About the Author
Chapter 1. What Does a Video Game Producer Actually Do?
A Brief History of Producing
The Diverse Role of a Video Game Producer
Planning and Scheduling
Stages of Game Development
Video Game Development Process Models
The Final Word
Chapter 2. Producer Job Descriptions and Qualifications
Producer Role: Assistant Producer
The Producer's Role
Producer Roles: Executive Producer
Other Production Management Roles
Production Team Management
Why Being a Video Game Producer Is So Fulfilling
The Final Word
Chapter 3. Habits of Highly Effective Producers
Traits of a Successful Producer
Organization and Successful Processes
Project Skills: Scheduling and Rescheduling Constantly
The Commitment to Excellence
The Game Developer's Conference
The Final Word
Chapter 4. Internal and External Game Producer Specialties
Specialties of a Game Producer
Internal versus External Producers
The Final Word
Chapter 5. Conveying the Winning Vision and Creating Successful Presentations
A Winning Vision for the Brand
Writing a Winning Proposal
Preparing and Presenting a Winning Presentation
The Final Word
Chapter 6. Game Design and What Producers Need to Know about Designing
Can Producers Design Games?
Producers and Game Design
Designing a Producible Video Game within Constraints
Technical Constraints of Game Design
Other Design Constraints for Any Game
Game Design Documentation
Elements of a Producible Video Game Design Document
Ownership of the Creative Vision
A Final Word
Chapter 7. Game Tools and Asset Management
Having the Right Tools
What Producers Need to Know about Tools
Creating Proprietary Tools
Asset Management and Procedures
The Final Word
Chapter 8. Tools for Success in Your Daily Routine
Processes for Producing a Video Game
Looking In from the Outside
The Final Word
Chapter 9. Game Development Financials
Creating a Budget
The Final Word
Chapter 10. Excellence in Soundtracks and Sound Effects
Why Music Is as Important as Visuals
Sound Effects Production and Management
Voiceover Work and Direction
The Final Word
Chapter 11. Quality Assurance and Gameplay Testing
QA Team Procedures
Internal QA Team versus External QA Teams
The Risks of Rushing through QA
The Final Word
Chapter 12. Creating Allies in the Marketing Team
Making Life Easier for the Brand Manager
Production Presentation and Demo Scripts
Previews and Strategy Guide Preparation
The Final Word
Appendix A. "Sample Acceptance Letter"
Appendix B. Engine Feature Checklist
Dynamics (Physics) Engine
Creature Modeling and Animation
Game Configuration System
Appendix C. Marketing Deliverables Checklist
Appendix D. Producer Tools
Appendix E. What Goes into a Milestone Definition?
Sample Milestone List for AdventureX
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This book is dedicated to every manager who ever believed in me enough to
hire me. Each of you has contributed to this book, my career, and to the
products I've produced.
by Dave Perry
Back at the start of the video game business, there really was no need to have
producers. It was usually a one-man show. One guy was the producer-designerprogrammer-artist-business manager-animator-audio director-tester. You even had
to make your own cup of tea and lick your own postage stamps!
Our industry, however, began on a relentless journey forward—not just expanding in
size, but growing in quality and in reach. Around the world, gamers were demanding
more immersive, more complex, and more exciting games. When they got what they
wanted, they would reward the development team with massive sales (now rivaling
the same kind of retail sales numbers that blockbuster feature movies generate).
Teams began to grow from one to two people, then two to four, then four to 10, and
so on. Now teams comprise 30 to 60 people or even 100 to 200 people. That creates
a lot of overhead and is several magnitudes more complex than when the industry
Once any team grows beyond 10 people, our industry accepts that managing this
team successfully requires the guidance of a producer. As that team of 10 people
becomes 50, even the producer needs help! We've seen producers re-group, reorganize, earn respect, raise their value, and create more production roles.
Production is now a department that is vital to the creation of any high-end video
Hollywood producers give a hint of where game industry production is going. They
can pull together massive budgets (up to 10 times what we spend on the average
game today) and—with about 400 people pulling together—an incredible experience,
in the same amount of time that it takes to make a game.
Will it ever get that difficult for game-industry producers? I think even more so!
Personally, I see a future where a merging of all types of media companies becomes
commonplace. The job of producer will be critically valued, even more complex, and
very highly rewarded for those who generate hits.
Colleges around the country are now offering courses and degrees in Video Game
Production. You have a head start, as you now have a guide for students, beginners,
and even seasoned professionals in your hands.
