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1494 networking all in one for dummies, 4th edition

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Networking Basics

Building a Network

• How VMware can help you
manage your servers
• Tips on setting up a firewall
• All about TCP/IP tools and
commands
• Advice on wireless networking
with Bluetooth
• How to manage mobile users
• A handy reference to Windows
networking commands

• Internet intrigue — work with the all-important TCP/IP protocols
and DHCP, FTP, and DNS

• Dozens of helpful Web sites


• For those on the go — set up and manage networks for iPhone®,
Android™, BlackBerry®, and netbook users

4th Edition

g
n
i
k
r
o
Netw
N E
A L L- I N - O

91
BOOKS
IN

• All about servers — install and administer servers using Windows
Server® 2008 R2, earlier versions of Windows Server, SQL Server®
2008, SharePoint® 2010, and others

Go to Dummies.com®
for videos, step-by-step examples,
how-to articles, or to shop!

• Networking Basics
• Building a Network
• Network Administration and Security
• TCP/IP and the Internet
• Wireless Networking
• Mobile Networking
• Windows Server® 2008 R2 Reference
• Using Other Windows Servers
• Managing Linux® Systems

$39.99 US / $47.99 CN / £27.99 UK


Doug Lowe is the information technology director for a civil engineering
firm and a veteran network manager. He has written several editions of this
book and Networking For Dummies, both bestsellers. Doug’s 50-plus books
have demystified everything from Microsoft Office to creating Web pages.

Network
Administration and
Security

Wireless Networking

• What networking is and how
it works

Networking

Open the book and find:

• Safety first — secure your network while keeping it easily
accessible for users

• A line on Linux — see how to install Fedora and set up a Windowscompatible file server and Internet server

TCP/IP and the Internet

Mobile Networking

• Building plans — create a plan for your network, install
the hardware and server operating system, and explore
virtualization technologies


r!
e
si
a
E
g
in
th
ry
Making Eve

4th Edition

ALL- IN - ONE

• Networking 101 — start here for the latest in network protocols,
standards, hardware, and operating systems

Windows Server® 2008
R2 Reference

So you’re in charge of a network? That’s great — and a great
big job! Let this book be your one-stop guide. You’ll find
out about network standards, popular network operating
systems, servers, how to plan and set up a network, security
secrets, troubleshooting recommendations, what to do with
wireless and mobile networking variations, and much more!

Using Other Windows
Servers

Here’s the easy-to-use reference
you’ve wished for — all things
network-related in one book!

Managing Linux®
Systems

Computers/Networking

ISBN 978-0-470-62587-3

Lowe

Doug Lowe
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Networking
ALL-IN-ONE

FOR

DUMmIES



4TH EDITION

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Networking
ALL-IN-ONE

FOR

DUMmIES



4TH EDITION

by Doug Lowe

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Networking All-in-One For Dummies®, 4th Edition
Published by
Wiley Publishing, Inc.
111 River Street
Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774
www.wiley.com
Copyright © 2011 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana
Published simultaneously in Canada
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written
permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the
Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600.
Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://
www.wiley.com/go/permissions.
Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the
Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com, Making Everything
Easier, and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/
or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission.
All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated
with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO
REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF
THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE
CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2010935591
ISBN: 978-0-470-62587-3
Manufactured in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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About the Author
Doug Lowe has written a whole bunch of computer books, including more
than 40 For Dummies books, among them Networking For Dummies, 9th
Edition, Java All-in-One For Dummies, 3rd Edition, PowerPoint 2010 For
Dummies, and Word 2010 All-in-One For Dummies. He lives in sunny Fresno,
California, where the motto is “Fres-YES!,” (unfortunately, I’m not making that
up). He’s one of those obsessive-compulsive decorating nuts who creates
computer-controlled Halloween decorations that rival Disney’s Haunted
Mansion.

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Dedication
To My Family.

Author’s Acknowledgments
I’d like to thank everyone who was involved with the fourth edition of this
book, especially the most excellent project editor Blair Pottenger, who put
up with late submissions and who did a great job following through on all the
little editorial details needed to put a book of this scope together on time.
Thanks also to Dan DiNicolo, who gave the manuscript a thorough review to
ensure the technical accuracy of every sentence, and in the process offered
many excellent suggestions for improvements, and to copy editor Virginia
Sanders, who whipped my prose into shape, crossing all the i’s and dotting
all the t’s, or something like that. And, as always, thanks to all the behind-thescenes people who chipped in with help I’m not even aware of.

