

Without the astute observations of generations of winemakers and grape growers, and the dedicated research
of countless enologists and viticulturalists, this work
would have been impossible. Thus, acknowledgment
is given to those whose work has not been specifically
cited. Appreciation also is given to those who read and
provided constructive criticism of various chapters of
the manuscript. Credit must also go to the various editors who have helped over the years in the preparation of
various editions of the text. However, special thanks goes
to Nancy Maragioglio. She has facilitated every aspect of

the preparation of the third edition. Her constant encouragement and creativity has not only provided considerable improvements, but made its preparation a joy.
Gratitude is also expressed to the many researchers,
companies, institutes, and publishers who freely donated
the photographs, data, diagrams or figures reproduced in
the book.
Finally, but not least, I must express my deepest appreciation to my wife, Suzanne Ouellet, for her unshakable
support in the preparation of the various editions of
this work.

xvii


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1
Introduction

Grapevine and Wine Origin
Wine has an archeological record dating back more
than 7.5 thousand years. The earliest suspected wine
residues come from the early to mid-fifth millennium b.c. – Hajji Firuz Tepe, in the northern Zagros
Mountains of Iran (McGovern et al., 1996). Evidence
from Neolithic pottery from Georgia suggests that contemporaneous wine production was dispersed throughout the region (McGovern, in preparation). Older
examples of fermented beverages have been discovered
(McGovern et al., 2004), but they appear to have been
produced from rice, honey, and fruit (hawthorn and/or
grape). Such beverages were being produced in China
as early as 7000 b.c. The presence of wine residues is
usually identified by the presence of tartaric acid residues, although additional procedures for identifying
grape tannin residues are in development (Garnier
et al., 2003).
Other than the technical problems associated with
identifying wine residues, there is the thorny issue of
what constitutes wine – does spontaneously fermented
grape juice qualify as wine, or should the term be

1


2
restricted to juice fermented and stored in a manner to
retain its wine-like properties?
The first unequivocal evidence of intentional winemaking appears in the representations of wine presses
from the reign of Udimu (Egypt), some 5000 years ago
(Petrie, 1923). Wine residues also have been found in
clearly identified wine amphoras in many ancient
Egyptian tombs, beginning at least with King Semerkhet –
1st Dynasty, 2920–2770 b.c. (Guasch-Jané et al., 2004).
They have also discovered evidence for both white and
red wine in amphorae found in King Tutankhamun’s
tomb (1325 b.c.). Identification of red wine was made
by the presence of syringic acid, an alkaline breakdown
product of malvidin-3-glycoside. The same technique
was used to establish the red grape origin of the ancient
Egyptian drink – Shedeh (Guasch-Jané et al., 2006).
Most researchers believe that winemaking was discovered, or at least evolved, in southern Caucasia. This
area includes parts of present-day northwestern Turkey,
northern Iraq, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. It is also generally thought that the domestication of the wine grape
(Vitis vinifera) ensued in the same area. Remains of what
appear to be domesticated grapes have been found
in a Neolithic village in the Transcaucasian region of
Georgia (Ramishvili, 1983). It is in this region that the
natural distribution of V. vinifera most closely approaches
the probable origins of Western agriculture – along the
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (Zohary and Hopf, 2000).
Grapevine domestication also may have occurred independently in Spain (Núñez and Walker, 1989).
Although grapes readily ferment, due to the prevalence
of fermentable sugars, the wine yeast (Saccharomyces
cerevisiae) is not a major, indigenous member of the
grape flora. The natural habitat of the ancestral strains
of S. cerevisiae appears to be the bark and sap exudate
of oak trees (Phaff, 1986). If so, the habit of grapevines
climbing trees, such as oak, and the joint harvesting of
grapes and acorns, may have encouraged the inoculation of grapes and grape juice with S. cerevisiae. The
fortuitous overlap in the distribution of the progenitors
of both S. cerevisiae and V. vinifera with the northern
spread of agriculture into Anatolia may have fostered
the discovery of winemaking, as well as its subsequent
development and spread. It may not be pure coincidence that most major yeast-fermented beverages and
foods (wine, beer, mead, and bread) have their origins
in the Near East.
The earliest evidence of the connection between wine
and Saccharomyces cerevisiae comes from an amphora
found in the tomb of Narmer, the Scorpion King
(ca. 3150 b.c.). S. cerevisiae was confirmed by the
extraction of DNA from one of the amphoras. The
DNA showed more similarity with modern strains of
S. cerevisiae than closely related species, S. bayanus and