On that note, I congratulate Dan Irish on this first edition of The Game Producer's
Handbook. I think it will be an invaluable resource for game producers for years to
come and I thank him for the incredible amount of dedication and effort he has spent
making this book available. It's my favorite work on this subject to date, and
therefore I highly recommend it.
President, Shiny Entertainment Inc.
This "DavidPerry - Recommended" logo is my personal stamp of approval, awarded
only to extremely key projects, games, and books related to video game
development. You can be certain that you will not see it often, and when you do, you
should know that I highly recommend this product. —David Perry
The author would like to thank the following individuals, without whose contribution
this book would not have been possible.
Jason Della Rocca
Special thanks to Rich Robinson at VUG for sharing his version of the
Risk Management worksheets and templates here.
About the Author
DAN I RISH is formerly Executive Producer at Relic Entertainment, where he was
responsible for Homeworld2, the sequel to the 1999 Game of the Year, Homeworld.
Prior to working at Relic Entertainment, he was the producer responsible for the
Myst/Riven franchise at Mattel Interactive and UbiSoft Entertainment, where he
produced or started development of several Myst-related products, including
realMyst, Myst III: Exile, and Myst IV: Revelation. Prior to working at Mattel
Interactive, he held positions at Rocket Science Games, Spectrum HoloByte, and
SegaSoft. He has also consulted on a number of interactive entertainment
opportunities for such clients as DreamWorks Interactive, Evans & Sutherland's
Digital Theater Division, Game Audio Network Guild, Auran Games, and Hanbitsoft.
Dan is also a published author with several books in print from Random House,
Sybex, Pearson Publishing, and Thomson Course Technology.
Writing a book has a number of similarities to making a video game. There's never
enough time or opportunity to include all the content that you want; there's always a
way to make it more concise, fun, and interesting; there's a ton of people giving
their opinions in how to make it better; and there's always a new deadline.
Who Should Read This Book?
This book is about how a video game producer needs to be a leader in the true sense
—the person who helps game visionaries realize their vision. If you're a game
visionary wanting to find someone to help execute and realize your vision, then read
ahead and learn about what an excellent video game producer can do for you.
This book only scrapes the surface of what a career in the game industry holds. If
you want a job where the same day is never lived twice—and where the days of
being bored at work are gone forever—then read on. Few other jobs in few other
industries can offer such a reward, and this book can help you realize that reward.
If you're a producer already in the game industry or other industry professional, you
may find a few tips or tricks that you've not tried yet in this book. Or maybe you'll
find one bit of advice that makes your next game better and the process of making it
more efficient. You may also achieve a fuller understanding of the role of the game
producer—an understanding that makes your job easier, better, and more rewarding.
Despite being in the industry for more than 10 years, there's a lot that I still don't
know. Every day is an opportunity to learn something new—maybe the same is true
for you. But after the few hard lessons from the past I decided to put the little I
know about the industry, along with the helpful tips from many others, into this book.
What's in This Book?
This book addresses the following topics:
What a video game producer does and what types of producer roles exist.
The common challenges faced by producers.
How to facilitate the creation of excellent design documentation.
The creation of proprietary game development tools, licensing of third-party
software, and procedures for asset management and source control.
Managing milestones and milestone creation.
How a producer effectively conveys a winning video game vision.
Financial aspects that govern a producer's decisions.
How a video game producer's role relates to game design.
How to produce an excellent soundtrack and why music is as important as the
How to manage all of the materials needed to market your game.
How to Use the Appendices
Included at the back of this book are hypothetical examples of what some documents
mentioned in the book might look like. Do realize that no one document is right for
all projects and companies; each document should be personalized for the special
circumstances of your project.
Appendix A, "Sample Acceptance Letter", is an example of a publisher's
acceptance letter that provides detailed feedback on a submitted milestone.
Appendix B, "Engine Feature Checklist," offers a way to double-check that the
technical design includes the features that are required for most games'
Appendix C, "Marketing Deliverables Checklist," is the checklist that all
producers should review with the marketing department so that they are clear
on when certain materials are needed for marketing to do their job.
Appendix D, "Producer Tools," comprises several tools. Check the Course PTR
Web site @ http://www.courseptr.com/downloads for periodic updates to these
The Milestone Acceptance Test is a checklist that's used to make it
easier for developers to submit complete milestones to publishers. The
developer provides this checklist to the publisher for use when reviewing
The Milestone Deliverable Checklist is used to ensure that all of the
elements of the milestone are assigned to the responsible party and
completed before the milestone is due.
The Art Status Sheet is an example of a spreadsheet used to track the
status of the art assets in a game.
The Sound Content Sheet mirrors the purpose of the Art Status Sheet
and allows the tracking of the sound content for a game.
