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Red Hat
®
Fedora Linux 2
®



ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE

FOR

DUMmIES

by Naba Barkakati






Red Hat
®
Fedora Linux 2
®



ALL-IN-ONE DESK REFERENCE

FOR

DUMmIES

by Naba Barkakati




Red Hat® Fedora™ Linux® 2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies®
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
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Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774
Copyright © 2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
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About the Author
Naba Barkakati is an electrical engineer and a successful computer-book
author who has experience in a wide variety of systems, ranging from MS-DOS
and Windows to UNIX and Linux. He bought his first personal computer — an
IBM PC-AT — in 1984 after graduating with a PhD in electrical engineering from
the University of Maryland at College Park. While pursuing a full-time career in
engineering, Naba dreamed of writing software for the emerging PC software
market. As luck would have it, instead of building a software empire like
Microsoft, he ended up writing successful computer books. Currently, Naba is
a Senior Level Technologist at the Center for Technology and Engineering in
the U.S. General Accounting Office.
Over the past 15 years, Naba has written over 25 computer books on a number
of topics ranging from Windows programming with C++ to Linux. He has
authored several bestselling titles, such as The Waite Group’s Turbo C++ Bible,
Object-Oriented Programming in C++, X Window System Programming, Visual
C++ Developer’s Guide, Borland C++ 4 Developer’s Guide, and Linux Secrets. His
books have been translated into many languages, including Spanish, French,
Polish, Greek, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Naba’s most recent book
is Red Hat Linux 9 Professional Secrets, also published by Wiley.
Naba lives in North Potomac, Maryland, with his wife Leha, and their children, Ivy, Emily, and Ashley.



Dedication
I would like to dedicate this book to my wife Leha, and daughters Ivy, Emily,
and Ashley.

Author’s Acknowledgments
I am grateful to Terri Varveris for getting me started on this book — a set of
nine quick reference guides on all aspects of Red Hat Linux. As the project
editor, Linda Morris guided me through the manuscript-submission process
and kept everything moving. I appreciate the guidance and support that Terri
and Linda gave me during this project.
I would like to thank Jason Luster for reviewing the manuscript for technical
accuracy and providing many useful suggestions for improving the book’s
content.
Thanks to everyone at Wiley Publishing for transforming my raw manuscript
into this well-edited and beautifully packaged book.
Of course, there would be no reason for this book if it were not for Linux. For
this, we have Linus Torvalds and the legions of Linux developers around the
world to thank. Thanks to Red Hat for providing beta copies of Red Hat Linux
and the publisher’s edition CDs that are bundled with this book.
Finally, and as always, my greatest thanks go to my wife, Leha, and our
daughters, Ivy, Emily, and Ashley — it is their love and support that keeps me
going. Thanks for being there!


Publisher’s Acknowledgments
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located at www.dummies.com/register/.
Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:
Acquisitions, Editorial, and
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Cartoons: Rich Tennant, www.the5thwave.com

Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies
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Publishing for Consumer Dummies
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Composition Services
Gerry Fahey, Vice President of Production Services
Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services


Contents at a Glance
Introduction ................................................................1
Book I: Fedora Basics ...................................................7
Chapter 1: Introducing Fedora Core ...............................................................................9
Chapter 2: Installing Fedora Core ..................................................................................31
Chapter 3: Troubleshooting and Configuring Fedora Core ........................................57
Chapter 4: Trying Out Fedora Core ...............................................................................75
Chapter 5: Cool Fedora Core Install Projects ...............................................................99

Book II: Workstations and Applications .....................109
Chapter 1: Exploring the GUI Desktops ......................................................................111
Chapter 2: Learning the Shell .......................................................................................135
Chapter 3: Navigating the Linux File System .............................................................153
Chapter 4: Exploring Fedora Core Applications ........................................................169
Chapter 5: Using Text Editors ......................................................................................199

Book III: OpenOffice.org ..........................................211
Chapter 1: Writing with OpenOffice.org Writer .........................................................213
Chapter 2: Preparing Spreadsheets with OpenOffice.org Calc ................................237
Chapter 3: Making Presentations with OpenOffice.org Impress .............................249
Chapter 4: Drawing with OpenOffice.org Draw .........................................................261

Book IV: Networking ................................................269
Chapter 1: Connecting to the Internet ........................................................................271
Chapter 2: Setting Up a Local Area Network ..............................................................295
Chapter 3: Adding a Wireless Ethernet LAN ..............................................................307
Chapter 4: Managing the Network ...............................................................................319
Chapter 5: Cool Networking Projects ..........................................................................329

