Excel® for Chemists

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Excel®

for Chemists

A Comprehensive Guide

Third Edition

E. Joseph Billo

WILEY

A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

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Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Published simultaneously in Canada.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Billo, E. Joseph.

Excel for chemists : a comprehensive guide / E. Joseph Billo. — 3rd ed.

p. cm.

Includes index.

ISBN 978-0-470-38123-6 (pbk.)

1. Electronic spreadsheets. 2. Chemistry—Data processing. 3. Microsoft Excel (Computer file) I. Title.

QD39.3.S67B55 201I

542'.85—dc22

2011010945

Printed in the United States of America.

oBook: 978-1-118-09395-5

ePDF: 978-1-118-09393-1

ePub: 978-1-118-09394-8

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Summary of Contents

PART I

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

PART II

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

PART III

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

PART IV

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

PART V

Chapter 19

Chapter 20

Chapter 21

Chapter 22

Chapter 23

PART VI

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

Appendix I

Appendix J

Appendix K

Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

Before You Begin

THE BASICS

Working with Excel 2007 or Excel 2010

Working with Excel 2003

Excel Formulas and Functions

Excel 2007/2010 Charts

Excel 2003 Charts

ADVANCED SPREADSHEET TOPICS

Advanced Worksheet Formulas

Array Formulas

Advanced Charting Techniques

Using Excel's Database Features

Importing Data into Excel

Adding Controls to a Spreadsheet

Other Language Versions of Excel

SPREADSHEET MATHEMATICS

Mathematical Methods for Spreadsheet Calculations

Linear Regression and Curve Fitting

Nonlinear Regression Using the Solver

EXCEL'S VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATIONS

Visual Basic for Applications: An Introduction

Programming with VBA

Working with Arrays in VBA

SOME APPLICATIONS OF VBA

Command Macros

Custom Functions

Automatic Procedures

Custom Menus

Custom Toolbars and Toolbuttons

APPENDICES

What's Where in Excel 2007/2010

Selected Worksheet Functions by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Worksheet Functions

Renamed Functions in Excel 2010

Selected Visual Basic Keywords by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Visual Basic Keywords

Selected Excel 4 Macro Functions

Shortcut Keys by Keystroke

Selected Shortcut Keys by Category

ASCII Codes

Contents of the CD-ROM

INDEX

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Preface to the Third Edition

Before You Begin

PART I

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THE BASICS

Chapter 2 Working with Excel 2007 or Excel 2010

What's New in Excel 2007 and Excel 2010

The Ribbon

New File Formats

A Much Larger Worksheet

Larger Limits for Some Features

New Worksheet Functions

The Downside

What's New in Excel 2010

The Excel 2007/2010 Document Window

Hiding, Moving or Resizing a Document Window

Working with Excel 2007/2010

The Office Button (Excel 2007)

The File Tab (Excel 2010)

The Excel Options Window

The Ribbon: An Overview

Shortcut Menus

Keyboard Access to the Ribbon

The Home Tab

Navigating Around the Workbook

Inserting or Deleting Worksheets

Changing the Name of a Worksheet

Rearranging the Order of Sheets in a Workbook

Selecting Multiple Worksheets: [Group] Mode

Changing the Color of Sheet Tabs

Using Move or Copy Sheet or Delete Sheet

Navigating Around the Worksheet

Selecting a Range of Cells

Selecting Non-Adjacent Ranges

Extending a Selection

Selecting a Block of Cells

Entering Data in a Worksheet

Entering Numbers

How Excel Stores and Displays Numbers

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Entering Text

Entering Formulas

Editing Cell Entries

The Order in Which Excel Performs Operations in Formulas

Adding a Text Box

Entering an Equation in a Text Box

Entering a Cell Comment

Opening, Closing and Saving Documents

Opening or Creating Workbooks

The List of Recently Used Files

Using Close or Exit

Using Save or Save As

To Save a File for Use in Excel 2003

Editing a Worksheet

Inserting or Deleting Rows or Columns

Hiding Rows or Columns

Using Cut, Copy and Paste

Using Paste Special

Using Paste Special to Transpose Rows and Columns

Copying and Pasting a Picture of Cells

Using Clear

Copy, Cut or Paste Using Drag-and-Drop Editing

Duplicating Values or Formulas in a Range of Cells

Absolute, Relative and Mixed References

Relative References When Using Copy or Cut

Using AutoFill to Fill Down or Fill Right

Using AutoFill to Create a Series

The AutoFill Shortcut Menu

Formatting Worksheets

Using Column Width and Row Height

Formatting Cells

The Mini Toolbar

The Format Cells Dialog Box

Using Alignment

Using Font

The Alternate Character Set

Entering Subscripts and Superscripts

Using Border and Patterns

Using the Format Painter Toolbutton

Number Formatting

Using the Number Formatting Toolbuttons

Using Excel's Built-in Number Formats

Custom Number Formats

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Custom Date Formats

Time Formats

Variable Number Formats

Conditional Number Formats

Formatting Numbers Using "Precision as Displayed"

Conditional Formatting (Part I)

Printing Documents

Using Page Setup

Using Print

Printing a Selected Range of Cells in a Worksheet

Using Set Print Area

Printing Row or Column Headings for a Multi-Page Worksheet

Protecting Data in Worksheets

Protecting a Workbook

Protecting a Workbook by Making It a Read-Only Workbook

Hiding a Worksheet

Protecting a Worksheet by Locking or Hiding Cell Contents

Controlling the Way Documents Are Displayed

Using New Window and Arrange

Different Views of the Same Worksheet

Using Split Screens

Using Freeze Panes

Using Zoom

Easing the Transition from Excel 2003 to Excel 2007/2010

Customize the Quick Access Toolbar

Use Shortcut Keys

Display Classic Menus

Excel 2007/2010 Workbook and Worksheet Specifications

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Chapter 2 Working with Excel 2003

The Excel 2003 Document Window

Changing What Excel Displays

Moving or Resizing Documents

Navigating Around the Workbook

Changing the Name of a Worksheet

Changing the Color of Sheet Tabs

Rearranging the Order of Sheets in a Workbook

Selecting Multiple Worksheets: [Group] Mode

Navigating Around the Worksheet

Selecting a Range of Cells on the Worksheet

Selecting Non-Adjacent Ranges

Extending a Selection

Selecting a Block of Cells

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Entering Data in a Worksheet

Entering Numbers

How Excel Stores and Displays Numbers

Entering Text

Entering Formulas

Editing Cell Entries

Adding a Text Box

;

Entering a Cell Comment

Using the Equation Editor

Excel's Menus: An Overview

Shortcut Menus

Menu Commands or Toolbuttons?

Opening, Closing and Saving Documents

Opening or Creating Workbooks

Using Move or Copy Sheet... or Delete Sheet

Using Close or Exit

Types of Excel Document

Using Save or Save As

Using Save Workspace

Editing a Worksheet

Inserting or Deleting Rows or Columns

Using Cut, Copy and Paste

Copying and Pasting Multiple Items

Using Paste Special

Using Paste Special to Transpose Rows and Columns

Using Clear

Using the Insert Menu

Copy, Cut or Paste Using Drag-and-Drop Editing

Duplicating Values or Formulas in a Range of Cells

Absolute, Relative and Mixed References

Relative References When Using Copy and Cut

Using AutoFill to Fill Down or Fill Right

Creating a Series

Using AutoFill to Create a Series

The AutoFill Shortcut Menu

Formatting Worksheets

Using Column Width... and Row Height

Formatting Cells

Using Alignment

Using Font

The Alternate Character Set

Entering Subscripts and Superscripts

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Using Border and Patterns

Using the Format Painter Toolbutton

Number Formatting

Using Excel's Built-in Number Formats

Custom Number Formats

Date Formats

Time Formats

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Variable Number Formats

Conditional Number Formats

Using the Number Formatting Toolbuttons

Formatting Numbers Using "Precision as Displayed"

Using Conditional Formatting (Part I)

Printing Documents

Using Page Setup

Using Print Preview

Using Print

Printing a Selected Range of Cells in a Worksheet

Printing Row or Column Headings for a Multi-Page Worksheet

Protecting Data in Worksheets

Protecting a Workbook

Protecting a Workbook by Making it a Read-Only Workbook

Hiding a Worksheet

Protecting a Worksheet by Locking or Hiding Cell Contents

Controlling the Way Documents Are Displayed

Viewing Several Worksheets at the Same Time

Using New Window and Arrange

Different Views of the Same Worksheet

Using New Window

Using Split Screens

Using Freeze Panes

Opening Excel 2007/2010 Documents in Excel 2003

Excel 2003 Workbook and Worksheet Specifications

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Chapter 3 Excel Formulas and Functions