The Risk Management Plan provides a procedure to follow when
assessing and managing risk.
Appendix E, "What Goes into a Milestone Definition?" includes an example of a
hypothetical milestone schedule showing the detail required to ensure clarity.
Where Are We Headed?
Today, the video game industry shares a uniquely similar background with rock and
roll. The leading-edge, technology-driven, youthful force of rock and roll born in
decades past have immortalized themselves in our new medium. The current youth
generation embraces the video game medium—its art, content, and fun—while
governments scrutinize and cast a wary eye on its artistic expression, interactive
stories, dramatic combat, and stunning visuals.
For those of you who are—or who want to be—the Bob Dylan-style storytellers of the
21 st century, Elvis Presleys of interactive entertainment, or even the John Lennons of
compelling gameplay content, remember that just as in the recording industry, it
takes a good producer to help a vision materialize into excellence. And if it is your
company that helps to bring these products to market, hopefully your producers are
the ones fostering those who have the ideas of tomorrow.
The game industry is still young. Founded just three decades ago, the evolution of
the video game industry continues today, while the race to maturity is still far from
over. The breadth of the appeal is constantly growing with each new game. By
exploring ways to expand as well as to take compelling experiences to new depths,
we get one step closer to that maturity.
Few other jobs, industries, or media formats offer an opportunity to constantly try
something new, reach out to new people in new ways, and inspire the development
of new art forms. While it is likely that we'll never fully explore the bounds of this
opportunity, remember the timeless words of Goethe, "Whatever you can do, or
dream you can, begin it."
Now you can "begin it" by turning the page.
Chapter 1. What Does a Video Game Producer
As you've purchased this book, you're probably eager to get straight to the point. I'll
get straight to detailing just what a game producer actually does, because for many
people (both inside and outside the video game industry), it is a mystery.
So just what does a video game producer actually do? As outlined by Dave Perry
during his keynote speech at the 2004 Game Developer's Conference, a video game
producer is the person
Whose primary focus is on the delivery of the video game as a completed
Who knows every person on the team by his or her first name.
Who works late with the team and is available to provide guidance whenever
necessary, any time, day or night.
Who clearly communicates with anyone who can affect the game, positively or
negatively, as it is the game producer's responsibility to bring everyone into
the fold of game production.
Who runs interference with anyone who can affect the game or otherwise
sidetrack the product.
Who does everything possible to sell, promote, and protect the game and the
Who has the complete confidence that he or she can cross any obstacle and
face any challenge.
Who does whatever it takes to help the team deliver the game.
A Brief History of Producing
In traditional media and the entertainment business, a producer is one who
assembles the cast of a play, brings an artist or talent to a studio, or organizes a
publicly broadcasted event. The producer has an all-encompassing role; that is, he or
she takes primary responsibility for the completion of the event, project, or program.
Specifically, the role of a movie or television producer included casting, hiring a
director, finding the script, handling contracts, distributing the finished product,
financing, scheduling, location management, promotion, marketing, and PR (Public
Relations). Similarly, the role of the record producer, an occupation that emerged
with the popularity of the phonograph, involved finding talent, hiring the recording
studio, securing the distribution and financing from a record publisher, promotion and
PR events, as well as contracts and legal agreements for the artist, writers, and
In the 21 st century, the role of producer has evolved, as new mediums of
entertainment—most notably, interactive entertainment—have emerged. Today, the
role of a video game producer may include all of the responsibilities of a television,
movie, or record producer, plus a lot more. Indeed, interactive entertainment
includes many aspects and challenges not faced by traditional movie, television, or
record producers—for example, finding ways to include new rendering technology or
the ideal set of game-development tools for specific product type; devising ways to
ensure that the core compelling gameplay is clearly focused, communicated by the
Design team, and included into the game's development; or ensuring that a highly
addictive and compelling entertainment experience is outlined in the design
The Diverse Role of a Video Game Producer
If excellence is your goal as a video game producer, expect to experience many
challenges. This section is designed to introduce the various types of diverse
challenges you can expect to face as a video game producer, as well as some of the
common responsibilities enjoyed by any producer, regardless of medium. They
appear here in alphabetical order, not in order of importance. After reviewing this list,
you should have a basic understanding of some of the challenges faced by producers
and what their daily work consists of. As you'll see, a producer requires a wide
variety of skills, experiences, and knowledge to meet the challenges they face on a
daily basis. Although not every producer position is the same, nor does every
producer face all these challenges, it is likely that during the course of your career as
a producer, you'll find that every circumstance, skill, or trait listed here will prove
A producer contributes to the team effort, vision, and work required to complete the
game. This means that the producer just does not sit in his or her office reworking
the Microsoft Project schedule all day, but actively participates in team meetings,
design meetings, problem solving, and design ideas, and makes decisions when
required. The contribution of the producer should be seamlessly integrated into that
of the team, providing the oil that keeps the team running smoothly.