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Publisher’s Acknowledgments
We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments at http://dummies.custhelp.com.
For other comments, please contact our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 877-762-2974,
outside the U.S. at 317-572-3993, or fax 317-572-4002.
Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:
Acquisitions and Editorial

Composition Services

Project Editor: Blair J. Pottenger

Project Coordinator: Patrick Redmond

Acquisitions Editor: Amy Fandrei

Layout and Graphics: Carl Byers,
Samantha K. Cherolis, Ronald G. Terry

Copy Editor: Virginia Sanders

Proofreaders: Laura L. Bowman,
Jessica Kramer

Technical Editor: Dan DiNicolo
Editorial Manager: Kevin Kirschner

Indexer: Broccoli Information Managment

Editorial Assistant: Amanda Graham

Special Help
Annie Sullivan

Sr. Editorial Assistant: Cherie Case
Cartoons: Rich Tennant
(www.the5thwave.com)
Publishing and Editorial for Technology Dummies

Richard Swadley, Vice President and Executive Group Publisher
Andy Cummings, Vice President and Publisher
Mary Bednarek, Executive Acquisitions Director
Mary C. Corder, Editorial Director
Publishing for Consumer Dummies
Diane Graves Steele, Vice President and Publisher
Composition Services
Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services

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Contents at a Glance
Introduction ....................................................................... 1
Book I: Networking Basics .................................................. 7
Chapter 1: Understanding Networks ................................................................................................ 9
Chapter 2: Understanding Network Protocols and Standards ................................................... 21
Chapter 3: Understanding Network Hardware ............................................................................. 43
Chapter 4: Understanding Network Operating Systems.............................................................. 61

Book II: Building a Network.............................................. 75
Chapter 1: Planning a Network ....................................................................................................... 77
Chapter 2: Installing Network Hardware ....................................................................................... 95
Chapter 3: Setting Up a Network Server ...................................................................................... 111
Chapter 4: Configuring Windows Clients ..................................................................................... 121
Chapter 5: Macintosh Networking ................................................................................................ 135
Chapter 6: Configuring Other Network Features ........................................................................ 141
Chapter 7: Verifying Your Network Installation ......................................................................... 151
Chapter 8: Going Virtual ................................................................................................................ 157

Book III: Network Administration and Security ................. 169
Chapter 1: Help Wanted: Job Description for a Network Administrator ................................. 171
Chapter 2: Security 101 .................................................................................................................. 185
Chapter 3: Managing User Accounts ............................................................................................ 195
Chapter 4: Firewalls and Virus Protection .................................................................................. 203
Chapter 5: Extending Your Network with VPN Access .............................................................. 215
Chapter 6: Managing Network Software ...................................................................................... 221
Chapter 7: Solving Network Problems ......................................................................................... 233
Chapter 8: Network Performance Anxiety................................................................................... 249
Chapter 9: Backing Up Your Data ................................................................................................. 259
Chapter 10: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning .......................................... 271

Book IV: TCP/IP and the Internet ..................................... 279
Chapter 1: Introduction to TCP/IP and the Internet .................................................................. 281
Chapter 2: Understanding IP Addresses ...................................................................................... 289
Chapter 3: Using DHCP .................................................................................................................. 307
Chapter 4: Using DNS ..................................................................................................................... 321
Chapter 5: Using FTP ...................................................................................................................... 347
Chapter 6: TCP/IP Tools and Commands .................................................................................... 371

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Book V: Wireless Networking .......................................... 397
Chapter 1: Setting Up a Wireless Network .................................................................................. 399
Chapter 2: Securing a Wireless Network ..................................................................................... 419
Chapter 3: Hotspotting .................................................................................................................. 431
Chapter 4: Troubleshooting a Wireless Network ....................................................................... 437
Chapter 5: Wireless Networking with Bluetooth ........................................................................ 443

Book VI: Mobile Networking............................................ 449
Chapter 1: Managing Mobile Devices ........................................................................................... 451
Chapter 2: Managing BlackBerry Devices ................................................................................... 455
Chapter 3: Managing iPhone Devices........................................................................................... 461
Chapter 4: Managing Android Devices ........................................................................................ 469
Chapter 5: Managing Netbooks ..................................................................................................... 473