1. Introduction
S. paradoxus (Cavalieri et al., 2003). The latter is considered to be the progenitor of S. cerevisiae. Specific words
referring to yeast action (ferment) begin to appear
about 2000 b.c. (Forbes, 1965).
Other yeasts indigenous to grapes, such as Kloeckera
apiculata and various Candida spp., can readily initiate
fermentation. However, they seldom complete fermentation. Their sensitivity to the accumulating alcohol
content and limited fermentative metabolism curtails
their activity. In contrast, beer with its lower alcohol
content may have initially been fermented by yeasts
other than S. cerevisiae.
The Near Eastern origin and spread of winemaking
are supported by the remarkable similarity between the
words meaning wine in most Indo-European languages
(Table 2.1). The spread of agriculture into Europe
appears to be associated with the dispersion of ProtoIndo-European-speaking Caucasians (or their language
and culture) (Renfrew, 1989). In addition, most eastern
Mediterranean myths locate the origin of winemaking
in northeastern Asia Minor (Stanislawski, 1975).
Unlike the major cereal crops of the Near East
(wheat and barley), cultivated grapes develop an extensive yeast population by maturity, although rarely
including the wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
Piled unattended for several days, grape cells begin to
self-ferment as oxygen becomes limiting. When the berries rupture, juice from the fruit is rapidly colonized
by the yeast flora. These continue the conversion of
fruit sugars into alcohol (ethanol). Unless S. cerevisiae
is present to continue the fermentation, fermentation
usually ceases before all the sugars are converted to
alcohol. Unlike the native yeast population, S. cerevisiae
can completely metabolize fermentable sugars.
The fermentation of grape juice into wine is greatly
facilitated if the fruit is first crushed. Crushing releases
and mixes the juice with yeasts on the grape skins (and
associated equipment). Although yeast fermentation is
more rapid in contact with slight amounts of oxygen,
continued exposure to air favors the growth of a wide
range of yeasts and bacteria. The latter can quickly
turn the nascent wine into vinegar. Although unacceptable as a beverage, the vinegar so produced was probably valuable in its own right. As a source of acetic acid,
vinegar expedited pottery production and the preservation (pickling) of perishable foods.
Of the many fruits gathered by ancient man, only
grapes store carbohydrates predominantly in the form
of soluble sugars. Thus, the major caloric source in
grapes is in a form readily metabolized by wine yeasts.
Most other fleshy fruits store carbohydrates as starch
and pectins, nutrients not fermentable by wine yeasts.
The rapid and extensive production of ethanol by
S. cerevisiae quickly limits the growth of most bacteria