Apply Good Decision-Making Skills
It may seem obvious that good decision making is a critical aspect of game
producing. After all, who wants to make bad decisions? The problem is, you can't
really know whether a decision is a good one or a bad one until after it's been made,
hence the saying, "Hindsight is 20/20." Good decision making here refers more to
the process of making decisions than the decisions themselves. Indeed, there may
well be times when it is better to make a decision, even if it's wrong, than to
endlessly delay on deciding or to flip-flop on the decision after it has been made.
Specifically, good decision making refers to the process of securing all relevant
information, asking for recommendations and advice from other stakeholders, setting
a deadline before which the decision must be made, and then making the decision
and announcing it and the reasoning behind it to all who are involved. Even if a
decision is wrong, following this process ensures that the team has an adequately
clear direction during the course of developing the game and instills confidence in
others about the producer. As an added bonus, if the reasoning behind the decision is
sound, then the decision will be right the majority of the time. Of course, no one is a
perfect decision maker, but not following a clear decision-making process only
compounds the chance that a bad decision will be made for the wrong reasons—and
worse, after much delay.
Attend Budget Meetings
At budget meetings, the producer must explain the status of the budget, accounting
for how much money has been spent on the project and how much more needs to be
spent on the game in order to complete it on time. This may often include an
analysis of the profit-and-loss (P&L) statement for the project (or brand).
Forward thinking means looking and reasoning ahead—one day, one week, or one
month ahead—so that there is no opportunity for a problem to suddenly present itself
as an obstacle to completion of the game. This includes investigating and finding
ways to solve problems before they affect the game's development. Licensing the
game-development tools and securing the rights to use third-party software in the
game are excellent examples of the forward thinking that is required of a producer.
Other fundamental decisions related to the game's development include the minimum
system specifications for the game, what video card it will support, or the number of
platforms on which the game will be released. A producer must consider all the
issues that can potentially affect a game's development and weigh them in a
Seeking to build a consensus whenever possible is generally one of the best ways to
ensure a harmonious relationship within a team. Building confidence in the team by
asking their opinions when forming a decision is one of the ways to build a
consensus. Getting others to believe in your ideas as if they were their own is the
principle behind building a consensus.
Sometimes a hard decision must be made, one that not everyone agrees with. But
before getting to that point, do your best to build a consensus and take other's
recommendations. Getting people to reach an agreement as a whole is generally a
While a video game is mostly about gameplay, a video game producer is often
charged with delivering specific animations for the game to help convey the story,
provide content for the marketing campaign or both. The demands created by being
responsible for delivering both gameplay and animation simultaneously and in
concert with the other requires an extreme amount of enthusiasm for the project.
Creating a specially rendered movie trailer for marketing purposes is another good
example of divergent tasks that a producer must balance against the other. In each
case, whether the animation is used for marketing, in the game, or both, a producer
must work closely with the art director and the animator to ensure that the
animation is completed on time, is appropriate for the game, and uses conventional
film techniques to show the progression of the story and how it relates to gameplay.
Develop a Pre-Production Plan
The producer must develop a pre-production plan, which is the foundation on which
the game's overall development rests. In the pre-production plan, the producer
works with the team leaders to establish the critical paths for completing the product
and determines the recommended course of action for accomplishing their goals.
Pre-production is the time when the Game Development team prepares to make the
game and lays the groundwork for that goal. Ideally, when the team begins
production, all of the goals are clearly defined and the course is set.
Pre-production is also used to test and refine art export pipelines and game design
documentation, as well as to establish the art asset listing for the game. Detailing
the art, design, and feature requirements for the game and including them into a
schedule is also part of this process.
Often, I recommend completing a prototype or mini-game during preproduction that establishes itself as a test case for the real game that you're
making. In addition to costing less than the final product, doing so enables
team members to learn a tremendous amount about the process and to make
adjustments as needed before undertaking development on a larger project.
Develop a Production Plan
Just as the producer must develop a pre-production plan, he or she must also
develop a production plan, which is the actual documents or set of documents that
comprise the plan for the game's development. Although a plan is often believed to
remove uncertainty, in reality, the production plan is simply the best estimate of how
the game is to be completed. The production plan consists of several smaller plans
describing all the elements of the game and how they are going to be completed.