Book V: Internet ......................................................335
Chapter 1: Exchanging E-Mail and Instant Messages ................................................337
Chapter 2: Using the Web .............................................................................................351
Chapter 3: Reading Newsgroups .................................................................................371
Chapter 4: Transferring Files with FTP .......................................................................383


Book VI: Administration ...........................................391
Chapter 1: Performing Basic System Administration ...............................................393
Chapter 2: Managing Users ..........................................................................................425
Chapter 3: Managing the File System ..........................................................................437
Chapter 4: Managing Applications ..............................................................................461
Chapter 5: Managing Devices and Printers ................................................................479
Chapter 6: Upgrading and Customizing the Kernel ...................................................493

Book VII: Security ...................................................519
Chapter 1: Understanding Network and Host Security ............................................521
Chapter 2: Securing the Host .......................................................................................535
Chapter 3: Securing the Network ................................................................................557
Chapter 4: Performing Security Audits .......................................................................577

Book VIII: Internet Servers .......................................595
Chapter 1: Managing the Servers ................................................................................597
Chapter 2: Running the Apache Web Server ..............................................................615
Chapter 3: Setting Up the FTP Server .........................................................................639
Chapter 4: Serving Up Mail and News .........................................................................647
Chapter 5: Setting Up DNS ............................................................................................675
Chapter 6: Running Samba and NFS ............................................................................695

Book IX: Programming .............................................707
Chapter 1: Fedora Core Programming Essentials ......................................................709
Chapter 2: Programming in C .......................................................................................735
Chapter 3: Writing Shell Scripts ...................................................................................767
Chapter 4: Programming in Perl ..................................................................................779

Appendix: About the DVD .........................................807
Index .......................................................................811


Table of Contents
Introduction .................................................................1
About This Book ..............................................................................................1
Conventions Used in This Book ....................................................................2
What You Don’t Have to Read .......................................................................2
Who Are You? ..................................................................................................3
How This Book Is Organized ..........................................................................3
What’s on the DVD? ........................................................................................4
Icons Used in This Book .................................................................................5
Where to Go from Here ...................................................................................5

Book I: Fedora Basics ....................................................7
Chapter 1: Introducing Fedora Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
What Is Fedora Core? ......................................................................................9
Operating systems and Linux ..............................................................9
Linux distributions ..............................................................................11
Transitioning to the Fedora Project ..................................................11
Making sense of version numbers .....................................................12
Under the hood in Linux kernel 2.6 ...................................................13
What Fedora Core Includes ..........................................................................16
GNU software .......................................................................................16
GUIs and applications .........................................................................19
Networks ..............................................................................................20
Internet servers ...................................................................................21
Software development ........................................................................22
Online documentation ........................................................................23
What Fedora Core Helps You Manage ........................................................25
Disks, CD-ROMs, and DVD-ROMs ......................................................25
Peripheral devices ...............................................................................26
File systems and sharing ....................................................................27
Network ................................................................................................27
How Do I Get Started? ...................................................................................28
Install .....................................................................................................28
Configure ..............................................................................................28
Explore ..................................................................................................29
Learn .....................................................................................................29


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Red Hat Fedora Linux 2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

Chapter 2: Installing Fedora Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Following the Installation Steps ..................................................................31
Checking Your PC’s Hardware .....................................................................33
Setting Aside Space for Fedora Core ..........................................................34
Defragmenting your hard disk ...........................................................34
Resizing your hard disk partition ......................................................36
Starting the Fedora Core Installation .........................................................39
Selecting Keyboard, Mouse, and Installation Type ...................................40
Partitioning the Disk for Fedora Core .........................................................43
Setting Up Key System Parameters .............................................................47
Installing the boot loader ...................................................................47
Configuring the network .....................................................................48
Configuring the firewall and SELinux ................................................50
Selecting languages to support .........................................................51
Setting the time zone ..........................................................................51
Setting the root password ..................................................................52
Selecting and Installing the Package Groups .............................................53