Grapevine and Wine Origin
and other yeasts in grape juice. Consequently, wine
yeasts generate conditions that rapidly give them
almost exclusive access to grape nutrients. Subsequent
yeast growth is possible after the sugars are metabolized, if oxygen becomes available. An example is the
respiration of ethanol by flor yeasts (see Chapter 9).
Another unique property of grapes concerns the acids
they contain. The major acid found in mature grapes is
tartaric acid. This acid occurs in small quantities in the
vegetative parts of some other plants (Stafford, 1959),
but rarely in fruit. Because tartaric acid is metabolized
by few microbes, wine remains sufficiently acidic to
limit the growth of most bacteria and fungi. In addition, the acidity gives wine much of its fresh taste. The
combined action of grape acidity and the accumulation
of ethanol suppresses the growth and metabolism of
most potential wine-spoilage organisms. This property
is enhanced in the absence of air (oxygen). For ancient
man, the result of grape fermentation was the transformation of a perishable, periodically available fruit, into
a relatively stable beverage with novel and potentially
intoxicating properties.
Unlike many crop plants, the grapevine has required
little genetic modification to adapt it to cultivation. Its
mineral and water requirements are low, permitting it to
flourish on soils and hillsides unsuitable for other food
crops. Its ability to grow up trees and other supports
meant it could be grown with little tending in association with other crops. In addition, its immense regenerative potential has allowed it to permit intense pruning.
Intense pruning turned a trailing climber into a short
shrub-like plant suitable for monoculture. The short
stature of the shrubby vine minimized the need for supports and may have decreased water stress in semiarid
environments by shading the soil. The regenerative powers and woody structure of the vine also have permitted
it to withstand considerable winterkill and still possess
the potential to produce commercially acceptable yields
in cool climates. This favored the spread of viticulture
into central Europe and the subsequent selection of, or
hybridization with, indigenous grapevines.
The major change that converted “wild” vines into
a “domesticated” crop was the selection of bisexual
mutants. The vast majority of wild vines are functionally unisexual, despite usually possessing both male
and female parts. In several cultivars, conversion to
functional bisexuality has involved the inactivation of
a single gene. However, the complexity of sexual differentiation in some cultivars (Carbonneau, 1983) suggests the involvement of mutations in several genes.
How ancient peoples domesticated the grapevine will
probably never be known. However, two scenarios seem
likely. Several Neolithic sites show significant collections
of grape seeds in refuse piles, indicating the importance

3
of grapes to the local inhabitants. Although most of
these seed remains indicate charring, seed escaping the
heating process could have found conditions ideal for
growth among the ashes. Were any of these progeny
rare bisexual (self-fertile) vines, they could have produced a crop, despite being isolated from feral vines.
More likely, functional bisexual vines were unintentionally selected when feral vines were planted adjacent to
settlements, and away from wild populations. Self-fertile
vines would have become conspicuous by their fruitfulness, especially if unfruitful (male) vines were rogued.
Cuttings from such vines could have provided plants
appropriate for the initiation of nascent viticulture.
Although other modifications may characterize domesticated strains, changes in seed and leaf shape are not of
viticultural value. The lower acidity and higher sugar
content that characterize cultivated varieties are not the
exclusive attributes of domesticated vines. These properties may reflect more cultural conditions than genetic
modifications.
Because canes lying on the ground root easily when
covered by soil, layering probably developed as the
first method of vegetative propagation. Success with
layering would have ultimately led to propagation by
cuttings. Early viticulturalists, if they did not already
know from other perennial crops, would have come to
realize that to retain desirable traits, vegetative propagation was preferable to sowing seed. Vegetative propagation retains desirable combinations of genetic traits
unmodified.
In drier regions, the limited growth of vines could be
left to trail on the ground. However, in moister regions,
it would have been better to plant vines next to trees
for support. This technique is still used in some parts
of Portugal, and was, until comparatively recently,
fairly common in parts of Italy. It had the advantage
of leaving arable land free for annual food crops. One
of the major problems with training up trees is that
most of the fruit is soon located out of easy reach.
Some inventive cultivator probably found that staking and trimming restricted growth to a convenient
height, facilitating fruit gathering. In addition, pruning
off excess growth at the end of the season would have
been discovered to benefit fruit maturation. The combination of easier harvesting and improved ripening
probably spurred further experimentation with pruning
and training systems. Combined with advances in wine
production and storage, the stage would have been set
for the development of wine trade.
The evolution of winemaking from a periodic, haphazard event to a common cultural occurrence presupposes
the development of a settled lifestyle. A nomadic habit
is incompatible with harvesting a sufficient quantity of
grapes to produce steady supply of wine. In addition,