This includes plans from each team involved in game creation, including designers,
artists, and programmers. The production plan brings these different documents
together, enabling interested parties to review the project as a whole, with an
understanding of risks, the required budget, a feature list, the schedule, and art
Specifically, a production plan consists of the following documents:
Essence statement or executive summary. Simply put, this document
outlines why the game is fun.
Creative design document. This document outlines the creative and artistic
vision for the game.
Technical design document. This document outlines the required features of
the game as described in the creative design document.
Risk-management plan. This document outlines what the risks are and how
to minimize them.
Schedule for development. This can be a detailed schedule or just a
monthly milestone schedule.
Budget and financial requirements. This document outlines monthly cost
allocations, capital expenditures, and the like.
Generate Game-Design Documentation
The producer must work with the Design team to clarify the game-design
documentation and ensure that it is easily producible and cohesive. Game designers
have an inherent predisposition to create overly complicated, complex, and disjointed
designs, that may require a lot of development time to fix. Game designers are
supposed to do this, but the producer's role is to help guide them back to the course
of what is producible, possible, and still fun.
Handle Hardware Manufacturers
The producer is the key contact for hardware manufacturers such as Intel, NVIVIDA,
ATI, Creative Labs, Microsoft, and console manufacturers like Sony, Nintendo and
Microsoft's Xbox. The role of the producer in this context is to develop and maintain
good relationships with the representatives of these hardware manufacturers,
ensuring that the Game Development team has access to the latest hardware,
drivers, technical support, and knowledge required to use the hardware to its fullest
potential. This includes obtaining evaluation or pre-release versions of video cards
and sound cards, as well as production versions, and ensuring compatibility with the
widest range of hardware products, peripherals, and console add-ons, such as
steering wheels, pedals, dance pads, or maracas (in the case of Samba De Amigo).
Handle Legal/Contractual Issues
A working knowledge of the law related to contracts and business litigation is often
required of a producer. Although you're certainly going to have access to the advice
of lawyers and other professionals, you need to understand the fundamental
principles of contract law, civil litigation, intellectual property ownership, as well as
the basic legal principles that go into contracts, such as exclusive and non-exclusive
licenses. Although your first project as a producer may not require this knowledge,
the longer you're a producer, the more likely it becomes that this knowledge will be
Handle Licensing and Branding
Licensing includes developing and managing the relationship between the licensee
and how the product's development evolves when created under license. Branding
refers to the overall vision for a product (either within a licensed brand or an original
brand) such that the product is consistent with the vision for the brand and supports
the main strengths of the brand and the brand's development. A brand is a very
important part of software marketing, as it includes the distinctive name identifying
the product and the manufacturer. A producer must grasp the vision and concept
behind both a license and the brand when managing the development of a video
game using either or both.
Handle Middleware Issues
Middleware issues refers to the issues and challenges that face the Game
Development team when they're using middleware tools, such as those provided by
Criterion Software or Gamebryo. These middleware tools give game developers a
standard set of tools and features to use in a limited variety of game genres. When
the game design calls for a specific feature set or implementation beyond what the
middleware can support, the producer must be able to understand and resolve the
issues with the middleware. This can be done by contacting the middleware provider
and asking for support or by licensing another third-party toolset to provide the
required functionality for the game designers and world builders. Other times, it may
not be that easy to solve, which is why the producer must devise a range of
alternative solutions and help pick what's best for the game.
Handle Platform Transition
Platform transition refers to the period of time in the video game industry when an
existing console platform is currently entrenched in the market and doing well but a
new console is being readied for commercial release. During this period, game
development for consoles becomes extremely challenging because the hardware for
the new console plat form has often not been finalized, nor have video game
developers been provided with development kits (specialized computer hardware for
this new platform). The platformtransition period requires forward thinking on the
part of a producer to facilitate the delivery of the hardware and flexibility in the
game's design—not to mention the development schedule.
Handle Public Relations
Public relations involve meeting the press and presenting a pre-release version of the
game for demonstration and evaluation. This requires time for a press tour, excellent
speaking abilities, a well-honed message, and passionate enthusiasm for the project.
Public relations are an ongoing responsibility of the producer—he must provide
interviews, screenshots, and related material to ensure interest in the game in
development. Excellent interpersonal skills are required when working with a
representative of the Public Relations department at the publisher.
Handle Quality Assurance
Many producers, associate producers, and assistant producers are charged with the
responsibility of overseeing the quality assurance and testing efforts for their games.