Chapter 3: Troubleshooting and Configuring Fedora Core . . . . . . . . .57
Using Text Mode Installation .......................................................................58
Using the linux noprobe Command ............................................................58
Troubleshooting X ........................................................................................59
Resolving Other Installation Problems .......................................................61
The fatal signal 11 error ......................................................................61
Using kernel boot commands ............................................................62
Setting Up Printers ........................................................................................64
Turning On Sound .........................................................................................68
Adding User Accounts ..................................................................................69
Managing DVDs and CD-ROMs ....................................................................71
Installing RPM Packages ...............................................................................72

Chapter 4: Trying Out Fedora Core . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Booting Fedora Core .....................................................................................75
Exploring GUI Desktops ................................................................................81
GNOME .................................................................................................81
KDE ........................................................................................................88
Playing with the Shell ...................................................................................94
Starting the Bash shell ........................................................................95
Understanding shell commands ........................................................95
Trying a few Linux commands ...........................................................96
Shutting Down ...............................................................................................98

Chapter 5: Cool Fedora Core Install Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Joining the BitTorrent ...................................................................................99
Things you need ................................................................................100
Steps to follow ...................................................................................100


Table of Contents

xi

Burning Fedora Core CDs ...........................................................................103
Things you need ................................................................................103
Steps to follow ...................................................................................103
Preparing a Fedora Core DVD ....................................................................104
Things you need ................................................................................104
Steps to follow ...................................................................................105
Doing an FTP Install ....................................................................................107
Things you need ................................................................................107
Steps to follow ...................................................................................107

Book II: Workstations and Applications .....................109
Chapter 1: Exploring the GUI Desktops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
Learning the Common Features of the GUIs ............................................111
Desktop pop-up menus .....................................................................112
Icon pop-up menus ............................................................................113
The panel ............................................................................................114
The Main Menu ..................................................................................116
Exploring GNOME .......................................................................................119
Using the Nautilus shell ....................................................................120
Configuring GNOME ..........................................................................124
Exploring KDE ..............................................................................................127
Using Konqueror ................................................................................128
Configuring KDE ................................................................................132

Chapter 2: Learning the Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Opening Terminal Windows and Virtual Consoles .................................135
Using the Bash Shell ...................................................................................136
Learning the syntax of shell commands .........................................136
Combining shell commands .............................................................138
Controlling command input and output .........................................138
Typing less with automatic command completion .......................140
Going wild with asterisks and question marks ..............................140
Repeating previously typed commands .........................................142
Learning Linux Commands ........................................................................142
Becoming root (superuser) ..............................................................146
Managing processes ..........................................................................147
Working with date and time .............................................................147
Processing files ..................................................................................148
Writing Shell Scripts ...................................................................................151

Chapter 3: Navigating the Linux File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Understanding the Linux File System .......................................................153
Navigating the File System with Linux Commands .................................157
Commands for directory navigation ...............................................158
Commands for directory listings and permissions .......................159


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Red Hat Fedora Linux 2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

Commands for changing permissions and ownerships ...............162
Commands for working with files ....................................................163
Commands for working with directories ........................................164
Commands for finding files ..............................................................165
Commands for mounting and unmounting ....................................166
Commands for checking disk-space usage ....................................167

Chapter 4: Exploring Fedora Core Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Taking Stock of the Fedora Core Applications ........................................169
Office Applications and Tools ...................................................................171
Calculators .........................................................................................172
Commercially available office applications for Linux ...................173
aspell spelling checker .....................................................................175
Databases .....................................................................................................176
Adding a database user ....................................................................177
Reviewing the steps to build the database ....................................178
Designing the database .....................................................................179
Creating an empty database ............................................................180
Using the PostgreSQL interactive terminal ....................................180
Defining a table ..................................................................................181
Inserting records into a table ...........................................................182
Querying the database .....................................................................182
Multimedia Applications ............................................................................183
Using a digital camera .......................................................................183
Playing audio CDs ..............................................................................186
Playing sound files ............................................................................187
Burning a CD ......................................................................................188
Graphics and Imaging .................................................................................193
The GIMP ............................................................................................194
Gnome Ghostview .............................................................................196

Chapter 5: Using Text Editors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Using GUI Text Editors ................................................................................199
Text Editing with ed and vi ........................................................................200
Using ed ..............................................................................................201
Using vi ...............................................................................................204

Book III: OpenOffice.org ...........................................211
Chapter 1: Writing with OpenOffice.org Writer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Getting Documents from Others ...............................................................214
Taking Stock of OpenOffice.org Writer .....................................................215