4
unlike major field crops, grapevines provide significantly less yield, have a shorter harvest period, and
produce a perishable fruit (unless dried or converted
into wine). A dependable supply of grapes would have
become important when wine developed an association with religious rites. To assure a reliable supply of
wine required the planting of grapevines in or around
human settlements. Because grapevines begin to bear a
significant crop after only 3–5 years, and require several additional years to reach full productivity, such an
investment in time and effort would be reasonable only
if the planter resided nearby. Under such conditions,
grape collection for winemaking could have initiated
the beginnings of viticulture. If, as seems reasonable,
wine production is dependent on a settled agricultural
existence, then significant wine production cannot predate the agricultural revolution. Because grapevines
are not indigenous to the Fertile Crescent (the origin
of Western agriculture), the beginnings of winemaking
probably occurred after the knowledge of agricultural
skills moved into southern Caucasia.
From Caucasia, grape growing and winemaking
probably spread southward toward Palestine, Syria,
Egypt, and Mesopotamia. From this base, wine consumption, and its socioreligious connections, spread
winemaking around the Mediterranean. Despite this,
Stevenson (1985) has provided evidence for an extensive system of grape culture in southern Spain, several
centuries before the Phoenicians established colonies in
the region. Nevertheless, colonization from the eastern
Mediterranean is still viewed as the predominant source
of early grape-growing and winemaking knowledge. In
more recent times, European exploration and colonization has spread grapevine cultivation into most of the
temperate climatic regions of the globe.
Throughout much of this period, contemporary wine
styles either did not exist or occurred in forms considerably different from their present form. Most ancient
and medieval wines probably resembled dry to semidry
table wines, turning vinegary by spring. Protection from
oxidation was generally poor, and the use and value of
sulfur dioxide apparently unknown. Thus, prolonged
storage of wine would probably have been avoided.
Nonetheless, various techniques were available in
ancient times that could extend the drinkable life of a
wine. A lining of pitch (1–2 mm thick) was often used
to waterproof amphoras, the majority of which were
unglazed and otherwise porous. Resins, dissolving into
the wine from the pitch, may have had the added benefit of acting as a mild antimicrobial agent, retarding
spoilage. It also supplied a flavorant that could partially mask the beginnings of spoilage. However, the
ancients eventually developed a process for generating
pottery with an impervious inner layer, termed Type A

1. Introduction
amphoras. This was achieved by adding a flux of potash to an illitic clay. A rapid reductive firing (ϳ1000 ºC)
produced an inner, gray, vitreous lining (Vandiver and
Koehler, 1986). The typical red surface coloration of
amphoras comes from the oxidation of iron oxide in
the outermost layers. This occurs after the introduction
of air near the end of firing.
Wine amphoras were normally sealed with cork in
Roman times. Underwater archeology has supplied
amble support for cork use (Cousteau, 1954; Frey
et al., 1978). Pitch was used to affix a circular cap of
cork to the rim of the amphora. An overlay cap of
pozzuolana (volcanic clay) subsequently protected the
cork seal. The procedure is documented in ancient
Roman writings.
Amphoras seem to have been stored on their sides
or upside down, thus keeping the cork wet (Addeo
et al., 1979; Grace, 1979, photo 63; Jashemski, 1979,
plate 256; Koehler, 1986). Thus, the minimum conditions for extended wine aging were met. That they
were met is suggested from ancient literary sources. For
example, there is frequent mention of quality distinctions between vintages, specific vineyards, and different regions. Aged wine was highly prized. Horace, the
famous Roman poet, praises a wine aged for forty-six
years in a cork-stoppered amphora. In addition, ancient
authors such as Athenaeus and Hermippos employed
wine descriptors that sound surprisingly modern (white
flowers, violets, roses, hyacinths, and apples) (see
Henderson, 1824, p. 62; Stanley, 1999). Thus, there
seems little doubt that ancient Greeks and Romans produced wine that, were we able to taste them, we would
probably rate highly (Henderson, 1824; Allen, 1961;
Tchernia, 1986; Stanley, 1999).
Although wine production techniques were primitive, compared to today, some modern procedures have
ancient counterparts. For example, Cato recommends
storing amphoras of wine in the sun, having added to
them a portion of boiled must. Pliny the Elder (23–79
a.d.) makes the same suggestion. This could be the origin of wines such as vin santo. Several procedures for
the production of sweet wine are noted, the simplest
being the addition of boiled-down must, or leaving the
grapes to partially dry in the sun (see Stanley, 1999).
More demanding were procedures involving the fermentation of juice that oozed out of the grapes under
their own weight, for example Priam and Saprias wines
(see Stanley, 1999). The latter was apparently made
from molded (botrytized?) grapes. However, whether
wines stored in a room through which smoke and
heat rose would resemble modern madeira is a moot
point. It was recommended by Columella to achieve
early wine maturity. Although appreciated by some,
Columella also notes that the technique was open to


