THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION TO
The Routledge Companion to Ethics is an outstanding survey of the whole ﬁeld of
ethics by a distinguished international team of contributors. Over 60 entries are
divided into six clear sections:
The history of ethics
Perspectives from outside ethics
Debates in ethics.
The Companion opens with a comprehensive historical overview of ethics,
including entries on Plato, Aristotle, Hume and Kant, and the origins of ethical
thinking in China, India and the Middle East. The second part covers the
domain of meta-ethics, including entries on cognitivism and non-cognitivism,
explanation, reasons, moral realism and ﬁctionalism. The third part covers
important challenges to ethics from the ﬁelds of anthropology, psychology,
sociobiology and economics. The fourth and ﬁfth sections cover competing theories of ethics and the nature of morality respectively, with entries on consequentialism, Kantian morality, virtue ethics, relativism, morality and character,
evil, responsibility and particularism in ethics among many others. A comprehensive ﬁnal section includes entries on the most important topics and controversies in applied ethics, including rights, justice and distribution, the end of
life, the environment, poverty, war and terrorism.
The Routledge Companion to Ethics is a superb resource for anyone interested in
the subject, whether in philosophy or related subjects such as politics, education,
or law. Fully indexed and cross-referenced, with helpful further reading sections,
it is ideal for those coming to the ﬁeld of ethics for the ﬁrst time as well as
readers already familiar with the subject.
John Skorupski is Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of
St Andrews, Scotland. His books include Ethical Explorations (1999) and The
Domain of Reasons (forthcoming in 2010).
Routledge Philosophy Companions oﬀer thorough, high quality surveys and assessments of the major topics and periods in philosophy. Covering key problems,
themes and thinkers, all entries are specially commissioned for each volume and
written by leading scholars in the ﬁeld. Clear, accessible and carefully edited and
organized, Routledge Philosophy Companions are indispensable for anyone coming
to a major topic or period in philosophy, as well as for the more advanced
The Routledge Companion to Aesthetics, Second Edition
Edited by Berys Gaut and Dominic Lopes
The Routledge Companion to Ethics
Edited by John Skorupski
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The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Science
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The Routledge Companion to Twentieth Century Philosophy
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for a course in the philosophy of art.” – Australasian Journal of Philosophy
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THE ROUTLEDGE COMPANION
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The Routledge companion to ethics / edited by John Skorupski.
p. cm. – (Routledge philosophy companions)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Ethics. I. Skorupski, John, 1946–
ISBN 0-203-85070-X Master e-book ISBN
Hbk ISBN 13: 978-0-415-41362-6
Ebk ISBN 13: 978-0-203-85070-1
List of illustrations
Notes on contributors
1 Ethical thought in China
2 Ethical thought in India
STEPHEN R. L. CLARK
3 Socrates and Plato
5 Later ancient ethics
A. A. LONG
6 The Arabic tradition
7 Early modern natural law
9 Ethics and reason
10 Ethics and sentiment: Shaftesbury and Hutcheson
MICHAEL B. GILL
JAMES A. HARRIS
12 Adam Smith
13 Utilitarianism to Bentham
THOMAS E. HILL JR
KENNETH R. WESTPHAL
16 John Stuart Mill
17 Sidgwick, Green, and Bradley
T. H. IRWIN
19 Pragmatist moral philosophy
ALAN J. RYAN
22 Ethics, science, and religion
23 Freedom and responsibility
24 Reasons for action
25 The open question argument
26 Realism and its alternatives
28 Error theory and ﬁctionalism
NADEEM J. Z. HUSSAIN
29 Cognitivism without realism
NICHOLAS L. STURGEON
Ideas and methods from outside ethics
31 Social anthropology
32 Ethics and psychology
34 Formal methods in ethics
35 Ethics and law
Perspectives in ethics
36 Reasons, values, and morality
38 Contemporary Kantian ethics
39 Ethical intuitionism
40 Virtue ethics
42 Contemporary natural law theory
ANTHONY J. LISSKA
43 Feminist ethics
44 Ethics and aesthetics
45 Morality and its critics
47 Respect and recognition
ALLEN W. WOOD
48 Blame, remorse, mercy, forgiveness
50 Responsibility: Intention and consequence
51 Responsibility: Act and omission
MICHAEL J. ZIMMERMAN
52 Partiality and impartiality
53 Moral particularism
MICHAEL RIDGE AND SEAN MCKEEVER
Debates in ethics
(i) Goals and ideals
55 Ideals of perfection
57 Justice and punishment
58 Justice and distribution
(iii) Human life
59 Life, death, and ethics
60 Ending life
R. G. FREY
(iv) Our world
61 Population ethics
63 The environment
ANDREW BRENNAN AND NORVA Y. S. LO
(v) Current issues
64 The ethics of free speech
MARY KATE MCGOWAN
65 The ethics of research
JULIAN SAVULESCU AND TONY HOPE
66 World poverty
68 Torture and terrorism
26.1 Branching taxonomy of meta-ethical positions with respect to
questions of realism.