Table of Contents

xiii

Getting Started with Writer ........................................................................216
Examining the Writer main window ................................................217
Setting up Writer ................................................................................218
Preparing Documents in Writer .................................................................221
Editing and reviewing documents ...................................................221
Using styles and templates ..............................................................224
Performing page layout ....................................................................228
Creating and inserting graphics ......................................................231
Using fields .........................................................................................233
Working with large documents ........................................................235

Chapter 2: Preparing Spreadsheets with OpenOffice.org Calc . . . .237
Taking Stock of OpenOffice.org Calc .........................................................237
Getting Started with Calc ...........................................................................238
Examining the Calc main window ...................................................239
Setting up Calc ...................................................................................240
Using Calc .....................................................................................................241
Entering and formatting data ...........................................................241
Calculating and charting data ..........................................................244

Chapter 3: Making Presentations with OpenOffice.org Impress . . .249
Taking Stock of OpenOffice.org Impress ..................................................249
Getting Started with Impress .....................................................................250
Using Impress ..............................................................................................253
Preparing presentations ...................................................................254
Adding graphics and special effects ...............................................257
Delivering presentations ..................................................................260

Chapter 4: Drawing with OpenOffice.org Draw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Taking Stock of OpenOffice.org Draw .......................................................261
Getting Started with Draw ..........................................................................262
Using Draw ...................................................................................................264

Book IV: Networking ................................................269
Chapter 1: Connecting to the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
Understanding the Internet .......................................................................271
Deciding How to Connect to the Internet ................................................272
Connecting with DSL ...................................................................................274
How DSL works ..................................................................................274
DSL alphabet soup: ADSL, IDSL, SDSL ............................................275
Typical DSL setup ..............................................................................276


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Red Hat Fedora Linux 2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

Connecting with a Cable Modem ..............................................................279
How cable modem works .................................................................280
Typical cable modem setup .............................................................282
Setting Up Dial-Up Networking ..................................................................284
Connecting the modem ....................................................................286
Testing the modem ............................................................................289
Setting up and activating a PPP connection ..................................291
Configuring CHAP and PAP authentication ....................................293

Chapter 2: Setting Up a Local Area Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
Understanding TCP/IP ................................................................................295
TCP/IP and the Internet ....................................................................297
IP addresses .......................................................................................297
Internet services and port numbers ...............................................298
Setting Up an Ethernet LAN .......................................................................299
How Ethernet works ..........................................................................300
Ethernet cables ..................................................................................301
Configuring TCP/IP Networking ................................................................302
Connecting Your LAN to the Internet .......................................................305

Chapter 3: Adding a Wireless Ethernet LAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
Understanding Wireless Ethernet Networks ...........................................307
Understanding infrastructure and ad hoc modes .........................308
Understanding wired equivalent privacy (WEP) ...........................310
Setting Up the Wireless Hardware ............................................................310
Configuring the wireless access point ............................................312
Configuring Wireless Networking ..............................................................312

Chapter 4: Managing the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
Learning the TCP/IP Configuration Files ..................................................319
/etc/hosts ...........................................................................................320
/etc/networks .....................................................................................320
/etc/host.conf .....................................................................................320
/etc/resolv.conf ..................................................................................321
/etc/hosts.allow .................................................................................321
/etc/hosts.deny ..................................................................................322
/etc/nsswitch.conf .............................................................................323
Checking Out TCP/IP Networks .................................................................323
Checking the network interfaces .....................................................323
Checking the IP routing table ...........................................................324
Checking connectivity to a host ......................................................325
Checking network status ..................................................................325
Sniffing network packets ..................................................................327
Configuring Networks at Boot Time .........................................................328


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xv

Chapter 5: Cool Networking Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Building Your Own Home Network ...........................................................329
Things you need ................................................................................329
Steps to follow ...................................................................................330
Adding Wireless to Your Current Network ...............................................331
Things you need ................................................................................331
Steps to follow ...................................................................................331
Turning Your Fedora Core System into a NAT Router ............................332
Things you need ................................................................................332
Steps to follow ...................................................................................333

Book V: Internet .......................................................335
Chapter 1: Exchanging E-Mail and Instant Messages . . . . . . . . . . . .337
Understanding Electronic Mail ..................................................................338
How MUA and MTA work ..................................................................338
Mail message enhancements ...........................................................339
Taking Stock of Mail Readers and IM Clients in Fedora Core ................340
Using Ximian Evolution ..............................................................................340
Using Mozilla Mail .......................................................................................344
Managing your Inbox ........................................................................347
Composing and sending messages .................................................348
Instant Messaging with Gaim .....................................................................349