Book VII: Windows Server 2008 Reference ....................... 477
Chapter 1: Installing and Configuring Windows Server 2008 R2............................................... 479
Chapter 2: Managing Windows Server 2008 ................................................................................ 493
Chapter 3: Dealing with Active Directory .................................................................................... 509
Chapter 4: Managing Windows User Accounts ........................................................................... 519
Chapter 5: Managing a File Server ................................................................................................ 539
Chapter 6: Using Group Policy ...................................................................................................... 553
Chapter 7: Troubleshooting .......................................................................................................... 563
Chapter 8: Windows Commands .................................................................................................. 575

Book VIII: Using Other Windows Servers .......................... 603
Chapter 1: Using Internet Information System (IIS) ................................................................... 605
Chapter 2: Managing Exchange Server 2010 ............................................................................... 615
Chapter 3: Using SQL Server 2008 ................................................................................................ 635
Chapter 4: Using SharePoint ......................................................................................................... 655

Book IX: Managing Linux Systems ................................... 669
Chapter 1: Installing a Linux Server ............................................................................................. 671
Chapter 2: Getting Used to Linux ................................................................................................. 685
Chapter 3: Basic Linux Network Configuration .......................................................................... 693
Chapter 4: Running DHCP and DNS .............................................................................................. 707
Chapter 5: Doing the Samba Dance .............................................................................................. 717
Chapter 6: Running Apache........................................................................................................... 731
Chapter 7: Running Sendmail ........................................................................................................ 743
Chapter 8: Running FTP ................................................................................................................. 753
Chapter 9: Linux Commands ......................................................................................................... 759

Appendix A: Directory of Useful Web Sites ....................... 787
Appendix B: Glossary...................................................... 795
Index ............................................................................. 823
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Table of Contents
Introduction........................................................................ 1
About This Book .............................................................................................. 2
How to Use This Book ..................................................................................... 3
How This Book Is Organized .......................................................................... 3
Book I: Networking Basics .................................................................... 3
Book II: Building a Network .................................................................. 4
Book III: Network Administration and Security ................................. 4
Book IV: TCP/IP and the Internet ......................................................... 4
Book V: Wireless Networking ............................................................... 4
Book VI: Mobile Networking ................................................................. 4
Book VII: Windows Server 2008 R2 Reference .................................... 5
Book VIII: Using Other Windows Servers ............................................ 5
Book IX: Managing Linux Systems ....................................................... 5
Icons Used in This Book ................................................................................. 5
Where to Go from Here ................................................................................... 6

Book I: Networking Basics ................................................... 7
Chapter 1: Understanding Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
What Is a Network? .......................................................................................... 9
Network building blocks ..................................................................... 10
Why bother? ......................................................................................... 12
Of Clients and Servers................................................................................... 13
Dedicated Servers and Peers ....................................................................... 14
Networks Big and Small ................................................................................ 14
Network Topology ......................................................................................... 15
Bus topology......................................................................................... 15
Star topology ........................................................................................ 16
Expanding stars.................................................................................... 17
Ring topology ....................................................................................... 18
Mesh topology ...................................................................................... 18

Chapter 2: Understanding Network Protocols and Standards. . . . . . .21
Understanding Protocols.............................................................................. 21
Understanding Standards ............................................................................. 23
The Seven Layers of the OSI Reference Model .......................................... 24
The Physical Layer .............................................................................. 25
The Data Link Layer............................................................................. 26

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Networking All-in-One For Dummies, 4th Edition

The Network Layer .............................................................................. 28
The Transport Layer ........................................................................... 30
The Session Layer ................................................................................ 32
The Presentation Layer ....................................................................... 32
The Application Layer ......................................................................... 33
Following a Packet through the Layers ...................................................... 33
The Ethernet Protocol .................................................................................. 34
Standard Ethernet ................................................................................ 35
Fast Ethernet ........................................................................................ 36
Gigabit Ethernet ................................................................................... 37
The TCP/IP Protocol Suite ............................................................................ 37
IP ............................................................................................................ 38
TCP ........................................................................................................ 39
UDP ........................................................................................................ 40
Other Protocols Worth Knowing About ..................................................... 41