34.1 A prisoner’s dilemma matrix (severity of harms to agents caused by
45.1 Values of the outcomes of A’s and B’s choices in a prisoner’s
37.1 Calculating expected values.
66.1 Distribution of global household income converted at current market
66.2 Consequences of choosing a level and baseline year for the
international poverty line.
Peter Adamson is Reader of Philosophy at King’s College London. His main
areas of interest are ancient philosophy (especially Neoplatonism) and medieval philosophy (especially in Arabic). He is the author of The Arabic Plotinus,
and has published articles on Plotinus, al-Kindi, al-Farabi, Avicenna and other
ﬁgures from Greek and Arabic philosophy.
Robert Audi is Professor of Philosophy and David E. Gallo Chair in Ethics,
University of Notre Dame. He writes on epistemology, philosophy of action
and philosophy of religion as well as on moral and political philosophy. His
recent books include Religious Commitment and Secular Reason (2000), The
Architecture of Reason (2001), The Good in the Right: A Theory of Intuition and
Intrinsic Value (2004), Practical Reasoning and Ethical Decision (Routledge,
2006), and (as editor) The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy (1995, 1999).
Thomas Baldwin is a Professor of Philosophy at the University of York, having
been previously a lecturer in philosophy at Cambridge University. He is currently editor of Mind.
Christopher Bennett is a lecturer in the Department of Philosophy, University
of Sheﬃeld. His work has mainly concerned the moral emotions, punishment
and criminal justice.
Simon Blackburn is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge,
and Research Professor at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. His
books include: Spreading the Word (1984), Essays in Quasi-Realism (1993), The
Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994), Ruling Passions (1998), Think (1999),
Being Good (2001), Lust (2004), Truth: A Guide (2005), Plato’s Republic (2006)
and How to Read Hume (2008).
Andrew Brennan is Professor and Chair of Philosophy at La Trobe University,
Melbourne, Australia, having previously been Professor and Chair of Philosophy at the University of Western Australia and Reader in Philosophy at the
University of Stirling, Scotland.
Samantha Brennan is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department of
Philosophy at the University of Western Ontario. She works in contemporary normative ethics and political philosophy, including feminist
approaches to both. Brennan co-edited, with Anita Superson, Feminist Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, a special Issue of Hypatia (2005), and edited
Feminist Moral Philosophy, a Canadian Journal of Philosophy supplementary
Tom Campbell is Professor Fellow at Charles Sturt University and Convenor
of the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics, an Australian
Research Council Special Research Centre. He has written extensively on
law and legal philosophy. He is author of Adam Smith’s Science of Morals
(1971), The Left and Rights (1983) and Justice (1988, 2nd edn forthcoming
in 2010). His Routledge book, Rights: A Critical Introduction, was published
Erik Carlson is Professor of Practical Philosophy at Uppsala University. His
areas of research include axiology, measurement theory, normative ethics, the
problems of free will and determinism, and decision theory. He has published
one book, Consequentialism Reconsidered (1995), and about thirty papers in
journals and anthologies.
Alan Carter is Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Glasgow. He
is the author of numerous articles and three books: A Radical Green Political
Theory, The Philosophical Foundation of Property Rights and Marx: A Radical
Critique. He is also joint editor of the Journal of Applied Philosophy.
Maudemarie Clark is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California–
Riverside. She is the author of Nietzsche on Truth and Philosophy (1990), cotranslator and -editor of Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morality (1998), and
co-author of a work in progress on Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil.
Stephen R. L. Clark is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Liverpool.