The Elements of a Worksheet Formula

Constants

Operators

References: Absolute, Relative and Mixed

R1C1 Reference Style

Creating and Using External References

Creating an External Reference by Selecting

Creating an External Reference by Using Paste Link

The External Reference Contains the Complete Directory Path

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Updating References and Re-Establishing Links

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Creating and Using 3-D References

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Worksheet Functions: An Overview

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Function Arguments

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Nested Functions

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New Functions Introduced in Excel 2007

Changes to Functions in Excel 2010

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Using Insert Function

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A Shortcut to a Function

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Using Formula AutoComplete (Excel 2007/2010 Only)

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Math and Trigonometric Functions

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Trigonometric Functions

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Functions for Working with Matrices

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Statistical Functions

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Logical Functions

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The IF Function

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Nested IF Functions

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AND, OR and NOT

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Using IFERROR (Excel 2007/2010 Only)

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Using COUNTIF

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Using SUMIF

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Using AVERAGEIF (Excel 2007/2010 Only)

Using COUNTIFS, SUMIFS and AVERAGEIFS (Excel 2007/2010 Only).. 157

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Using Conditional Formatting (Part II)

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Date and Time Functions

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How Excel Keeps Track of the Date and Time

Date and Time Arithmetic

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Creating Date Series

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Using Date and Time Functions

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Examples of Date and Time Formulas

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Text Functions

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The LEN, LEFT, RIGHT and MID Functions

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The UPPER, LOWER and PROPER Functions

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The FIND, SEARCH, REPLACE, SUBSTITUTE and EXACT Functions 166

The FIXED and TEXT Functions

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The VALUE Function

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The CODE and CHAR Functions

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Lookup and Reference Functions

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Information Functions

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Creating "Megaformulas"

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Megaformulas

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The Order in Which Excel Performs Operations in Formulas

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Formula and Function Specifications

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Chapter 4 Excel 2007/2010 Charts

Chart Types

Creating a Chart

Chart Tools in the Ribbon

Activating, Resizing and Moving an Embedded Chart

The SERIES Function

Chart Elements

Selecting Chart Elements

Formatting Chart Elements

Creating Column or Bar Charts

Creating Line Charts

Creating Pie Charts

Creating Radar Charts

Creating Surface Charts (3-D Charts)

Creating XY Charts

Switching Between Chart Types

Formatting the Elements of an XY Chart

Formatting Chart Elements by Using the Mini Toolbar

Formatting a Data Series

Formatting Chart Elements with Color

Modifying an Axis Scale

Changing the Number Format of an Axis Scale

Changing the Dimensions of a Chart

When the X-Values of a Category Chart Are Dates

Tutorial on Creating Scientific Charts

Excel 2007/2010 Chart Specifications

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Chapter 5 Excel 2003 Charts

Chart Types

Creating a Chart

Creating a Chart Using the ChartWizard

Chart Elements

The SERIES Function

Creating Column or Bar Charts

Creating Line Charts

Creating Pie Charts

Creating Radar Charts

Creating Surface Charts (3-D Charts)

Activating, Resizing and Moving an Embedded Chart

Formatting Charts: An Introduction

Using the Chart Menu

Using Chart Type... to Switch from One Chart Type to Another

Using Chart Options... to Add Titles, Gridlines or a Legend

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Using Location... to Move or Copy an Embedded Chart

Formatting the Elements of an XY Chart

Selecting Chart Elements

Formatting Chart Elements

When the X-Values of a Category Chart Are Dates

Excel 2003 Chart Specifications

PART II

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ADVANCED SPREADSHEET TOPICS

Chapter 6 Advanced Worksheet Formulas

Using Names Instead of References

Guidelines for Creating Names

Defining Names in Excel 2003

Using Define Name

Using Create Names

Using the Drop-Down Name List Box

Names Can Be Local or Global

Defining Names in Excel 2007/2010

Using Define Name

Using Create Names from Selection

Using the Name Manager

More about Using Names

A Reference Using Implicit Intersection

A Name Can Refer to a Constant or to a Formula

Entering a Name in a Formula by Selecting

Using Apply Names

Using Paste Name

Deleting Names

Changing a Name

Using Paste List or Paste Names

The Label... Command (Excel 2003 Only)

Worksheet Functions for the "Power User"

Information Functions

The CELL Function

The N Function

Lookup Functions

The CHOOSE Function

The VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP Functions

The INDEX and MATCH Functions

Getting Values from a One-Way Table

Getting Values from a Two-Way Table

Creating a Custom Lookup Formula to Obtain Values from a Table

Wildcard Characters with VLOOKUP, MATCH and Other Functions

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The LOOKUP Function

Reference Functions

The OFFSET Function

The INDIRECT Function

The ADDRESS Function

Solving a Problem by Using Intentional Circular References

Using Excel 4 Macro Functions in Worksheet Formulas

Troubleshooting the Worksheet

Error Values and Their Meanings

Examining Formulas

Finding Dependent and Precedent Cells

Repairing or Removing Links in Documents

Re-establishing Links

Finding All Links in a Workbook

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Chapter 7 Array Formulas

Introduction to Array Formulas

Array Constants

Formulas and Functions that Return an Array Result

Editing or Deleting Arrays

Creating a "Three-Dimensional" Array on a Single Worksheet

An Array Formula Example: Creating a Specialized SUMIF Formula

Evaluating Polynomials or Power Series Using Array Formulas

Using the ROW Function in Array Formulas

Using the INDIRECT Function in Array Formulas

Using Array Formulas to Work with Lists

Using Multiple Criteria to Count Entries in a List

Counting Common Entries in Two Lists

Counting Duplicate Entries in a List

Counting Unique Entries in a List

Indicating Duplicate Entries in a List

Returning an Array of Unique Entries in a List

Sorting by Using an Array Formula

Sorting a 1-D List of Numbers

Sorting a 2-D List Using a Column of Numbers as the Sortkey

"Auto-Alphabetizing" Using an Array Formula

Another Example: Validating a CAS Registry Number

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Chapter 8 Advanced Charting Techniques

Charts with More than One Data Series

Plotting Two or More Different Sets of Y Values in the Same Chart

Plotting Two Different Sets of X and Y Values in the Same Chart

Alternate Data Layout for Two Different Sets of X and Y Values

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Extending a Data Series or Adding a New Series

The Copy and Paste Method

The Drag-and-Drop Method

The Color-Coded Ranges Method

Using Source Data

Editing the SERIES Function in the Formula Bar

Customizing Charts

Good Charts vs. Bad Charts

Plotting Experimental Data Points and a Calculated Curve

Charts with Secondary Axes

An XY Chart with a Secondary Y Axis

A Chart with Secondary X Axis and Y Axis

A Column Chart with a Secondary Y Axis

Some Additional Customization Techniques

Adding Error Bars to an XY Chart

Using Sub- or Superscripts in Chart Legends

Modifying Tick Mark Labels on Axis Scales

Adding Data Labels to an XY Chart

Logarithmic Charts

Linking Chart Text Elements to a Worksheet

To Switch Plotting Order in an XY Chart

Getting Creative with Charts

A Chart with an Additional Axis

A Chart that Updates Automatically

Changing the Default Chart Format

Saving a Chart Template in Excel 2007/2010

Changing the Default Chart Format in Excel 2003

Copying and Pasting Chart Formatting

Excel Chart Specifications

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Chapter 9 Using Excel's Database Features

The Structure of a List or Database

Creating a Database

Defining a Database

Adding or Deleting Records or Fields

Updating a Database Using Data Form

Sorting a List

Sorting a List Using Excel 2003

Sorting According to More Than One Field

Sorting a List Using Excel 2007/2010

Sort Options

Using AutoFilter to Obtain a Subset of a List

Using Multiple Data Filters

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Using Advanced Filter to Obtain a Subset of a List

Defining and Using Selection Criteria

Using Multiple Criteria

Special Criteria for Text Entries

Extracting Records

Using Database Functions

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Chapter 10 Importing Data into Excel

Direct Input of Instrument Data into Excel

Importing Data Files Using the Text Import Wizard

Importing a Delimited File

Importing a Fixed-Width File

Using Convert Text to Columns

Parsing a Delimited File

Parsing a Fixed-Width File

From Hard Copy (Paper) to Excel

Using a Scanner to Transfer Numeric Data to Excel

Using a Scanner to Transfer Graphical Data to Excel

Selecting Every Mh Data Point

Using AutoFill

Using the Sampling Tool

Using a Worksheet Formula

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Chapter 11 Adding Controls to a Spreadsheet