In certain cases, this involves interfacing directly with hands-on testers who work
with the Game Development team, or with a Quality Assurance department, with the
liaison being through the lead tester or QA department managers. Working with the
Quality Assurance department is challenging and stressful, yet is rewarding as the
Game Development team fixes bugs and gets the product closer to completion.
Database management is often required to input and track bugs properly.
The producer does everything he or she possibly can to help the sales of the video
game. This includes meetings with the Sales department, buyers, and Marketing and
PR departments, as well as working trade shows. The top-selling products require
excellent support from their producers so that everyone involved in selling the
product into the market will clearly understand the vision behind the game, and know
why it is exciting and compelling. Clearly communicating that message to the sales
channel, the industry, and the consumer is an extremely large part of a game's
The producer is largely responsible for hiring new members of the Game
Development team. Of course, there are exceptions, but generally the producer is
responsible for screening candidates and ensuring that they will work well with the
rest of the team. Finding potential or new team members who will shine is a skill that
every producer must develop if he or she is to be successful in the long term. The
hiring and interview process usually includes programmer tests, designer
questionnaires, in-person interviews, and phone screening. Some producers are
responsible for salary negotiations, but all are responsible for ensuring that they hire
the right people for the right job on the right team, and that everyone on that team
will be able to work well with the new team member.
Interact with Upper (Executive) Management
A producer will often have the opportunity to work directly with upper management
personnel and influence their decisions. Honing of this skill is very important because
it affects everyone who works with you and, ultimately, your career as a producer.
Understanding how executives evaluate opportunities, manage risks, and determine
the right course of action is key.
The producer must be one of the foremost authorities on video games. This means
that the producer must apply his or her knowledge of games and understanding of
why games are fun to the current project. Being able to discuss design principles
with the Design team, articulate an artistic vision from a competing product, or
critique a specific feature set in comparison to the overall market with the
programmers are all examples of when a producer's knowledge of video games will
be extremely useful.
Always look for new ways to improve methods, find efficiencies, improve best
practices, and otherwise expand the learning opportunities for yourself as well as for
the team. Referring to previous experience or knowledge as the ultimate resources
limits the effectiveness of a producer. With emerging technology and development
processes, producers should always be looking for ways to expand their learning
capabilities and opportunities.
Asset management is the process and method of managing the thousands of assets
that must come together to complete a video game. This includes art assets such as
models, textures, interface elements, menu screens, cinematic sequences, and
special renders. On the design side, this includes world-building tools, multiplayer
design, functionality specifications, use cases, story, script, core gameplay, and
adherence to the game's essence statement. On the programming side, this can
include tools, functionality, export pipelines, and documentation. Lastly, but certainly
not least, asset management involves management of outside delivery of content
such as voiceover recording, sound effects, music (ambient and linear), localization
(including all the sound and text assets for several different languages), and the
creation and delivery of marketing and PR materials for the game.
Manage Big Teams
Managing big teams is a massive challenge and presents its own unique set of
challenges, such as the coordination of export pipelines, feature-set integration, and
asset tracking. Indeed, merely communicating with your team becomes inherently
more difficult when it is comprised of 60 to 100 people, as compared to a team of 30
or 40. The trick here is to break down the large team into several smaller teams and
delegate responsibility for managing those smaller teams to other producers. Most
importantly, focus on finding the people who work well together and put them in
charge of key systems. They'll set the example in terms of productivity and efficiency
Manage Foreign Localization
Foreign localization refers to the process of creating a game in one language and
then localizing its content to apply in many worldwide markets. For example, most
games are developed in English and then localized to German, Italian, or French.
Generally, this means managing the process of including thousands of individual files
that have an alternative language's voiceover, artwork, or menu screens in the game
before it ships to retail stores. Creating product for worldwide markets is required for
almost all successful video games. The localization process is often complicated and
time consuming, and requires an excruciating attention to detail and a sound
localization management process.
Resource management refers to deciding when and where resources should be
allocated. Obviously, every task cannot be done at the same time, so tasks should be
prioritized, and then resources should be assigned to complete that task. This
process of resource allocation often requires constant re-evaluation and adjustment
in order to ensure that resources are properly allocated across a project that includes
dozens of people and often spans several years.
Manage the Art Process
A producer must manage the process of creating artwork for the game. This includes
tracking art assets as they are completed and identifying the art assets that are
incomplete. Often, art-production resources will need to be reallocated to ensure
that the art schedule stays on track. The role of the producer is to work with the Art
team to manage this process and to plan for the appropriate risks.