His most recent book is G. K. Chesterton: Thinking Backward, Looking Forward
(2006), and his present work deals with the third-century Neoplatonist,
Randolph Clarke is Professor of Philosophy at Florida State University. He is
the author of Libertarian Accounts of Free Will and of numerous articles on
agency, free will and moral responsibility.
Matthew Clayton is Associate Professor of Political Theory at the University of
Warwick. He works on issues concerning distributive justice and liberal political thought. His recent work includes Justice and Legitimacy in Upbringing
(2006) and he has co-edited The Ideal of Equality (2002) and Social Justice
John Cottingham is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of
Reading, Professorial Research Fellow at Heythrop College, University of
London, and an Honorary Fellow of St John’s College, Oxford. He is (since
1993) editor of the journal Ratio. His books include The Rationalists (1988),
Western Philosophy (2nd edn 2007), Philosophy and the Good Life (1998) and
The Spiritual Dimension (2005), and his edited collections include (with Brian
Feltham) Partiality and Impartiality (forthcoming in 2010).
Stephen Darwall is the Andrew Downey Orrick Professor of Philosophy at Yale
University. He has written broadly on the history and foundations of ethics.
His books include Impartial Reason, The British Moralists and the Internal
“Ought,” Philosophical Ethics, Welfare and Rational Care and most recently The
Second-Person Standpoint: Morality, Respect, and Accountability. With David
Velleman, he is a founding co-editor of The Philosophers’ Imprint.
Fred Feldman, University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Author of Introductory
Ethics (1978), Doing the Best We Can: An Essay in Informal Deontic Logic (1986),
Confrontations with the Reaper: A Philosophical Study of the Nature and Value of
Death (1992), and Pleasure and the Good Life: On the Nature, Varieties, and
Plausibility of Hedonism (2004).
Andrew Fisher is Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Nottingham. His
research is primarily in meta-ethics and he has published in this area. He teaches
a large number of students on a wide range of subjects including meta-ethics. He
is co-editor with Simon Kirchin of Arguing about Metaethics (Routledge, 2006).
R. G. Frey is Professor of Philosophy at Bowling Green State University and
Senior Research Fellow in the Social Philosophy and Policy Center there. He
is the author (and editor) of numerous books and articles in normative and
John Gardner is Professor of Jurisprudence and a Fellow of University College,
Oxford. An occasional Visiting Professor at Yale Law School and a Bencher
of the Inner Temple, he was formerly Reader in Legal Philosophy at King’s
College London (1996–2000). He serves on the editorial boards of the Oxford
Journal of Legal Studies, Legal Theory, Law and Philosophy, The Journal of Moral
Philosophy, The Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy, The Journal of International Criminal Justice and Criminal Law and Philosophy.
Bernard Gert is Stone Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy, Emeritus,
Dartmouth College. He is the author of Morality: Its Nature and Justiﬁcation
(revised edn, 2005), Common Morality: Deciding What to Do (2004) and Hobbes:
Prince of Peace (2010); ﬁrst author of Bioethics: A Systematic Approach (2006),
and editor of Man and Citizen (1972, 1991).
Michael B. Gill is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of
Arizona. He received his PhD from the University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill and is the author of The British Moralists on Human Nature and the
Birth of Secular Ethics (2006). He has also published numerous articles in the
history of philosophy, meta-ethical theory and medical ethics.
Knud Haakonssen is Professor of Intellectual History and Director of the
Sussex Centre for Intellectual History, University of Sussex. He has published
extensively on early modern moral, legal and political philosophy and edits a
large series of natural law works.
Vinit Haksar is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and an Honorary
Fellow, School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, University
of Edinburgh. His publications include Equality, Liberty and Perfectionism
(1979), Indivisible Selves and Moral Practice (1991) and Rights, Communities and
Disobedience: Liberalism and Gandhi (2003).
James A. Harris is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of St
Andrews. He is the author of Of Liberty and Necessity: The Free Will Debate in
Eighteenth-Century British Philosophy (2005). He is the editor of the forthcoming
Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Eighteenth Century, and (with Aaron
Garrett) of the “Enlightenment” volume of A History of Scottish Philosophy
(general editor Gordon Graham).
Christopher Heathwood is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University
of Colorado at Boulder. He is the author of several articles on welfare and
other topics in ethics.