Option Buttons, Check Boxes, List Boxes and Other Controls

How to Add a Control to a Worksheet

Control Properties

A List Box on a Worksheet

A Drop-down List Box on a Worksheet

Option Buttons with a Drop-down List Box

Using a Check Box to Enable or Disable Conditional Formatting

How to Add a Hyperlink to a Worksheet

Inserting a Hyperlink

Using Paste as Hyperlink

Using the HYPERLINK Worksheet Function

Using Data Validation

Specifying Input Values

Specifying an Input Message or Error Alert

Using the Custom Category

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Chapter 12 Other Language Versions of Excel

Differences in the Display of Numbers

Decimal and Thousands Separators

Argument Separators in Functions

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Excel for Chemists

Array Separators

Differences in the Display of Dates

Date Formats

Date Formatting Symbols

Creating Custom Date Formats for Other Language Versions

Importing Data

Importing Values that Are Numbers

Importing Values that Are Dates Using the Text Import Wizard

Worksheet Function Names in Other Languages

The FunctionName Translator

PART III

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SPREADSHEET MATHEMATICS

Chapter 13 Mathematical Methods for Spreadsheet Calculations

Interpolation

Table Lookup with Linear Interpolation

Cubic Interpolation

Arrays, Matrices and Determinants

An Introduction to Matrix Mathematics

Numerical Differentiation

First and Second Derivatives of a Data Set

Derivatives of a Function

Numerical Integration

Finding the Area Under a Curve

Finding Roots of Equations

The Graphical Method

The Method of Successive Approximations

The Secant Method

Using Goal Seek

Solving Sets of Simultaneous Linear Equations

Cramer's Rule

Solution Using Matrix Inversion

Analysis of Spectra of Mixtures Using Matrix Mathematics

Applying Cramer's Rule to a Spectrophotometric Problem

Analysis of Spectra of Mixtures Using Matrix Inversion

Polar to Cartesian Coordinates

Significant Figures

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Chapter 14 Linear Regression and Curve Fitting

Linear Regression

Least-Squares Fit to a Straight Line

Using the SLOPE, INTERCEPT and RSQ Functions

Multiple Linear Regression

Using LINEST to Perform Multiple Linear Regression

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Least-Squares Fit to a Straight Line Using the LINEST Function

Regression Line Without an Intercept

The Regression Parameters

Multiple Linear Regression: An Example

Fitting Data Using a Power Series

A LINEST Shortcut for Power Series

Handling Noncontiguous Ranges of known_x's in LINEST

How LINEST Handles Collinearity

Weighted Least Squares

Multiple Linear Regression Using Trendline

Multiple Linear Regression Using the Analysis ToolPak

Using the Regression Tool

Using the Regression Statistics

Testing Whether an Intercept Is Significantly Different from Zero

Testing Whether Two Slopes Are Significantly Different

Testing Whether a Regression Coefficient Is Significant

Testing Whether Regression Coefficients Are Correlated

Confidence Intervals for Slope and Intercept

Confidence Limits and Prediction Limits for a Straight Line

Chapter 15 Nonlinear Regression Using the Solver

Nonlinear Regression

Using the Solver to Perform Nonlinear Least-Squares Curve Fitting

Using the Solver for Optimization

Changes to the Solver in Excel 2010

Using the Solver for Least-Squares Curve Fitting

Using the Solver: An Example

Comparison with a Commercial Nonlinear Least-Squares Package

Solver Options (Excel 2007 or 2003)

Solver Options (Excel 2010)

The "Use Automatic Scaling" Option Is Important for Many Chemical

Problems

Some Additional Solver Examples

Deconvolution of Spectra

Determination of Binding Constants by NMR Measurements

Other Examples: NIST Datasets

Statistics of Nonlinear Regression

A Macro to Provide Regression Statistics for the Solver

Using the Solver Statistics Macro

An Additional Benefit from Using the Solver Statistics Macro

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PART IV

Excel for Chemists

EXCEL'S VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATIONS

Chapter 16 Visual Basic for Applications: An Introduction

The Visual Basic Editor

Visual Basic Procedures and Modules

There are Two Kinds of Procedure:

Sub Procedures and Function Procedures

The Structure of a Sub Procedure

The Structure of a Function Procedure

Using the Recorder to Create a Simple Sub Procedure

Recording a Simple Macro Using Excel 2007/2010

Recording a Simple Macro Using Excel 2003

The Personal Macro Workbook

Running a Sub Procedure

Assigning a Shortcut Key to a Sub Procedure

Creating a Simple Custom Function

Using a Function Macro

How Do I Save a Macro?

494

495

495

496

496

498

499

500

501

501

501

502

Chapter 17 Programming with VBA

Creating Visual Basic Code

Entering VBA Code

Components of Visual Basic Statements

Operators

Variables and Arguments

Objects, Properties and Methods

Objects

Some Useful Objects

"Objects" that Are Really Properties

You Can Define Your Own Objects

Making a Reference to a Cell or Range of Cells

Making a Reference to a Selected Cell or Range

Making a Reference to a Cell Other than the Active Cell

References Using the Union or Intersect Method

Getting Values from a Worksheet

Sending Values to a Worksheet

Properties

Properties of the Range Object

Some Useful Properties

Methods

Some Useful Methods

Two Ways to Specify Arguments of Methods

Arguments with or without Parentheses

503

503

504

504

504

505

505

506

506

507

507

507

508

510

510

510

510

511

511

512

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VBA Functions

Using Worksheet Functions with VBA

VBA Commands

VBA Data Types

The Variant Data Type

Declaring Variables or Arguments in Advance

Specifying the Data Type of an Argument

Specifying the Data Type Returned by a Function Procedure

String Data Types

The Boolean (Logical) Data Type

Type Declaration Characters

Program Control

Decision-Making (Branching)

Logical Operators

Looping

For...Next Loops

For Each...Next Loops

Do While...Loop

Exiting from a Loop or from a Procedure

Subroutines

Scoping a Subroutine

Interactive Macros

513

514

515

515

516

516

516

516

517

517

518

518

518

520

521

521

521

522

522

522

523

524

MsgBox

524

MsgBox Return Values

525

InputBox

526

Using a Dialog Box to Open a Workbook

Using the GetOpenFilename Method

Using Excel's Built-in Dialog Boxes

Other Ways to Display Built-in Dialog Boxes

Using Excel 4 Macro Commands

Testing and Debugging

Tracing Execution

Stepping Through Code

Adding a Breakpoint

Examining the Values of Variables Using the Mouse Pointer

Examining the Values of Variables Using the Watch Pane

Using Conditional Watch

Using VBA On-Line Help

Using VBA Help (Excel 2007/2010)

Using VBA Help (Excel 2003)

Using the Object Browser

Some Ways to Improve Performance (i.e., Speed)

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528

529

530

531

532

533

534

534

535

536

537

538

538

539

539

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XXH

Chapter 18 Working with Arrays in VBA

Visual Basic Arrays

Dimensioning an Array

Use the Name of the Array Variable to Specify the Whole Array

Dynamic Arrays

Preserving Values in Dynamic Arrays

Using Arrays in Sub Procedures:

Passing Values from Worksheet to VBA Module

Using a Loop to Transfer Values from a Worksheet to a VBA Array

A Range Specified in a Sub Procedure Becomes an Array Variable

Some Worksheet Functions Used Within VBA Create an Array

Using Arrays in Sub Procedures:

Passing Values from VBA Module to Worksheet

Using a Loop to Transfer Values from a VBA Array to a Worksheet

Equating a VBA Variable to a Worksheet Range

A One-Dimensional Array Assigned to a Worksheet Range

Can Cause Problems

Using Arrays In Function Procedures

From Worksheet to Module

A Range Passed to a Function Procedure

Automatically Becomes an Array

Passing an Indefinite Number of Arguments

Using the ParamArray Keyword

Using Arrays in Function Procedures:

Returning an Array of Values as a Result

PART V

543

543

544

544

545

545

545

546

547

547

547

548

548

550

550

551

552

SOME APPLICATIONS OF VBA

Chapter 19 Command Macros

Creating Advanced Macros in VBA

A Sub Procedure to Format Text as a Chemical Formula

Adding Enhancements to the Chemical Format Macro

Adding More Enhancements

A Sub Procedure to Apply "Precision as Displayed"

to a Selected Range of Cells

A Sub Procedure to Apply Data Labels in a Chart

Quick Chart: Create Excel 2007/2010 Charts with One Click

Chapter 20 Custom Functions

Some Additional Tools for Creating Custom Functions

Arrays as Arguments or as Return Values

Returning an Array Result in Either a Row or a Column

Returning an Error Value

A Custom Function that Takes an Optional Argument

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560

562

563

568

571

571

571

572

573

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A Custom Function that Takes an Indefinite Number of Arguments