Manage the Audio Process
This topic could be an entire job of itself. Producing audio involves managing the
audio contractors who provide voiceover recordings, editing, sound effects, and music
(both ambient and linear tracks), as well as mixing or recording in studio if that is
required. Being able to produce audio and understand the impact of the sounds and
music on the visual is as much an art as it is a science.
Manage Vendor Relationships
Managing vendor relationships is often overlooked and undervalued, but a producer
often must contract with outside companies to provide key services that go into the
game's development. Products or services provided by outside vendors include
software support for 3D modeling applications (such as 3D Studio Max, Maya, and
Lightwave), sound libraries, or even third-party software tools such as Incredibuild
from Xoreax Software. Even computer manufacturers like Alienware have helped
supply hardware used in the development of the games I've produced. Each of these
vendor relationships is important.
Often, producers use vendors and contractors on multiple productions once they've
developed a good working relationship. As the relationships are maintained, these
vendors and contractors are easy to use on the next project, allowing you to skip the
process of looking for a qualified vendor who can help make your game.
Manage Your Time
Time management is perhaps the most fundamental aspect of being a producer.
Indeed, time management is the single biggest factor that affects whether a game is
cancelled. Why? Because the one finite element in game development is time. It is
impossible to make time go backward, but it is always possible to spend more money
on a game, or to sacrifice the quality of a game. Time management is the process
and method of allocating resources on a project to ensure that they have the most
effective and efficient impact on the project within the timeline allocated for the
Pitching is the ability to sell an idea or a concept—specifically, the game concept and
development plan. When pitching a game, the producer must be the salesperson for
that game to everyone who is listening, whether they be executive management, the
publisher, or the press. A successful pitch requires a producer who is excited and
passionate about his or her product and can effectively convey that excitement and
passion to others so that they agree to buy the product. A game rarely gets off the
ground without a good pitch.
Possess Industry Experience
Industry experience is important because it provides an accurate frame of reference
for a producer. It should be noted that although there are some similarities,
experience in the video game industry is unlike experience in the general
entertainment industry. Having never lived the same day twice, an experienced
producer in the video game industry is much more likely to be able to effectively
problem-solve the common and uncommon challenges that every software project
faces. The more years of experience a producer has, especially when coupled with
projects on a variety of hardware platforms, the more valuable he or she will be.
Experience on a variety of projects sizes is also valuable, as large projects have
different problems than do small projects.
Provide Clarity and Focus
Clarity and focus refer here to the producer's understanding of the game and the
compelling experience it provides to the user. With all the daunting tasks that lie in
the path of a game's successful development, providing clarity on which are the most
important is critical. Focus on the most important and high-risk tasks first. When the
situation becomes daunting, with programming, art, and design requirements
apparently on divergent paths, the producer's ability to provide clarity of the final
goals of the project, and generate focus to that end, may save the game.
Provide Marketing Support
Providing support to the Marketing department is a challenging task for even the best
producers. Demands for marketing assets, like screenshots, special renders, reviews
of box cover artwork, magazine ad copy, and sell sheet reviews are just a few of the
demands that the Marketing department places on the Game Development team. As
a producer, the challenge is to find the best way to deliver these assets and
information to marketing without affecting the team or sidetracking their
development efforts to make a great game.
Scheduling combines the skills discussed under "Time Management" and "Resource
Management," and puts them into a plan that is presentable to others and easily
understood. Often, updating the schedule can be a large part of a producer's role.
Learning to master Microsoft's Excel, Project or even Access is an important part of
managing the schedule.
Electronic Arts is one of the leaders in today's video game industry. Why? Because
EA embraces a disciplined approach to software development and applies it to all
areas of its business. Indeed, one of the most critical factors in the success of an
organization is the discipline that it applies to its business and production methods.
Positive discipline is an important part of an organization, because it ensures the
business's long-term success.
As a producer, you can sow the seeds of discipline by doing the following:
1 . Set goals for people and encourage them to succeed. Writing down these goals
and offering rewards when they are achieved encourages your employees to
do even better.
2 . Obtain commitments from each team member to accomplish these goals.
Obtaining commitments ensures that everyone understands your expectations
and agrees to meet those expectations.
3 . As work progresses, measure progress and benchmark results from one group
against others who are tasked with similar roles. Note the progress of the
team and its members, and identify when work can be done more efficiently or
4 . Hold others accountable for their actions and their commitments, especially if
they do not seek help when struggling with a task. Of course, several outside
influences, external factors, complications, and challenges affect people's
ability to complete work, but there are also many avenues to help them
achieve their goals and overcome those challenges.
SMART Goals is a slick acronym for goals that are
Specific. Be as specific as possible when establishing your goals.