Chapter 3: Understanding Network Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Servers ............................................................................................................ 43
What’s important in a server.............................................................. 43
Components of a server computer .................................................... 44
Server form factors .............................................................................. 46
Network Interface Cards ............................................................................... 48
Network Cable ................................................................................................ 48
Coaxial cable ........................................................................................ 49
Twisted-pair cable ............................................................................... 50
Switches .......................................................................................................... 51
Repeaters ........................................................................................................ 54
Bridges ............................................................................................................ 55
Routers............................................................................................................ 57
Network Attached Storage ........................................................................... 58
Network Printers ........................................................................................... 59

Chapter 4: Understanding Network Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Network Operating System Features .......................................................... 61
Network support .................................................................................. 61
File-sharing services ............................................................................ 62
Multitasking .......................................................................................... 62
Directory services................................................................................ 64
Security services .................................................................................. 64
Microsoft’s Server Operating Systems ....................................................... 65
Windows 2000 Server .......................................................................... 66
Windows Server 2003 .......................................................................... 66
Windows Server 2008 .......................................................................... 68
Windows Server 2008 R2 ..................................................................... 68
Other Server Operating Systems ................................................................. 68
Linux ...................................................................................................... 69
Apple Mac OS/X Server ....................................................................... 69
Novell NetWare .................................................................................... 69

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Table of Contents

xiii

Peer-to-Peer Networking with Windows ..................................................... 70
Advantages of peer-to-peer networks ............................................... 70
Drawbacks of peer-to-peer networks ................................................ 71
Windows 7............................................................................................. 71
Windows Vista ...................................................................................... 72
Older Windows versions ..................................................................... 73

Book II: Building a Network .............................................. 75
Chapter 1: Planning a Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Making a Network Plan ................................................................................. 77
Being Purposeful............................................................................................ 78
Taking Stock ................................................................................................... 79
What you need to know ...................................................................... 79
Programs that gather information for you ....................................... 83
To Dedicate or Not to Dedicate: That Is the Question.............................. 84
Types of Servers ............................................................................................ 84
File servers............................................................................................ 84
Print servers ......................................................................................... 85
Web servers .......................................................................................... 85
Mail servers .......................................................................................... 85
Database servers.................................................................................. 85
Choosing a Server Operating System.......................................................... 86
Planning the Infrastructure .......................................................................... 86
Drawing Diagrams ......................................................................................... 87
Sample Network Plans .................................................................................. 88
Building a small network: California Sport Surface, Inc. ................. 88
Connecting two networks: Creative Course Development, Inc...... 90
Improving network performance: DCH Accounting ........................ 92

Chapter 2: Installing Network Hardware. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Installing a Network Interface Card ............................................................. 95
Installing Twisted-Pair Cable........................................................................ 97
Cable categories ................................................................................... 97
What’s with the pairs? ......................................................................... 98
To shield or not to shield ................................................................... 98
When to use plenum cable ................................................................. 99
Sometimes solid, sometimes stranded ............................................. 99
Installation guidelines ....................................................................... 100
Getting the tools that you need ....................................................... 101
Pinouts for twisted-pair cables ........................................................ 102
Attaching RJ-45 connectors .............................................................. 103
Crossover cables................................................................................ 105
Wall jacks and patch panels ............................................................. 105

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Networking All-in-One For Dummies, 4th Edition

Installing Coaxial Cable ............................................................................... 107
Attaching a BNC Connector to Coaxial Cable .......................................... 108
Installing Switches ....................................................................................... 109
Daisy-Chaining Switches ............................................................................. 109

Chapter 3: Setting Up a Network Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111
The Many Ways to Install a Network Operating System ........................ 111
Full install versus upgrade................................................................ 111
Installing over the network ............................................................... 112
Automated and remote installations ............................................... 113
Gathering Your Stuff.................................................................................... 114
A capable server computer .............................................................. 114
The server operating system ........................................................... 115
Other software ................................................................................... 115
A working Internet connection......................................................... 115
A good book........................................................................................ 116
Making Informed Decisions ........................................................................ 116
Final Preparations ....................................................................................... 117
Installing a Network Operating System .................................................... 117
Phase 1: Collecting Information ....................................................... 118
Phase 2: Installing Windows ............................................................. 118
Configuring Your Server ............................................................................. 119

Chapter 4: Configuring Windows Clients. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121
Configuring Network Connections ............................................................ 121
Configuring Windows XP network connections ............................. 122
Configuring Windows Vista network connections......................... 126
Configuring Windows 7 network connections ............................... 128
Configuring Client Computer Identification ............................................. 130
Configuring Windows XP computer identification ........................ 131
Configuring Windows Vista or Windows 7 computer
identification ................................................................................... 132
Configuring Network Logon ....................................................................... 134