573

Providing a Description for a Function

in the Paste Function Dialog Box

576

Providing Descriptions for Function Arguments

in the Paste Function Dialog Box (Excel 2010 Only)

576

Assigning a Custom Function to a Function Category

577

A Custom Function to Calculate Acid-Base Species Distribution Diagrams ...578

A Custom Statistical Function

580

A Custom Function to Calculate Molecular Weights

583

Creating Add-In Function Macros

585

How to Create an Add-In Macro

585

How to Load/Unload an Add-In Macro

586

How to Delete an Add-In Macro

586

How to Protect an Add-In Workbook

587

How to Edit an Add-In Workbook

or Convert a .xla File to a .xls File

587

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Function Macros

587

Chapter 21 Automatic Procedures

OnEvent Procedures

AutoOpen or AutoClose Procedures

OnEvent Procedures

Some Examples of OnEvent Code

Using OnUndo

Event-Handler Procedures

Creating a Workbook_Open Procedure

589

589

590

591

592

592

594

Chapter 22 Custom Menus

Modifying Menu Bars, Menus or Menu Commands in Excel 2003

Adding or Removing a Menu Command

Creating a New Menu Bar

Adding a Custom Menu to a Menu Bar

Adding a Custom Menu Command to a Menu

Modifying Menus or Menu Bars by Using VBA

The Basic Structure of a Procedure to Install a New Menu Command

Adding a Menu Command by Means of an Event-Handler Procedure

Exiting Gracefully: Removing a Menu Command

Modifying a Built-in Menu Command

Installing Menu Bars, Menus or Menu Commands in Excel 2007/2010

Displaying Classic Menus in Excel 2007/2010

595

595

596

597

598

598

599

601

602

602

603

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XX1V

Chapter 23 Custom Toolbars and Toolbuttons

Customizing Toolbars in Excel 2003

Moving and Changing the Shape of Toolbars

Activating Other Toolbars

Adding or Removing Toolbuttons from Toolbars

Creating a New Toolbar

Creating Custom Toolbuttons

The ToggleNumberFormat Macro

The FullPage Macro

Creating a Custom Toolbutton Image

How to Add a ToolTip to a Custom Button

Customizing in Excel 2007

Moving the Quick Access Toolbar

Adding a Built-in Command Button to the Quick Access Toolbar

Adding a Custom Toolbutton to the Quick Access Toolbar

Adding Custom Toolbuttons to the Ribbon

How to Use the Excel 2003 Button Editor in Excel 2007/2010

Removing Custom Toolbuttons from the Ribbon

Customizing the Ribbon (Excel 2010 Only)

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607

608

609

610

611

613

614

615

617

618

618

618

620

621

622

622

623

PART VI

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

Appendix I

Appendix J

Appendix K

629

63 3

639

661

663

667

689

693

703

707

709

APPENDICES

What's Where in Excel 2007/2010

Selected Worksheet Functions by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Worksheet Functions

Renamed Functions in Excel 2010

Selected Visual Basic Keywords by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Visual Basic Keywords

Selected Excel 4 Macro Functions

Shortcut Keys by Keystroke

Selected Shortcut Keys by Category

ASCII Codes

Contents of the CD-ROM

INDEX

719

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Preface to the Third Edition

Since the publication of the second edition of Excel for Chemists in 2001,

three new versions of Excel for the PC have appeared: Excel 2003, Excel 2007

and Excel 2010. With Excel 2007, Microsoft introduced a radically new user

interface: the Ribbon, which replaced the familiar menus of earlier versions.

The change was so extreme that many users have opted to stay with the "triedand-true" version, Excel 2003, as long as possible. For this reason, this edition

covers Excel 2003 as well as the newer Excel 2007/2010.

There are several new chapters in this edition. Two chapters discuss the

features of the new Excel 2007/2010 (plus a new appendix, "What's Where in

Excel 2007/2010"), a chapter covers automatic procedures—macros that run

automatically—in more detail than was covered in the previous edition, and

there is a completely new chapter that discusses how to handle documents

created in other language versions of Excel.

Much of the material in this book has been incorporated in courses entitled

"Excel for Scientists and Engineers" and "Excel Visual Basic Macros for

Scientists and Engineers" which have been presented to over 2500 scientists in

the United States, Canada and Europe—not only chemists, but also scientists in

many other disciplines. Many changes in this edition were made in light of the

experience gained in teaching these courses.

Acknowledgments

Dr. Faith A Morrison, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan

Technological University, for her "Guidelines on Graphing" used in Chapter 4.

Dr. Lev Zompa, University of Massachusetts-Boston, for spectrophotometric data used in Chapter 19.

Dr. Steve Bell, for NMR data used in Chapter 20.

E. Joseph Billo

May 2011

XXV

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Preface to the Third Edition

Since the publication of the second edition of Excel for Chemists in 2001,

three new versions of Excel for the PC have appeared: Excel 2003, Excel 2007

and Excel 2010. With Excel 2007, Microsoft introduced a radically new user

interface: the Ribbon, which replaced the familiar menus of earlier versions.

The change was so extreme that many users have opted to stay with the "triedand-true" version, Excel 2003, as long as possible. For this reason, this edition

covers Excel 2003 as well as the newer Excel 2007/2010.

There are several new chapters in this edition. Two chapters discuss the

features of the new Excel 2007/2010 (plus a new appendix, "What's Where in

Excel 2007/2010"), a chapter covers automatic procedures—macros that run

automatically—in more detail than was covered in the previous edition, and

there is a completely new chapter that discusses how to handle documents

created in other language versions of Excel.

Much of the material in this book has been incorporated in courses entitled

"Excel for Scientists and Engineers" and "Excel Visual Basic Macros for

Scientists and Engineers" which have been presented to over 2500 scientists in

the United States, Canada and Europe—not only chemists, but also scientists in

many other disciplines. Many changes in this edition were made in light of the

experience gained in teaching these courses.

Acknowledgments

Dr. Faith A Morrison, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan

Technological University, for her "Guidelines on Graphing" used in Chapter 4.

Dr. Lev Zompa, University of Massachusetts-Boston, for spectrophotometric data used in Chapter 19.

Dr. Steve Bell, for NMR data used in Chapter 20.

E. Joseph Billo

May 2011

XXV

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Before You Begin

Which Version of Excel Are You Using?

This book is for users of Excel 2003 for Windows or Excel 2007/2010 for

Windows.

The second edition of this book covered both Excel for the PC and Excel for

the Macintosh, but since Excel 2008, the Macintosh version corresponding to

Excel 2007, doesn't support Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), I decided not

to include Mac-specific instructions in this third edition.

Typographic Conventions

As you read through this book, you'll see several different fonts and

capitalization styles within the text. Here are the conventions that I've used.

• Excel 2003 menu headings and menu commands are in boldface type, e.g.:

File, Format, Delete....

• Excel 2007/2010 Ribbon tab names, icon names and menu command names

are in non-bold, e.g.,

"the Insert icon in the Cells group in the Home tab", "click on Paste

Special..."

• For clarity, the titles of some dialog boxes and options are enclosed in

quotes, e.g.:

"When Creating New Workbooks"

• Cell references are in Arial font, e.g.:

"In cell A9 ..."

• Worksheet functions are in Arial font, e.g.:

SUM, LINEST

• Excel's built-in argument names (i.e., placeholder arguments) in functions

are in Arial italic; required arguments are in bold italic, e.g.:

LINEST(frnown_y's, known_x's, const, stats)

xxvu

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Excel®

for Chemists

A Comprehensive Guide

Third Edition

E. Joseph Billo

WILEY

A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

www.it-ebooks.info

Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Published simultaneously in Canada.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any

means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under

Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the

Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center,

Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at

www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions

Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 7486008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permission.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in

preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of

the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a

particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials.

The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a

professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other

commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer

Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax

(317)572-4002.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be

available in electronic formats. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at

www.wiley.com.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Billo, E. Joseph.

Excel for chemists : a comprehensive guide / E. Joseph Billo. — 3rd ed.

p. cm.

Includes index.

ISBN 978-0-470-38123-6 (pbk.)