Chapter 2: Using the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .351
Discovering the World Wide Web ..............................................................351
Like a giant spider’s web ..................................................................352
Links and URLs ..................................................................................353
Web servers and Web browsers ......................................................355
Web Browsing in Fedora Core ...................................................................356
Checking out the Web browsers in Fedora Core ...........................357
Starting Mozilla ..................................................................................357
Learning Mozilla’s user interface ....................................................357
Changing your home page ................................................................361
Changing Mozilla’s appearance .......................................................361
Surfing the Net with Mozilla .............................................................363
Creating Web Pages .....................................................................................364
Introducing HTML .............................................................................364
Composing Web pages with Mozilla Composer ............................366


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Red Hat Fedora Linux 2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

Chapter 3: Reading Newsgroups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Understanding Newsgroups ......................................................................371
Newsgroup hierarchy ........................................................................372
Top-level newsgroup categories ......................................................373
Linux-related newsgroups ................................................................374
Reading Newsgroups from Your ISP .........................................................375
Reading newsgroups with Mozilla Mail ..........................................376
Newsgroup subscriptions ................................................................378
Posting news ......................................................................................379
Reading and Searching Newsgroups at Web Sites ..................................380

Chapter 4: Transferring Files with FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
Using Graphical FTP Clients ......................................................................383
Using gFTP ..........................................................................................384
Using a Web browser as an FTP client ............................................385
Using the Command-Line FTP Client ........................................................387

Book VI: Administration ............................................391
Chapter 1: Performing Basic System Administration . . . . . . . . . . . .393
Taking Stock of System-Administration Tasks .........................................393
How to Become root ...................................................................................395
Using the su - command ...................................................................395
Becoming root for the GUI Utilities ...........................................................395
Recovering from a forgotten root password ..................................396
Understanding How Fedora Core Boots ...................................................397
Understanding the init process .......................................................397
Examining the /etc/inittab file .........................................................399
Trying a new run level with the init command ..............................400
Understanding the Fedora Core startup scripts ...........................401
Manually starting and stopping servers ........................................402
Automatically starting servers at system startup ........................403
Understanding the GUI startup .......................................................404
Taking Stock of Fedora Core System Configuration Files ......................406
Monitoring System Performance ..............................................................408
Using the top utility ..........................................................................409
Using the GNOME system monitor .................................................411
Using the uptime command .............................................................412
Using the vmstat utility ....................................................................413
Checking disk performance and disk usage ...................................414
Viewing System Information via the /proc File System ..........................415
Scheduling Jobs in Fedora Core ................................................................418
Scheduling one-time jobs .................................................................419
Scheduling recurring jobs ................................................................421


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Chapter 2: Managing Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
Adding User Accounts ................................................................................425
Using the User Manager to add user accounts ..............................426
Using commands to manage user accounts ..................................428
Understanding the /etc/passwd File .........................................................429
Managing Groups ........................................................................................430
Exploring the User Environment ...............................................................431
Changing User and Group Ownership of Files .........................................434

Chapter 3: Managing the File System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
Learning the Linux File System .................................................................437
Understanding the file-system hierarchy .......................................438
Mounting a device on the file system .............................................440
Examining the /etc/fstab file ............................................................442
Sharing Files with NFS ................................................................................443
Exporting a file system with NFS .....................................................444
Mounting an NFS file system ............................................................445
Backing Up and Restoring Files .................................................................445
Selecting a backup strategy and media ..........................................445
Commercial backup utilities for Linux ...........................................447
Using the tape archiver — tar ..........................................................447
Accessing DOS/Windows File Systems .....................................................452
Mounting a DOS disk partition ........................................................452
Mounting DOS floppy disks ..............................................................453
Mounting an NTFS Partition .............................................................455
Using mtools ................................................................................................455
Trying mtools .....................................................................................456
Understanding the /etc/mtools.conf file ........................................456
Learning the mtools commands ......................................................457
Formatting a DOS floppy ..................................................................459

Chapter 4: Managing Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
Working with Red Hat Package Manager .................................................461
Using the RPM commands ...............................................................461
Understanding RPM filenames .........................................................462
Finding out about RPMs ...................................................................463
Installing an RPM ...............................................................................466
Removing an RPM .............................................................................467
Upgrading an RPM .............................................................................467
Verifying an RPM ...............................................................................468
Building Software Packages from Source Files ........................................469
Downloading and unpacking the software .....................................469
Building the software from source files ..........................................471
Installing SRPMS ................................................................................474
Updating Fedora Core Applications with Up2date .................................474
Using Yellow dog Updater, Modified (Yum) .............................................475