Thomas E. Hill Jr, Kenan Professor at University of North Carolina, Chapel
Hill, is the author of Autonomy and Self-Respect; Dignity and Practical Reason in
Kant’s Moral Theory; Respect, Pluralism, and Justice; and Human Welfare and
Moral Worth. He edited the Blackwell Guide to Kant’s Ethics and, with Arnulf
Zweig, co-edited Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Recent
essays concern Kantian constructivism, duties to oneself, virtue, revolution,
humanitarian interventions, and the treatment of criminals.
Brad Hooker is Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Reading.
His book Ideal Code, Real World: A Rule-Consequentialist Theory of Morality
appeared in 2000. He has published articles on intuitionism, Kantianism,
particularism, human rights, desert, world hunger, impartiality, the demandingness of morality and friendship. His research monograph will be on
Tony Hope is Professor of Medical Ethics at the University of Oxford, Honorary Consultant Psychiatrist, and Fellow of St Cross College. He founded the
Ethox Centre. He has carried out research in basic neuroscience, Alzheimer’s
disease and clinical ethics. His books include the Oxford Handbook of Clinical
Medicine (editions 1–4); Manage Your Mind; Medical Ethics and Law; Medical
Ethics: A Very Short Introduction; and Empirical Ethics in Psychiatry.
Nadeem J. Z. Hussain is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Stanford
University. He specializes in meta-ethics and the history of late nineteenthcentury German philosophy. He assessed the resurgence of ﬁctionalism in
contemporary meta-ethics in “The Return of Moral Fictionalism” in Philosophical
Perspectives (2004), and defended a ﬁctionalist interpretation of Nietzsche in
“Honest Illusion: Valuing for Nietzsche’s Free Spirits,” in Nietzsche and Morality
T. H. Irwin is Professor of Ancient Philosophy in the University of Oxford and
a Fellow of Keble College. From 1975 to 2006 he taught at Cornell University.
He is the author of Plato’s Gorgias (translation and notes 1979), Aristotle’s
Nicomachean Ethics (translation and notes 1999), Aristotle’s First Principles
(1988), Classical Thought (1989), Plato’s Ethics (1995) and The Development of
Ethics, 3 vols (2007–9).
Richard Kraut is the Charles E. and Emma H. Morrison Professor in the
Humanities at Northwestern University. He is the author of Socrates and the
State and How to Read Plato, and has edited the Cambridge Companion to Plato
and Plato’s Republic: Critical Essays.
Rahul Kumar is an Associate Professor of Philosophy at Queen’s University,
Canada. He is a co-editor of Reasons and Recognition: Essays on the Philosophy
of T. M. Scanlon and is the author of several papers on Scanlonian
James Laidlaw is a Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and a University Le
cturer in the Department of Social Anthropology, University of Cambridge.
He has conducted research in India, Inner Mongolia and Taiwan. His
publications include Riches and Renunciation (1995); a two-volume collection
of the writings of the social anthropologist Edmund Leach, The Essential
Edmund Leach (2001); and two collections, both jointly edited with Harvey
Whitehouse: Ritual and Memory (2004) and Religion, Anthropology, and Cognitive Science (2007).
Michael LeBuﬀe is Assistant Professor at Texas A&M University. His recent
work includes “Spinoza’s Normative Ethics,” in Canadian Journal of Philosophy
(2007), and “The Anatomy of the Passions,” in the Cambridge Companion to
Spinoza’s Ethics (forthcoming).
Anthony J. Lisska, Maria Theresa Barney Professor of Philosophy at Denison University, has published Aquinas’s Theory of Natural Law and essays and
reviews on natural law. Past President of the American Catholic Philosophical Association, he received the Carnegie National Professor of the Year
A. A. Long is Professor of Classics, Irving Stone Professor of Literature, and
aﬃliated Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. He
is author and editor of many books on ancient philosophy, including most
recently Epictetus: A Stoic and Socratic Guide to Life and From Epicurus to
Epictetus: Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy.
Norva Y. S. Lo is Lecturer in Philosophy at La Trobe University, Melbourne,
Australia, having previously worked at the University of Hong Kong and the
Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Mary Kate McGowan is Class of 1966 Associate Professor of Philosophy at
Wellesley College. She has published in metaphysics, philosophy of language,
philosophy of law and analytic feminism and she is especially interested in
free speech issues in their intersection.
Sean McKeever is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Davidson College,
North Carolina. He is interested in contemporary moral theory, the history of
ethics and political philosophy. He is the author, with Michael Ridge, of
Principled Ethics: Generalism as a Regulative Ideal (2006), which critiques moral
particularism while developing and defending a generalist alternative.