1. Electronic spreadsheets. 2. Chemistry—Data processing. 3. Microsoft Excel (Computer file) I. Title.

QD39.3.S67B55 201I

542'.85—dc22

2011010945

Printed in the United States of America.

oBook: 978-1-118-09395-5

ePDF: 978-1-118-09393-1

ePub: 978-1-118-09394-8

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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Summary of Contents

PART I

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

PART II

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

PART III

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

PART IV

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

PART V

Chapter 19

Chapter 20

Chapter 21

Chapter 22

Chapter 23

PART VI

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

Appendix I

Appendix J

Appendix K

Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

Before You Begin

THE BASICS

Working with Excel 2007 or Excel 2010

Working with Excel 2003

Excel Formulas and Functions

Excel 2007/2010 Charts

Excel 2003 Charts

ADVANCED SPREADSHEET TOPICS

Advanced Worksheet Formulas

Array Formulas

Advanced Charting Techniques

Using Excel's Database Features

Importing Data into Excel

Adding Controls to a Spreadsheet

Other Language Versions of Excel

SPREADSHEET MATHEMATICS

Mathematical Methods for Spreadsheet Calculations

Linear Regression and Curve Fitting

Nonlinear Regression Using the Solver

EXCEL'S VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATIONS

Visual Basic for Applications: An Introduction

Programming with VBA

Working with Arrays in VBA

SOME APPLICATIONS OF VBA

Command Macros

Custom Functions

Automatic Procedures

Custom Menus

Custom Toolbars and Toolbuttons

APPENDICES

What's Where in Excel 2007/2010

Selected Worksheet Functions by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Worksheet Functions

Renamed Functions in Excel 2010

Selected Visual Basic Keywords by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Visual Basic Keywords

Selected Excel 4 Macro Functions

Shortcut Keys by Keystroke

Selected Shortcut Keys by Category

ASCII Codes

Contents of the CD-ROM

INDEX

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233

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289

327

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385

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435

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503

543

557

571

589

595

607

629

633

639

661

663

667

689

693

703

707

709

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Contents

Preface to the Third Edition

Before You Begin

PART I

xxv

xxvii

THE BASICS

Chapter 2 Working with Excel 2007 or Excel 2010

What's New in Excel 2007 and Excel 2010

The Ribbon

New File Formats

A Much Larger Worksheet

Larger Limits for Some Features

New Worksheet Functions

The Downside

What's New in Excel 2010

The Excel 2007/2010 Document Window

Hiding, Moving or Resizing a Document Window

Working with Excel 2007/2010

The Office Button (Excel 2007)

The File Tab (Excel 2010)

The Excel Options Window

The Ribbon: An Overview

Shortcut Menus

Keyboard Access to the Ribbon

The Home Tab

Navigating Around the Workbook

Inserting or Deleting Worksheets

Changing the Name of a Worksheet

Rearranging the Order of Sheets in a Workbook

Selecting Multiple Worksheets: [Group] Mode

Changing the Color of Sheet Tabs

Using Move or Copy Sheet or Delete Sheet

Navigating Around the Worksheet

Selecting a Range of Cells

Selecting Non-Adjacent Ranges

Extending a Selection

Selecting a Block of Cells

Entering Data in a Worksheet

Entering Numbers

How Excel Stores and Displays Numbers

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3

4

4

5

5

5

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7

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8

9

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21

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Excel for Chemists

Entering Text

Entering Formulas

Editing Cell Entries

The Order in Which Excel Performs Operations in Formulas

Adding a Text Box

Entering an Equation in a Text Box

Entering a Cell Comment

Opening, Closing and Saving Documents

Opening or Creating Workbooks

The List of Recently Used Files

Using Close or Exit

Using Save or Save As

To Save a File for Use in Excel 2003

Editing a Worksheet

Inserting or Deleting Rows or Columns

Hiding Rows or Columns

Using Cut, Copy and Paste

Using Paste Special

Using Paste Special to Transpose Rows and Columns

Copying and Pasting a Picture of Cells

Using Clear

Copy, Cut or Paste Using Drag-and-Drop Editing

Duplicating Values or Formulas in a Range of Cells

Absolute, Relative and Mixed References

Relative References When Using Copy or Cut

Using AutoFill to Fill Down or Fill Right

Using AutoFill to Create a Series

The AutoFill Shortcut Menu

Formatting Worksheets

Using Column Width and Row Height

Formatting Cells

The Mini Toolbar

The Format Cells Dialog Box

Using Alignment

Using Font

The Alternate Character Set

Entering Subscripts and Superscripts

Using Border and Patterns

Using the Format Painter Toolbutton

Number Formatting

Using the Number Formatting Toolbuttons

Using Excel's Built-in Number Formats

Custom Number Formats

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22

23

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ix

Contents

Custom Date Formats

Time Formats

Variable Number Formats

Conditional Number Formats

Formatting Numbers Using "Precision as Displayed"

Conditional Formatting (Part I)

Printing Documents

Using Page Setup

Using Print

Printing a Selected Range of Cells in a Worksheet

Using Set Print Area

Printing Row or Column Headings for a Multi-Page Worksheet

Protecting Data in Worksheets

Protecting a Workbook

Protecting a Workbook by Making It a Read-Only Workbook

Hiding a Worksheet

Protecting a Worksheet by Locking or Hiding Cell Contents

Controlling the Way Documents Are Displayed

Using New Window and Arrange

Different Views of the Same Worksheet

Using Split Screens

Using Freeze Panes

Using Zoom

Easing the Transition from Excel 2003 to Excel 2007/2010

Customize the Quick Access Toolbar

Use Shortcut Keys

Display Classic Menus

Excel 2007/2010 Workbook and Worksheet Specifications

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Chapter 2 Working with Excel 2003

The Excel 2003 Document Window

Changing What Excel Displays

Moving or Resizing Documents

Navigating Around the Workbook

Changing the Name of a Worksheet

Changing the Color of Sheet Tabs

Rearranging the Order of Sheets in a Workbook

Selecting Multiple Worksheets: [Group] Mode

Navigating Around the Worksheet

Selecting a Range of Cells on the Worksheet

Selecting Non-Adjacent Ranges

Extending a Selection

Selecting a Block of Cells

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Excel for Chemists

Entering Data in a Worksheet

Entering Numbers

How Excel Stores and Displays Numbers

Entering Text

Entering Formulas

Editing Cell Entries

Adding a Text Box

;

Entering a Cell Comment

Using the Equation Editor

Excel's Menus: An Overview

Shortcut Menus

Menu Commands or Toolbuttons?

Opening, Closing and Saving Documents

Opening or Creating Workbooks

Using Move or Copy Sheet... or Delete Sheet

Using Close or Exit

Types of Excel Document

Using Save or Save As

Using Save Workspace

Editing a Worksheet

Inserting or Deleting Rows or Columns

Using Cut, Copy and Paste

Copying and Pasting Multiple Items

Using Paste Special

Using Paste Special to Transpose Rows and Columns

Using Clear

Using the Insert Menu

Copy, Cut or Paste Using Drag-and-Drop Editing

Duplicating Values or Formulas in a Range of Cells

Absolute, Relative and Mixed References

Relative References When Using Copy and Cut

Using AutoFill to Fill Down or Fill Right

Creating a Series

Using AutoFill to Create a Series

The AutoFill Shortcut Menu

Formatting Worksheets

Using Column Width... and Row Height

Formatting Cells

Using Alignment

Using Font

The Alternate Character Set

Entering Subscripts and Superscripts

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Contents

xi

Using Border and Patterns

Using the Format Painter Toolbutton

Number Formatting

Using Excel's Built-in Number Formats

Custom Number Formats

Date Formats

Time Formats

:

Variable Number Formats

Conditional Number Formats

Using the Number Formatting Toolbuttons

Formatting Numbers Using "Precision as Displayed"

Using Conditional Formatting (Part I)

Printing Documents

Using Page Setup

Using Print Preview

Using Print

Printing a Selected Range of Cells in a Worksheet

Printing Row or Column Headings for a Multi-Page Worksheet

Protecting Data in Worksheets

Protecting a Workbook

Protecting a Workbook by Making it a Read-Only Workbook

Hiding a Worksheet

Protecting a Worksheet by Locking or Hiding Cell Contents

Controlling the Way Documents Are Displayed

Viewing Several Worksheets at the Same Time

Using New Window and Arrange

Different Views of the Same Worksheet

Using New Window

Using Split Screens

Using Freeze Panes

Opening Excel 2007/2010 Documents in Excel 2003

Excel 2003 Workbook and Worksheet Specifications

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Chapter 3 Excel Formulas and Functions

The Elements of a Worksheet Formula

Constants

Operators

References: Absolute, Relative and Mixed

R1C1 Reference Style

Creating and Using External References

Creating an External Reference by Selecting

Creating an External Reference by Using Paste Link

The External Reference Contains the Complete Directory Path

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Updating References and Re-Establishing Links