Clarity is king in this regard. It's hard to motivate people to
complete goals that are non-specific, and even harder to measure
Measurable. Measurable results are what matter. Finishing the
project report by Friday or finalizing the functional specifications for
the game's design by the end of the month are both measurable
and concrete examples.
Acceptable. Set your own goals. No one knows your capabilities
better than you do. Determine what is acceptable for your own
standards and then live up to or exceed them.
Realistic. Don't plan for a lot of accomplishments if you know that
only a few are really possible. Focus on a few big goals rather than
many smaller ones.
Time bound. Define when you want your goals to be completed as
well as when you're going to have the time to work on them. If you
write it down now, it is a lot easier to make it actually happen.
When a producer takes ownership, it means that he or she has a personal sense of
pride and accomplishment associated with his or her work and that of the team.
Ownership refers not to taking credit for the work accomplished, but making it your
goal to remove obstacles so that the work can be accomplished. A producer who
doesn't take full ownership of his area or set of responsibilities is generally not very
effective. Taking ownership of a project, game, or team must be balanced with an
objective view of the game's development progress, goals, and marketplace
conditions. A producer cannot take ownership for a project without regard for the
external factors that affect a game.
Being able to teach others is another required skill. Because communication is a
principal part of the job, producers must be able to communicate their knowledge,
lessons, and experience to others on the team. Often, simply being able to explain
the situation or circumstance or to answer questions from team members ensures
that problems within the team are addressed before a noticeable impact on the
team's productivity occurs. Being able to share the rationale behind a decision in a
clear, concise way shows the team that decisions are not made arbitrarily. Other
times, the producer may be called upon to integrate a new team member and teach
him new procedures, methods, or best practices that will make his work more
efficient. These types of situations require a producer to share his or her knowledge
and to be able to teach to those who are willing to learn.
Understand Cinematic Production
Cinematic production includes the storyboarding, animatic creation, and actual
rendering or filming of a game's cinematic sequences. These are the sequences that
tie the story together with the gameplay for the user. A working knowledge of or a
background in film direction, scene composition, lighting techniques, script, relevance
to gameplay, and music scored to visual are important to success in this area.
Understand Development Systems
Development systems refers to the specialized computers required by game
developers that allow development on proprietary platforms or game consoles such
as the Xbox, Playstation 2, or Nintendo GameCube. Often, these hardware systems
are difficult to procure; it is the responsibility of the producer to secure their delivery
for the team. Only a limited amount of game development can be done on normal
workstations without the use of a development system that emulates the actual
hardware for which the game is designed and developed.
Work with the Programming Team
The producer must work with the Programming team to establish key goals early on
in the development process and then ensure that the programmers have all the tools
they need to succeed. Throughout the development process, a producer's job is to
track progress, understand dependencies between workloads and features, establish
critical milestones, and help solve (non-technical) problems for the programmers.
All games are not alike, and neither are the methods used to create them. Indeed,
there are several ways to develop a video game. This section discusses how some of
the common software-production methods are applied. Along the way, you'll get an
overview of how a video game comes together and how the process is managed.
Further on in the book, I'll discuss the specifics of each portion of the game in more
detail: what tools you as a producer can use to keep a project on track and how to
The code-like-hell, fix-like-hell method of game software development, shown in
Figure 1.1, is probably the most common and oldest model. Some advance planning
is done, but rarely is it followed, updated, or referenced. Programmers code as
quickly as they can to implement what they think the design calls for; it is then
tested and fixed. This model is prone to failure because of the stressful situations
that arise during the development. Programmers cannot work at a constantly frenetic
pace, nor can designers and testers. As a result, this process breaks down over time.
It leaves room for error, and those errors aren't fixed until after somebody finds
them, at which point the code is further along than it was when the errors or bugs
were introduced. This model is generally only suited for small projects with simple
requirements because the code is difficult to maintain over a longer period (six or
more months). This method is also referred to as the extreme game development
method or the XP method and is shown in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.1. The code-like-hell, fix-like-hell approach.
Increments to Completion
Increments to completion is the software-production method that calls for the
software to be developed in relatively compact, finite increments. Developing an
adventure or first-person shooter (FPS) game using this process might work because
once the world engine and tools exist, every piece of the game is simply an
increment added to the original core. As the pieces come together from various parts
of the team, they are checked against the high-level design document. The
specifications of the design and the key requirements of the game are outlined in this
high-level documentation, but low-level documentation is not completed until just
before or just after the feature is implemented—usually when the designers and the
programmers agree on what is possible with a feature and how it should be