Alexander Miller is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Birmingham.
He is the author of An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics (2003), Philosophy of Language (Routledge, 2nd edn 2007) and co-editor (with Crispin
Wright) of Rule-Following and Meaning (2002).
Tim Mulgan is Professor of Moral and Political Philosophy at the University of
St Andrews. He is the author of The Demands of Consequentialism (2001),
Future People (2006) and Understanding Utilitarianism (2007).
Stephen Mulhall is Professor of Philosophy at New College, Oxford. His current
areas of research include Nietzsche, Sartre, Heidegger and Wittgenstein, the
philosophy of religion, and philosophy of literature. Recent publications
include The Wounded Animal: J. M. Coetzee and the Diﬃculty of Reality in
Literature and Philosophy (2009) and The Conversation of Humanity (2007).
Thomas Pogge received his PhD from Harvard. He is Leitner Professor of
Philosophy and International Aﬀairs at Yale University, Professorial Fellow at
the Australian National University’s Centre for Applied Philosophy and
Public Ethics, Research Director at the Oslo University Centre for the Study
of Mind in Nature, and Adjunct Professor at the Faculty of Health and Social
Care of the University of Central Lancashire.
Jesse Prinz is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the City University of
New York Graduate Center. His research areas are philosophy of psychology,
philosophy of mind, aesthetics, consciousness and cognitive science. His
books include The Emotional Construction of Morals (2007), Gut Reactions: A
Perceptual Theory of Emotion (2004) and Furnishing the Mind: Concepts and Their
Perceptual Basis (2002).
Peter Railton is John Stephenson Perrin Professor of Philosophy at the
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. His main research has been in ethics and
the philosophy of science, focusing especially on questions about the nature
of objectivity, value, norms and explanation. A collection of some of
his papers in ethics and meta-ethics, Facts, Values, and Norms, was published
Andrews Reath is Professor of Philosophy at the University of California,
Riverside. He has worked extensively on Kant’s moral philosophy and
is author of Agency and Autonomy in Kant’s Moral Theory (2006). He
has co-edited two anthologies: with Barbara Herman and Christine
Korsgaard, Reclaiming the History of Ethics: Essays for John Rawls (1997); and
with Jens Timmermann, A Critical Guide to Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason
Michael Ridge is Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
His main research is in moral and political philosophy, though he also has
substantial research interests in action theory, the philosophy of mind and the
history of philosophy. He is the author, with Sean McKeever, of Principled
Ethics: Generalism as a Regulative Ideal (2006).
Simon Robertson is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow working on the Nietzsche
and Modern Moral Philosophy project at the University of Southampton. His
main research interests lie at the intersection of normative ethics, meta-ethics
and practical reason.
David Rodin is Senior Research Fellow at the University of Oxford, where he
co-directs the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conﬂict, and
Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Council for Ethic and International Aﬀairs in
New York. His publications include War and Self-Defense (2002), which was
awarded the American Philosophical Association Sharp Prize, as well as of
articles in leading philosophy and law journals and a number of edited books,
including Preemption (2007) and Just and Unjust Warriors (2008).
Frederick Rosen is Professor Emeritus of the History of Political Thought and
Honorary Research Fellow at the Bentham Project, University College
London. He was formerly Director of the Bentham Project and General
Editor of The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham. He is currently writing a
book on the moral and political philosophy of John Stuart Mill.
Michael Ruse is Lucyle T. Werkmeister Professor of Philosophy at Florida State
University. He is the author of many books on the history and philosophy
of science, including Monad to Man: The Concept of Progress in Evolutionary
Biology, Can a Darwinian be a Christian? The Relationship between Science
and Religion and most recently Science and Spirituality: Making Room for Faith
in the Age of Science.
Alan J. Ryan was Warden of New College, Oxford, from 1996 to 2009. He is
currently a Visiting Scholar at Princeton University. Professor Ryan has
written extensively on liberalism and its history, on theories of property, and
on issues in the philosophy of the social sciences; among his books are Liberal
Anxieties and Liberal Education (1998), John Dewey and the High Tide of
American Liberalism (1995) and Russell: A Political Life (2003).