141

Creating and Using 3-D References

142

Worksheet Functions: An Overview

143

143

Function Arguments

144

Nested Functions

144

New Functions Introduced in Excel 2007

Changes to Functions in Excel 2010

144

Using Insert Function

145

A Shortcut to a Function

147

Using Formula AutoComplete (Excel 2007/2010 Only)

147

Math and Trigonometric Functions

149

Trigonometric Functions

150

Functions for Working with Matrices

151

Statistical Functions

151

Logical Functions

152

The IF Function

153

Nested IF Functions

155

AND, OR and NOT

155

Using IFERROR (Excel 2007/2010 Only)

155

Using COUNTIF

156

Using SUMIF

156

157

Using AVERAGEIF (Excel 2007/2010 Only)

Using COUNTIFS, SUMIFS and AVERAGEIFS (Excel 2007/2010 Only).. 157

159

Using Conditional Formatting (Part II)

161

Date and Time Functions

161

How Excel Keeps Track of the Date and Time

Date and Time Arithmetic

162

Creating Date Series

162

Using Date and Time Functions

163

Examples of Date and Time Formulas

164

Text Functions

165

The LEN, LEFT, RIGHT and MID Functions

166

The UPPER, LOWER and PROPER Functions

166

The FIND, SEARCH, REPLACE, SUBSTITUTE and EXACT Functions 166

The FIXED and TEXT Functions

169

The VALUE Function

169

The CODE and CHAR Functions

169

Lookup and Reference Functions

170

Information Functions

171

Creating "Megaformulas"

172

Advantages and Disadvantages of Megaformulas

173

The Order in Which Excel Performs Operations in Formulas

174

Formula and Function Specifications

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Chapter 4 Excel 2007/2010 Charts

Chart Types

Creating a Chart

Chart Tools in the Ribbon

Activating, Resizing and Moving an Embedded Chart

The SERIES Function

Chart Elements

Selecting Chart Elements

Formatting Chart Elements

Creating Column or Bar Charts

Creating Line Charts

Creating Pie Charts

Creating Radar Charts

Creating Surface Charts (3-D Charts)

Creating XY Charts

Switching Between Chart Types

Formatting the Elements of an XY Chart

Formatting Chart Elements by Using the Mini Toolbar

Formatting a Data Series

Formatting Chart Elements with Color

Modifying an Axis Scale

Changing the Number Format of an Axis Scale

Changing the Dimensions of a Chart

When the X-Values of a Category Chart Are Dates

Tutorial on Creating Scientific Charts

Excel 2007/2010 Chart Specifications

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197

198

199

200

201

202

203

206

207

Chapter 5 Excel 2003 Charts

Chart Types

Creating a Chart

Creating a Chart Using the ChartWizard

Chart Elements

The SERIES Function

Creating Column or Bar Charts

Creating Line Charts

Creating Pie Charts

Creating Radar Charts

Creating Surface Charts (3-D Charts)

Activating, Resizing and Moving an Embedded Chart

Formatting Charts: An Introduction

Using the Chart Menu

Using Chart Type... to Switch from One Chart Type to Another

Using Chart Options... to Add Titles, Gridlines or a Legend

209

209

209

213

213

214

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XIV

Using Location... to Move or Copy an Embedded Chart

Formatting the Elements of an XY Chart

Selecting Chart Elements

Formatting Chart Elements

When the X-Values of a Category Chart Are Dates

Excel 2003 Chart Specifications

PART II

222

223

223

223

227

230

ADVANCED SPREADSHEET TOPICS

Chapter 6 Advanced Worksheet Formulas

Using Names Instead of References

Guidelines for Creating Names

Defining Names in Excel 2003

Using Define Name

Using Create Names

Using the Drop-Down Name List Box

Names Can Be Local or Global

Defining Names in Excel 2007/2010

Using Define Name

Using Create Names from Selection

Using the Name Manager

More about Using Names

A Reference Using Implicit Intersection

A Name Can Refer to a Constant or to a Formula

Entering a Name in a Formula by Selecting

Using Apply Names

Using Paste Name

Deleting Names

Changing a Name

Using Paste List or Paste Names

The Label... Command (Excel 2003 Only)

Worksheet Functions for the "Power User"

Information Functions

The CELL Function

The N Function

Lookup Functions

The CHOOSE Function

The VLOOKUP and HLOOKUP Functions

The INDEX and MATCH Functions

Getting Values from a One-Way Table

Getting Values from a Two-Way Table

Creating a Custom Lookup Formula to Obtain Values from a Table

Wildcard Characters with VLOOKUP, MATCH and Other Functions

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234

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235

237

238

240

240

241

241

242

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249

249

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251

251

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The LOOKUP Function

Reference Functions

The OFFSET Function

The INDIRECT Function

The ADDRESS Function

Solving a Problem by Using Intentional Circular References

Using Excel 4 Macro Functions in Worksheet Formulas

Troubleshooting the Worksheet

Error Values and Their Meanings

Examining Formulas

Finding Dependent and Precedent Cells

Repairing or Removing Links in Documents

Re-establishing Links

Finding All Links in a Workbook

254

255

255

256

256

257

259

261

261

262

263

263

264

266

Chapter 7 Array Formulas

Introduction to Array Formulas

Array Constants

Formulas and Functions that Return an Array Result

Editing or Deleting Arrays

Creating a "Three-Dimensional" Array on a Single Worksheet

An Array Formula Example: Creating a Specialized SUMIF Formula

Evaluating Polynomials or Power Series Using Array Formulas

Using the ROW Function in Array Formulas

Using the INDIRECT Function in Array Formulas

Using Array Formulas to Work with Lists

Using Multiple Criteria to Count Entries in a List

Counting Common Entries in Two Lists

Counting Duplicate Entries in a List

Counting Unique Entries in a List

Indicating Duplicate Entries in a List

Returning an Array of Unique Entries in a List

Sorting by Using an Array Formula

Sorting a 1-D List of Numbers

Sorting a 2-D List Using a Column of Numbers as the Sortkey

"Auto-Alphabetizing" Using an Array Formula

Another Example: Validating a CAS Registry Number

267

269

270

270

271

272

273

274

274

274

275

276

278

278

279

280

281

282

282

285

286

Chapter 8 Advanced Charting Techniques

Charts with More than One Data Series

Plotting Two or More Different Sets of Y Values in the Same Chart

Plotting Two Different Sets of X and Y Values in the Same Chart

Alternate Data Layout for Two Different Sets of X and Y Values

289

289

291

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Excel for Chemists

Extending a Data Series or Adding a New Series

The Copy and Paste Method

The Drag-and-Drop Method

The Color-Coded Ranges Method

Using Source Data

Editing the SERIES Function in the Formula Bar

Customizing Charts

Good Charts vs. Bad Charts

Plotting Experimental Data Points and a Calculated Curve

Charts with Secondary Axes

An XY Chart with a Secondary Y Axis

A Chart with Secondary X Axis and Y Axis

A Column Chart with a Secondary Y Axis

Some Additional Customization Techniques

Adding Error Bars to an XY Chart

Using Sub- or Superscripts in Chart Legends

Modifying Tick Mark Labels on Axis Scales

Adding Data Labels to an XY Chart

Logarithmic Charts

Linking Chart Text Elements to a Worksheet

To Switch Plotting Order in an XY Chart

Getting Creative with Charts

A Chart with an Additional Axis

A Chart that Updates Automatically

Changing the Default Chart Format

Saving a Chart Template in Excel 2007/2010

Changing the Default Chart Format in Excel 2003

Copying and Pasting Chart Formatting

Excel Chart Specifications

293

293

293

294

295

297

297

298

298

301

301

304

306

308

308

313

313

315

315

316

316

317

317

320

321

321

322

324

326

Chapter 9 Using Excel's Database Features

The Structure of a List or Database

Creating a Database

Defining a Database

Adding or Deleting Records or Fields

Updating a Database Using Data Form

Sorting a List

Sorting a List Using Excel 2003

Sorting According to More Than One Field

Sorting a List Using Excel 2007/2010

Sort Options

Using AutoFilter to Obtain a Subset of a List

Using Multiple Data Filters

327

327

328

328

329

330

331

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332

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Using Advanced Filter to Obtain a Subset of a List