Commercial Importance of Grapes and Wine
abuse. Pliny clearly felt that wine should be aged naturally, not smoked.
Despite the probability some Roman wine would
please modern palates, the majority clearly would not.
Grape yields were often high, leading to acidic juice,
low in sugar content. Most wines were also stored in
amphoras coated with pitch. This probably would have
masked any subtle flavors the wine might have possessed. Pitch was also frequently added to the wine,
possibly to mask wine defects. Lower grade wines were
also often treated with heat-concentrated must, honey,
flavored with herbs, or perfumed with myrrh. Many
of the formulae in ancient texts seem to refer to wine
used as solvent for medical herbs and assorted potions.
Inferior quality wine was also made from boiled must
or grape pressings soaked in water. However, it was for
the poor and slaves that the wine was definitely doctored, usually with sea water and/or vinegar. An example of a recipe from Cato (234–149 b.c.) gives a clear
indication of its probable quality:
Combine 10 quadrantals of must, 2 quadrantals
of sharp vinegar, 2 quadrantals of boiled must with
50 quadrantals of fresh water. Stir with a stick
three times daily for five days. Add 64 sextarii
of aged sea-water, seal, and let set for 10 days. The
wine should last until the summer. The remainder
will be excellent, sharp vinegar.
Wines began to take on their modern expression during the seventeenth century. The use of sulfur in barrel treatment seems to have become fairly common
in Western Europe about this time. This would have
greatly increased the likelihood of producing betterquality wines and extending their aging potential.
Stable sweet wines able to age for decades or centuries
also started to be appear in the mid-1600s, commencing with the Tokaj wines of Hungary.
For the commercial production of sparkling wine, a
prerequisite was necessary – the production of strong
glass bottles. This occurred in England in the mid1600s. The reintroduction of cork as a wine closure,
and the production of bottles able to withstand the high
pressures generated by carbon dioxide, set the stage for
the commercial development of sparkling wines.
The development of vintage port also depended on
the ready availability of inexpensive bottles, made possible by the industrial revolution. The evolution in bottle shape, from bulbous to cylindrical, permitted bottles
to be laid on their sides. Because the cork stayed wet in
this position, the wine remained isolated from oxygen
and had the opportunity to develop a smooth character
and complex bouquet. The development of modern port
also depended on the perfection of wine distillation.

5
Distilled spirits are added to the fermenting juice to
prematurely stop fermentation. As a consequence,
grape sugars are retained, along with the extraction of
sufficient pigments, to produce a sweet, dark-red wine.
Modern sherries also depend on the addition of grape
spirits. Although alcohol distillation was first developed
by the Arabs, the adoption of the technique in medieval
Europe was slow. Thus, fortified wines are of relatively
recent origin.
With mechanization, glass bottles became the standard
container for both wine maturation and transport.
The reintroduction and widespread adoption of cork as
a bottle closure in the seventeenth century provided conditions favorable for the production of modern wine.
The discovery by Pasteur in the 1860s of the central
importance of yeasts and bacteria to fermentation set in
motion a chain of events that has produced the incredible range of wines that typify modern commerce.