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Chapter 5: Managing Devices and Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .479
Understanding Linux Devices ...................................................................479
Device files .........................................................................................480
Persistent device naming with udev ..............................................482
Managing Loadable Driver Modules .........................................................482
Loading and unloading modules .....................................................483
Using the /etc/modprobe.conf file ..................................................485
Managing USB Devices ...............................................................................486
Managing Print Queues in Fedora Core ....................................................488
Spooling and print jobs ....................................................................488
Printing with the lp command .........................................................490
Checking the print queue using lpq ................................................490
Canceling the print job using cancel ..............................................490
Checking the printer status using lpstat ........................................491
Controlling the print queue ..............................................................491

Chapter 6: Upgrading and Customizing the Kernel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .493
Upgrading with a Kernel RPM ....................................................................494
Downloading new kernel RPMs .......................................................494
Installing the kernel RPMs ................................................................494
Trying out the new kernel ................................................................495
Rebuilding the Kernel .................................................................................496
Creating a monolithic versus a modular kernel ............................497
Configuring the kernel ......................................................................498
Running the kernel configuration tool ............................................499
Building the Kernel and the Modules .......................................................513
Installing the Modules ................................................................................514
Creating the Initial RAM Disk File ..............................................................514
Installing the New Kernel and Setting Up GRUB .....................................515
Rebooting the System .................................................................................517

Book VII: Security ....................................................519
Chapter 1: Understanding Network and Host Security . . . . . . . . . . .521
Why Worry About Security? ......................................................................521
Establishing a Security Framework ..........................................................522
Determine business requirements for security .............................523
Perform risk analysis ........................................................................524
Establish security policy ..................................................................525
Implement security solutions (mitigation) ....................................526
Manage security ................................................................................526


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xix

Securing Linux .............................................................................................527
Understanding the host security issues .........................................527
Understanding network security issues .........................................528
Learning Computer Security Terminology ...............................................529
Keeping Up with Security News and Updates .........................................532

Chapter 2: Securing the Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535
Installing Operating System Updates .......................................................535
Securing Passwords ....................................................................................536
Shadow passwords ............................................................................536
Pluggable authentication modules (PAMs) ....................................537
Protecting Files and Directories ................................................................540
Viewing ownerships and permissions ............................................540
Changing file ownerships .................................................................541
Changing file permissions ................................................................541
Setting default permission ...............................................................542
Checking for set user ID permission ...............................................543
Using exec-shield .........................................................................................544
Using SELinux ..............................................................................................545
Encrypting and Signing Files with GnuPG ................................................547
Understanding public-key encryption ............................................547
Understanding digital signatures ....................................................548
Using GPG ...........................................................................................550
Monitoring System Security .......................................................................554

Chapter 3: Securing the Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .557
Securing Internet Services .........................................................................557
Using chkconfig to disable standalone services ...........................558
Configuring the xinetd server to disable services ........................558
Using Secure Shell (SSH) for Remote Logins ...........................................561
Setting Up Simple Firewalls ........................................................................563
Screening the router with packet filtering .....................................565
Dual-homed host ...............................................................................567
Perimeter network with bastion host .............................................568
Application gateway ..........................................................................570
Enabling Packet Filtering on Your Fedora Core System .........................571
Using the security level configuration tool ....................................572
Using the iptables command ...........................................................573

Chapter 4: Performing Security Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577
Understanding Security Audits .................................................................577
Nontechnical aspects of security audits ........................................578
Technical aspects of security audits ..............................................579


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Red Hat Fedora Linux 2 All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies

Learning a Security Test Methodology .....................................................579
Some common computer vulnerabilities .......................................580
Host security review .........................................................................582
Network-security review ...................................................................585
Exploring Security Testing Tools ..............................................................588
Nmap ...................................................................................................589
Nessus .................................................................................................590
SAINT ..................................................................................................593
SARA ....................................................................................................594

Book VIII: Internet Servers ........................................595
Chapter 1: Managing the Servers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .597
Understanding Internet Services ..............................................................597
TCP/IP and sockets ...........................................................................598
Internet services and port numbers ...............................................601
Using the xinetd Super Server ...................................................................603
Running Standalone Servers ......................................................................606
Starting and stopping servers manually ........................................606
Starting servers automatically at boot time ..................................607