Defining and Using Selection Criteria

Using Multiple Criteria

Special Criteria for Text Entries

Extracting Records

Using Database Functions

340

341

342

344

344

346

Chapter 10 Importing Data into Excel

Direct Input of Instrument Data into Excel

Importing Data Files Using the Text Import Wizard

Importing a Delimited File

Importing a Fixed-Width File

Using Convert Text to Columns

Parsing a Delimited File

Parsing a Fixed-Width File

From Hard Copy (Paper) to Excel

Using a Scanner to Transfer Numeric Data to Excel

Using a Scanner to Transfer Graphical Data to Excel

Selecting Every Mh Data Point

Using AutoFill

Using the Sampling Tool

Using a Worksheet Formula

349

350

350

353

353

354

355

358

358

360

361

361

362

363

Chapter 11 Adding Controls to a Spreadsheet

Option Buttons, Check Boxes, List Boxes and Other Controls

How to Add a Control to a Worksheet

Control Properties

A List Box on a Worksheet

A Drop-down List Box on a Worksheet

Option Buttons with a Drop-down List Box

Using a Check Box to Enable or Disable Conditional Formatting

How to Add a Hyperlink to a Worksheet

Inserting a Hyperlink

Using Paste as Hyperlink

Using the HYPERLINK Worksheet Function

Using Data Validation

Specifying Input Values

Specifying an Input Message or Error Alert

Using the Custom Category

365

366

367

369

370

371

373

373

373

376

376

378

379

381

382

Chapter 12 Other Language Versions of Excel

Differences in the Display of Numbers

Decimal and Thousands Separators

Argument Separators in Functions

385

385

386

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Excel for Chemists

Array Separators

Differences in the Display of Dates

Date Formats

Date Formatting Symbols

Creating Custom Date Formats for Other Language Versions

Importing Data

Importing Values that Are Numbers

Importing Values that Are Dates Using the Text Import Wizard

Worksheet Function Names in Other Languages

The FunctionName Translator

PART III

387

387

387

388

389

390

390

391

393

399

SPREADSHEET MATHEMATICS

Chapter 13 Mathematical Methods for Spreadsheet Calculations

Interpolation

Table Lookup with Linear Interpolation

Cubic Interpolation

Arrays, Matrices and Determinants

An Introduction to Matrix Mathematics

Numerical Differentiation

First and Second Derivatives of a Data Set

Derivatives of a Function

Numerical Integration

Finding the Area Under a Curve

Finding Roots of Equations

The Graphical Method

The Method of Successive Approximations

The Secant Method

Using Goal Seek

Solving Sets of Simultaneous Linear Equations

Cramer's Rule

Solution Using Matrix Inversion

Analysis of Spectra of Mixtures Using Matrix Mathematics

Applying Cramer's Rule to a Spectrophotometric Problem

Analysis of Spectra of Mixtures Using Matrix Inversion

Polar to Cartesian Coordinates

Significant Figures

403

403

405

407

408

410

411

414

415

416

418

419

419

421

423

425

426

427

428

428

430

430

432

Chapter 14 Linear Regression and Curve Fitting

Linear Regression

Least-Squares Fit to a Straight Line

Using the SLOPE, INTERCEPT and RSQ Functions

Multiple Linear Regression

Using LINEST to Perform Multiple Linear Regression

435

436

437

438

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xix

Least-Squares Fit to a Straight Line Using the LINEST Function

Regression Line Without an Intercept

The Regression Parameters

Multiple Linear Regression: An Example

Fitting Data Using a Power Series

A LINEST Shortcut for Power Series

Handling Noncontiguous Ranges of known_x's in LINEST

How LINEST Handles Collinearity

Weighted Least Squares

Multiple Linear Regression Using Trendline

Multiple Linear Regression Using the Analysis ToolPak

Using the Regression Tool

Using the Regression Statistics

Testing Whether an Intercept Is Significantly Different from Zero

Testing Whether Two Slopes Are Significantly Different

Testing Whether a Regression Coefficient Is Significant

Testing Whether Regression Coefficients Are Correlated

Confidence Intervals for Slope and Intercept

Confidence Limits and Prediction Limits for a Straight Line

Chapter 15 Nonlinear Regression Using the Solver

Nonlinear Regression

Using the Solver to Perform Nonlinear Least-Squares Curve Fitting

Using the Solver for Optimization

Changes to the Solver in Excel 2010

Using the Solver for Least-Squares Curve Fitting

Using the Solver: An Example

Comparison with a Commercial Nonlinear Least-Squares Package

Solver Options (Excel 2007 or 2003)

Solver Options (Excel 2010)

The "Use Automatic Scaling" Option Is Important for Many Chemical

Problems

Some Additional Solver Examples

Deconvolution of Spectra

Determination of Binding Constants by NMR Measurements

Other Examples: NIST Datasets

Statistics of Nonlinear Regression

A Macro to Provide Regression Statistics for the Solver

Using the Solver Statistics Macro

An Additional Benefit from Using the Solver Statistics Macro

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441

441

442

445

447

448

450

451

451

453

455

457

457

459

460

460

461

461

463

464

464

465

465

466

472

472

474

476

476

476

480

484

484

485

485

487

xx

PART IV

Excel for Chemists

EXCEL'S VISUAL BASIC FOR APPLICATIONS

Chapter 16 Visual Basic for Applications: An Introduction

The Visual Basic Editor

Visual Basic Procedures and Modules

There are Two Kinds of Procedure:

Sub Procedures and Function Procedures

The Structure of a Sub Procedure

The Structure of a Function Procedure

Using the Recorder to Create a Simple Sub Procedure

Recording a Simple Macro Using Excel 2007/2010

Recording a Simple Macro Using Excel 2003

The Personal Macro Workbook

Running a Sub Procedure

Assigning a Shortcut Key to a Sub Procedure

Creating a Simple Custom Function

Using a Function Macro

How Do I Save a Macro?

494

495

495

496

496

498

499

500

501

501

501

502

Chapter 17 Programming with VBA

Creating Visual Basic Code

Entering VBA Code

Components of Visual Basic Statements

Operators

Variables and Arguments

Objects, Properties and Methods

Objects

Some Useful Objects

"Objects" that Are Really Properties

You Can Define Your Own Objects

Making a Reference to a Cell or Range of Cells

Making a Reference to a Selected Cell or Range

Making a Reference to a Cell Other than the Active Cell

References Using the Union or Intersect Method

Getting Values from a Worksheet

Sending Values to a Worksheet

Properties

Properties of the Range Object

Some Useful Properties

Methods

Some Useful Methods

Two Ways to Specify Arguments of Methods

Arguments with or without Parentheses

503

503

504

504

504

505

505

506

506

507

507

507

508

510

510

510

510

511

511

512

512

512

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494

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xxi

VBA Functions

Using Worksheet Functions with VBA

VBA Commands

VBA Data Types

The Variant Data Type

Declaring Variables or Arguments in Advance

Specifying the Data Type of an Argument

Specifying the Data Type Returned by a Function Procedure

String Data Types

The Boolean (Logical) Data Type

Type Declaration Characters

Program Control

Decision-Making (Branching)

Logical Operators

Looping

For...Next Loops

For Each...Next Loops

Do While...Loop

Exiting from a Loop or from a Procedure

Subroutines

Scoping a Subroutine

Interactive Macros

513

514

515

515

516

516

516

516

517

517

518

518

518

520

521

521

521

522

522

522

523

524

MsgBox

524

MsgBox Return Values

525

InputBox

526

Using a Dialog Box to Open a Workbook

Using the GetOpenFilename Method

Using Excel's Built-in Dialog Boxes

Other Ways to Display Built-in Dialog Boxes

Using Excel 4 Macro Commands

Testing and Debugging

Tracing Execution

Stepping Through Code

Adding a Breakpoint

Examining the Values of Variables Using the Mouse Pointer

Examining the Values of Variables Using the Watch Pane

Using Conditional Watch

Using VBA On-Line Help

Using VBA Help (Excel 2007/2010)

Using VBA Help (Excel 2003)

Using the Object Browser

Some Ways to Improve Performance (i.e., Speed)

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529

530

531

532

533

534

534

535

536

537

538

538

539

539

541

Excel for Chemists

XXH

Chapter 18 Working with Arrays in VBA

Visual Basic Arrays

Dimensioning an Array

Use the Name of the Array Variable to Specify the Whole Array

Dynamic Arrays

Preserving Values in Dynamic Arrays

Using Arrays in Sub Procedures:

Passing Values from Worksheet to VBA Module

Using a Loop to Transfer Values from a Worksheet to a VBA Array

A Range Specified in a Sub Procedure Becomes an Array Variable

Some Worksheet Functions Used Within VBA Create an Array

Using Arrays in Sub Procedures:

Passing Values from VBA Module to Worksheet

Using a Loop to Transfer Values from a VBA Array to a Worksheet

Equating a VBA Variable to a Worksheet Range

A One-Dimensional Array Assigned to a Worksheet Range

Can Cause Problems

Using Arrays In Function Procedures

From Worksheet to Module

A Range Passed to a Function Procedure

Automatically Becomes an Array

Passing an Indefinite Number of Arguments

Using the ParamArray Keyword

Using Arrays in Function Procedures:

Returning an Array of Values as a Result

PART V

543

543

544

544

545

545

545

546

547

547

547

548

548

550

550

551

552

SOME APPLICATIONS OF VBA

Chapter 19 Command Macros

Creating Advanced Macros in VBA

A Sub Procedure to Format Text as a Chemical Formula

Adding Enhancements to the Chemical Format Macro

Adding More Enhancements

A Sub Procedure to Apply "Precision as Displayed"

to a Selected Range of Cells

A Sub Procedure to Apply Data Labels in a Chart

Quick Chart: Create Excel 2007/2010 Charts with One Click

Chapter 20 Custom Functions

Some Additional Tools for Creating Custom Functions

Arrays as Arguments or as Return Values

Returning an Array Result in Either a Row or a Column

Returning an Error Value

A Custom Function that Takes an Optional Argument

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558

560

562

563

568

571

571

571

572

573

Contents

xxin

A Custom Function that Takes an Indefinite Number of Arguments

573

Providing a Description for a Function

in the Paste Function Dialog Box

576

Providing Descriptions for Function Arguments

in the Paste Function Dialog Box (Excel 2010 Only)

576

Assigning a Custom Function to a Function Category

577

A Custom Function to Calculate Acid-Base Species Distribution Diagrams ...578

A Custom Statistical Function

580

A Custom Function to Calculate Molecular Weights

583

Creating Add-In Function Macros

585

How to Create an Add-In Macro

585

How to Load/Unload an Add-In Macro

586

How to Delete an Add-In Macro

586

How to Protect an Add-In Workbook

587

How to Edit an Add-In Workbook

or Convert a .xla File to a .xls File

587

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Function Macros

587

Chapter 21 Automatic Procedures

OnEvent Procedures

AutoOpen or AutoClose Procedures

OnEvent Procedures

Some Examples of OnEvent Code

Using OnUndo

Event-Handler Procedures

Creating a Workbook_Open Procedure

589

589

590

591

592

592

594

Chapter 22 Custom Menus

Modifying Menu Bars, Menus or Menu Commands in Excel 2003

Adding or Removing a Menu Command

Creating a New Menu Bar

Adding a Custom Menu to a Menu Bar

Adding a Custom Menu Command to a Menu

Modifying Menus or Menu Bars by Using VBA

The Basic Structure of a Procedure to Install a New Menu Command

Adding a Menu Command by Means of an Event-Handler Procedure

Exiting Gracefully: Removing a Menu Command

Modifying a Built-in Menu Command

Installing Menu Bars, Menus or Menu Commands in Excel 2007/2010

Displaying Classic Menus in Excel 2007/2010

595

595

596

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598

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601

602

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Excel for Chemists

XX1V

Chapter 23 Custom Toolbars and Toolbuttons

Customizing Toolbars in Excel 2003

Moving and Changing the Shape of Toolbars

Activating Other Toolbars

Adding or Removing Toolbuttons from Toolbars

Creating a New Toolbar

Creating Custom Toolbuttons

The ToggleNumberFormat Macro

The FullPage Macro

Creating a Custom Toolbutton Image

How to Add a ToolTip to a Custom Button

Customizing in Excel 2007

Moving the Quick Access Toolbar

Adding a Built-in Command Button to the Quick Access Toolbar

Adding a Custom Toolbutton to the Quick Access Toolbar

Adding Custom Toolbuttons to the Ribbon

How to Use the Excel 2003 Button Editor in Excel 2007/2010

Removing Custom Toolbuttons from the Ribbon

Customizing the Ribbon (Excel 2010 Only)

607

607

608

609

610

611

613

614

615

617

618

618

618

620

621

622

622

623

PART VI

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D

Appendix E

Appendix F

Appendix G

Appendix H

Appendix I

Appendix J

Appendix K

629

63 3

639

661

663

667

689

693

703

707

709

APPENDICES

What's Where in Excel 2007/2010

Selected Worksheet Functions by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Worksheet Functions

Renamed Functions in Excel 2010

Selected Visual Basic Keywords by Category

Alphabetical List of Selected Visual Basic Keywords

Selected Excel 4 Macro Functions

Shortcut Keys by Keystroke

Selected Shortcut Keys by Category

ASCII Codes

Contents of the CD-ROM

INDEX

719

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Preface to the Third Edition

Since the publication of the second edition of Excel for Chemists in 2001,

three new versions of Excel for the PC have appeared: Excel 2003, Excel 2007

and Excel 2010. With Excel 2007, Microsoft introduced a radically new user

interface: the Ribbon, which replaced the familiar menus of earlier versions.

The change was so extreme that many users have opted to stay with the "triedand-true" version, Excel 2003, as long as possible. For this reason, this edition

covers Excel 2003 as well as the newer Excel 2007/2010.

There are several new chapters in this edition. Two chapters discuss the

features of the new Excel 2007/2010 (plus a new appendix, "What's Where in

Excel 2007/2010"), a chapter covers automatic procedures—macros that run

automatically—in more detail than was covered in the previous edition, and

there is a completely new chapter that discusses how to handle documents

created in other language versions of Excel.

Much of the material in this book has been incorporated in courses entitled

"Excel for Scientists and Engineers" and "Excel Visual Basic Macros for

Scientists and Engineers" which have been presented to over 2500 scientists in

the United States, Canada and Europe—not only chemists, but also scientists in

many other disciplines. Many changes in this edition were made in light of the

experience gained in teaching these courses.

Acknowledgments

Dr. Faith A Morrison, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan

Technological University, for her "Guidelines on Graphing" used in Chapter 4.

Dr. Lev Zompa, University of Massachusetts-Boston, for spectrophotometric data used in Chapter 19.

Dr. Steve Bell, for NMR data used in Chapter 20.

E. Joseph Billo

May 2011

XXV

www.it-ebooks.info

Preface to the Third Edition

Since the publication of the second edition of Excel for Chemists in 2001,

three new versions of Excel for the PC have appeared: Excel 2003, Excel 2007

and Excel 2010. With Excel 2007, Microsoft introduced a radically new user

interface: the Ribbon, which replaced the familiar menus of earlier versions.

The change was so extreme that many users have opted to stay with the "triedand-true" version, Excel 2003, as long as possible. For this reason, this edition

covers Excel 2003 as well as the newer Excel 2007/2010.

There are several new chapters in this edition. Two chapters discuss the

features of the new Excel 2007/2010 (plus a new appendix, "What's Where in

Excel 2007/2010"), a chapter covers automatic procedures—macros that run

automatically—in more detail than was covered in the previous edition, and

there is a completely new chapter that discusses how to handle documents

created in other language versions of Excel.

Much of the material in this book has been incorporated in courses entitled

"Excel for Scientists and Engineers" and "Excel Visual Basic Macros for

Scientists and Engineers" which have been presented to over 2500 scientists in

the United States, Canada and Europe—not only chemists, but also scientists in

many other disciplines. Many changes in this edition were made in light of the

experience gained in teaching these courses.

Acknowledgments

Dr. Faith A Morrison, Department of Chemical Engineering, Michigan

Technological University, for her "Guidelines on Graphing" used in Chapter 4.

Dr. Lev Zompa, University of Massachusetts-Boston, for spectrophotometric data used in Chapter 19.

Dr. Steve Bell, for NMR data used in Chapter 20.

E. Joseph Billo

May 2011

XXV

www.it-ebooks.info

Before You Begin

Which Version of Excel Are You Using?

This book is for users of Excel 2003 for Windows or Excel 2007/2010 for

Windows.

The second edition of this book covered both Excel for the PC and Excel for

the Macintosh, but since Excel 2008, the Macintosh version corresponding to

Excel 2007, doesn't support Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), I decided not

to include Mac-specific instructions in this third edition.

Typographic Conventions

As you read through this book, you'll see several different fonts and

capitalization styles within the text. Here are the conventions that I've used.

• Excel 2003 menu headings and menu commands are in boldface type, e.g.:

File, Format, Delete....

• Excel 2007/2010 Ribbon tab names, icon names and menu command names

are in non-bold, e.g.,

"the Insert icon in the Cells group in the Home tab", "click on Paste

Special..."

• For clarity, the titles of some dialog boxes and options are enclosed in

quotes, e.g.:

"When Creating New Workbooks"

• Cell references are in Arial font, e.g.:

"In cell A9 ..."

• Worksheet functions are in Arial font, e.g.:

SUM, LINEST

• Excel's built-in argument names (i.e., placeholder arguments) in functions

are in Arial italic; required arguments are in bold italic, e.g.:

LINEST(frnown_y's, known_x's, const, stats)

xxvu

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