Julian Savulescu is Uehiro Chair in Practical Ethics and Director of the Oxford
Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics at the University of Oxford. He is also
Director of the Oxford Centre for Neuroethics and of the Program on
the Ethics of the New Biosciences at the University of Oxford. Professor
Savulescu is the author of over 200 publications and has given more than 100
Geoﬀrey Scarre is Professor of Philosophy at Durham University, UK, where he
teaches and researches mainly in the areas of moral theory and applied ethics.
He has recently published books on death and on Mill’s On Liberty; his most
recent book is On Courage (Routledge, forthcoming in 2010).
Henry Shue is Senior Research Fellow at Merton College, Oxford, and
Professor of Politics and International Relations. His research has focused on
the role of human rights, especially economic rights, in international aﬀairs,
and, more generally, on institutions to protect the vulnerable. He is best
known for his book on international distributive justice, Basic Rights.
John Skorupski is Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of
St Andrews. His books include John Stuart Mill (Routledge, 1989), Ethical
Explorations (1999) and The Domain of Reasons (forthcoming in 2010).
Michael Slote is UST Professor of Ethics at the University of Miami. He has
recently been working at the intersection of virtue ethics, care ethics and
moral sentimentalist thought, and has just published three books: Moral Sentimentalism (an account of normative ethics and meta-ethics in sentimentalist
terms); Essays on the History of Ethics (containing discussions of both ancient
and modern views); and Selected Essays (a collection of published articles and
some new papers).
Craig Smith is Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of St Andrews. He is
the author of Adam Smith’s Political Philosophy: The Invisible Hand and
Spontaneous Order (Routledge, 2006), and is book review editor of the Adam
Robert Stecker is Professor of Philosophy at Central Michigan University. He is the
author of Artworks: Deﬁnition, Meaning, Value; Interpretation and Construction: Art,
Speech and the Law; and Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art: An Introduction.
Philip Stratton-Lake is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Reading.
His main research interests are Kant, ethical intuitionism, meta-ethics and
normative ethics. His book Kant, Duty and Moral Worth was published by
Routledge in 2000.
Nicholas L. Sturgeon is a Professor of Philosophy at Cornell University. He has
published a number of articles on foundational issues in meta-ethics and on
the history of modern moral philosophy.
John Tasioulas is Reader in Moral and Legal Philosophy at the University of
Oxford and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. His research interests
are in moral philosophy, legal philosophy, and political philosophy. He is
currently engaged in a project on the philosophy of human rights funded by a
British Academic Research Development Award.
Christopher Taylor is Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Oxford University,
and an Emeritus Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
Suzanne Uniacke is Reader in Applied Ethics at the University of Hull. Before
moving to the United Kingdom in 2001 she taught philosophy in Australia.
She has published widely in normative moral theory, applied ethics and philosophy of law.
Jonathan Webber is a lecturer in Philosophy at Cardiﬀ University. He is the
author of The Existentialism of Jean-Paul Sartre (Routledge, 2009), and numerous philosophical articles on moral psychology and applied ethics.
Henry R. West is Professor of Philosophy at Macalester College, Saint Paul,
Minnesota. His publications on Mill include An Introduction to Mill’s Utilitarian
Ethics (2004), The Blackwell Guide to Mill’s Utilitarianism (2006) and Mill’s
Utilitarianism: A Reader’s Guide (2007).
Kenneth R. Westphal is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Kent,
Canterbury. He has published widely on both Kant’s and Hegel’s theoretical
and practical philosophies, in both systematic and historical perspective. He
edited The Blackwell Guide to Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (2009).
Allen W. Wood is Ward W. and Priscilla B. Woods Professor at Stanford
University. He has also been on the faculty of Cornell University and Yale
University, has held visiting appointments at the University of Michigan and
the University of California, San Diego, and has held fellowships from the
Guggenheim Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities.
He is author and editor of numerous books and author of numerous articles,
chieﬂy on topics in ethics and on the philosophy of Kant, Fichte, Hegel and
Yang Xiao is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Kenyon College, USA. He
has published essays on Confucian moral psychology, philosophy of language
in early Chinese texts and Chinese political philosophy. He is currently
working on a book manuscript on early Chinese ethics.
Michael J. Zimmerman is Professor of Philosophy at the University of North
Carolina at Greensboro. He is the author of both books and articles on
the conceptual foundations of human action, moral responsibility, moral
obligation and intrinsic value.