Chapter 2: Running the Apache Web Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .615
Exploring HTTP ...........................................................................................615
Exploring the Apache Web Server ............................................................618
Installing the Apache Web server ...................................................619
Starting the Apache Web server ......................................................620
Configuring the Apache Web Server .........................................................621
Using Apache configuration tools ...................................................622
Apache configuration files ...............................................................623
The httpd.conf configuration file ....................................................624
Virtual host setup ..............................................................................634

Chapter 3: Setting Up the FTP Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .639
Installing the FTP Server ............................................................................639
Configuring the FTP Server ........................................................................640
vsftpd configuration files .................................................................640
/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf file ...............................................................641
/etc/vsftpd.ftpusers file ....................................................................643
/etc/vsftpd.user_list file ....................................................................644
Setting Up Secure Anonymous FTP ..........................................................644
Trying Anonymous FTP ..............................................................................645
Key features of anonymous FTP ......................................................645


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xxi

Chapter 4: Serving Up Mail and News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .647
Installing the Mail Server ...........................................................................647
Using sendmail ...................................................................................648
A mail-delivery test ...........................................................................649
The mail-delivery mechanism ..........................................................649
The sendmail configuration file .......................................................651
sendmail.cf file syntax ......................................................................659
Other sendmail files ..........................................................................661
The .forward file ................................................................................662
Invoking procmail in the .forward file .............................................663
The sendmail alias file ......................................................................664
Installing the News Server .........................................................................665
Configuring and Starting the INN Server ..................................................665
InterNetNews components ...............................................................666
The incoming.conf file ......................................................................670
The readers.conf file .........................................................................671
InterNetNews startup .......................................................................671
Setting Up Local Newsgroups ....................................................................672
Defining a newsgroup hierarchy ......................................................673
Updating configuration files .............................................................673
Adding the newsgroups ....................................................................674
Testing your newsgroups .................................................................674

Chapter 5: Setting Up DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .675
Understanding Domain Name System (DNS) ...........................................675
What is DNS? ......................................................................................676
Learning hierarchical domain names .............................................677
Exploring Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) .......................678
Configuring DNS ..........................................................................................682
Configuring the resolver ...................................................................682
Configuring a caching name server ................................................683
Configuring a primary name server ................................................692

Chapter 6: Running Samba and NFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .695
Sharing Files with NFS ................................................................................695
Exporting a file system with NFS .....................................................696
Mounting an NFS file system ............................................................698
Using the NFS Server Configuration tool ........................................699
Setting Up a Windows Server Using Samba .............................................700
Checking whether Samba is installed .............................................702
Configuring Samba ............................................................................703
Trying out Samba ..............................................................................705


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Book IX: Programming ..............................................707
Chapter 1: Fedora Core Programming Essentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .709
Learning Programming ...............................................................................709
A simplified view of a computer ......................................................710
Role of the operating system ...........................................................711
Basics of computer programming ...................................................712
Exploring the Software Development Tools in Fedora Core ..................713
GNU C and C++ compilers ................................................................714
The GNU make utility ........................................................................718
The GNU debugger ............................................................................725
Understanding the Implications of GNU Licenses ..................................732
The GNU General Public License .....................................................732
The GNU Library General Public License .......................................733

Chapter 2: Programming in C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .735
The Structure of a C Program ....................................................................735
Preprocessor Directives .............................................................................737
Including files .....................................................................................738
Defining macros .................................................................................738
Declaration and Definition of Variables ....................................................741
Basic data types ................................................................................741
Enumerations .....................................................................................742
Structures, Unions, and Bit Fields .............................................................743
Arrays ..................................................................................................743
Pointers ...............................................................................................744
Type definitions .................................................................................745
Type qualifiers: const and volatile ..................................................746
Expressions ..................................................................................................747
Operator Precedence ..................................................................................749
Statements ...................................................................................................751
The break statement .........................................................................751
The case statement ...........................................................................752
A compound statement or block .....................................................752
The continue statement ...................................................................752
The default label ................................................................................753
The do statement ..............................................................................753
Expression statements ......................................................................753
The for statement ..............................................................................753
The goto statement ...........................................................................754
The if statement .................................................................................754
The if-else statement .........................................................................754
The null statement ............................................................................755
The return statement ........................................................................755


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