Commercial Importance of
Grapes and Wine
From its humble origins, grape production has developed into the world’s most important fresh fruit crop.
Worldwide grape production in 2002 was about 62
million metric tons. This compares with roughly 57,
50, and 43 million metric tons for oranges, bananas,
and apples, respectively. The area planted under grapevines in 2002 is estimated at about 7.9 million hectares, down from a maximum of 10.2 million in the
late 1970s. Approximately 66% of the production was
fermented into wine, 18.7% consumed as a fresh fruit
crop, and the remaining 7.7% dried for raisins (OIV,
2005). The use varies widely from country to country, often depending on the physical and politicoreligious (wine prohibition) dictates of the region. Despite
its world importance, vines only cover about 0.5% of
agriculture land, and its produce constitute but 0.4%
of global household expenditure (Anderson, 2004).
Grape production is largely restricted to climatic
regions similar to those of the indigenous range of Vitis
vinifera. This zone approximates the area between the
10 and 20 ºC annual isotherms (Fig. 1.1). Grape culture
is further largely restricted to regions characterized by
Mediterranean-type climates. Extension into cooler,
warmer, or more moist environs is possible when local
conditions modify the climate or viticultural practice
compensates for less than ideal conditions. Commercial
production even occurs in subtropical regions, where
severe pruning stimulates nearly year-round vine growth.
In Europe, where 61% of the world’s vineyards
are located, about 77% of the crop is fermented into
wine. The latter percentage is slightly less for world


6

1. Introduction

Figure 1.1 Association between the major viticultural regions of the world, with the 10 and 20 ºC annual isotherms. (Drawing courtesy of
H. Casteleyn, reproduced by permission)

production (71%), owing to the predominant use of
grapes as a table or raisin crop in Islamic countries.
Since the 1970s, wine production has ranged from
about 250 to 330 million hl (66 to 87 million gallons),
with recent production levels being about 270 million
hl. Although Spain has the largest vineyard hectarage,
France and Italy produce the largest volumes of wine.
Together, France and Italy produce about 50% of the
world’s wine, but supply about 60% of world wine
exports. The increasing economic significance of wine
export is partially reflected in the marked increase in
research conducted throughout the world (Glänzel and
Veugelers, 2006). Statistics on wine production and
export for several countries are given in Fig. 1.2. Several
major wine-producing nations, such as Argentina and
the United States, export a relatively small proportion
of their production. In contrast, countries such as Chile
and Portugal export the majority of their production.
Although Europe is the most important wine producing and exporting region, in terms of volume, it is also
the primary wine-consuming region. For centuries, wine
has been a significant caloric food source in the daily
diets of many workers in France, Italy, Spain and other
Christian Mediterranean nations. Because wine was an
integral part of daily food consumption, heavy drinking did not have the tacit acceptance found in some
northern European countries. Alcohol abuse, especially
in the United States, spawned the prohibitionist and
current neoprohibitionist movements. Their views that

consuming beverages containing alcohol is detrimental
to human health are in marked conflict with evidence
supporting the healthful benefits of moderate wine consumption (see Chapter 12). The reticence of some governments to acknowledge the beneficial consequences
of moderate wine consumption does injustice to the
long, extensive, and efficacious use of wine in medicine
(Lucia, 1963).
The trend toward reduced or stabilized per capita
wine consumption is noted in Fig. 1.3. Additional data
is available in Anonymous (1999). The reasons for
these changes are complex and often region-specific.
Occasionally, the decline in per capita consumption has
been optimistically interpreted as a shift toward the use
of less, but better-quality wine. Although possibly true
in some cases, in the traditional wine-consuming regions
of Europe, the decline in wine consumption appears to
be associated with a rise in the use of distilled spirits.

Wine Classification
Except in the broadest sense, there is no generally accepted
system of classifying wines. They may be grouped by
carbon dioxide or alcohol content, color, or stylistic,
varietal or geographic origin. Each has its advantages and
disadvantages. For taxation purposes, wines often are
divided into three general categories: still, sparkling, and
fortified – the latter two typically being taxed at a higher


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