Chapter 5: Macintosh Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
What You Need to Know to Hook Up a Macintosh Network .................. 135
Mac networking protocols ................................................................ 135
Mac OS X Server ................................................................................. 136
What You Need to Know to Use a Macintosh Network .......................... 137
Configuring a Mac for networking ................................................... 137
Accessing a network printer............................................................. 138
Sharing files with other users........................................................... 138
Accessing shared files ....................................................................... 139
What You Need to Know to Network Macintoshes with PCs................. 139

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Table of Contents

xv

Chapter 6: Configuring Other Network Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Configuring Network Printers .................................................................... 141
Adding a network printer.................................................................. 141
Accessing a network printer using a Web interface ...................... 143
Configuring Internet Access ....................................................................... 145
Configuring clients for DHCP ............................................................ 145
Using Internet Connection Sharing .................................................. 147
Mapping Network Drives ............................................................................ 147

Chapter 7: Verifying Your Network Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Is the Computer Connected to the Network?........................................... 151
Is the Network Configuration Working? .................................................... 152
Can the Computers Ping Each Other?....................................................... 154
Can You Log On?.......................................................................................... 154
Are Network Drives Mapped Correctly? ................................................... 155
Do Network Printers Work?........................................................................ 155

Chapter 8: Going Virtual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157
Understanding Virtualization ..................................................................... 157
Looking at the Benefits of Virtualization .................................................. 159
Getting Started with Virtualization............................................................ 161
Creating a Virtual Machine ......................................................................... 162

Book III: Network Administration and Security ................. 169
Chapter 1: Help Wanted: Job Description for a
Network Administrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Knowing What Network Administrators Do ............................................. 171
Choosing the Part-Time Administrator..................................................... 173
Establishing Routine Chores ...................................................................... 174
Managing Network Users ............................................................................ 175
Patching Up Your Operating System and Software................................. 175
Discovering Software Tools for Network Administrators ...................... 176
Building a Library ........................................................................................ 178
Getting Certified ........................................................................................... 179
CompTIA ............................................................................................. 180
Microsoft ............................................................................................. 180
Cisco .................................................................................................... 181
Gurus Need Gurus, Too .............................................................................. 181
Helpful Bluffs and Excuses ......................................................................... 182

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Networking All-in-One For Dummies, 4th Edition

Chapter 2: Security 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Do You Need Security? ............................................................................... 186
Considering Two Approaches to Security................................................ 187
Physical Security: Locking Your Doors .................................................... 187
Securing User Accounts .............................................................................. 189
Obfuscating your usernames ........................................................... 189
Using passwords wisely .................................................................... 190
A Password Generator For Dummies .............................................. 191
Securing the Administrator account ............................................... 192
Hardening Your Network ............................................................................ 192
Using a firewall ................................................................................... 192
Disabling unnecessary services ....................................................... 193
Patching your servers ....................................................................... 193
Securing Your Users .................................................................................... 193

Chapter 3: Managing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Exploring What User Accounts Consist Of ............................................... 195
Looking at Built-In Accounts ...................................................................... 196
The Administrator account .............................................................. 196
The Guest account ............................................................................. 197
Service accounts ................................................................................ 197
Assigning User Rights ................................................................................. 198
Controlling User Access with Permissions (Who Gets What) ............... 199
Assigning Permissions to Groups .............................................................. 200
Understanding User Profiles ...................................................................... 201
Automating Tasks with Logon Scripts ...................................................... 201

Chapter 4: Firewalls and Virus Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Firewalls ........................................................................................................ 203
The Many Types of Firewalls ..................................................................... 205
Packet filtering ................................................................................... 205
Stateful packet inspection (SPI) ....................................................... 207
Circuit-level gateway ......................................................................... 207
Application gateway .......................................................................... 208
The Built-In Windows Firewall ................................................................... 208
Virus Protection........................................................................................... 210
What is a virus? .................................................................................. 210
Antivirus programs ............................................................................ 211
Safe computing ................................................................................... 212
Using Windows Action Center ................................................................... 213

Chapter 5: Extending Your Network with VPN Access. . . . . . . . . . . .215
Understanding VPN ..................................................................................... 215
Looking at VPN Security ............................................................................. 216
Understanding VPN Servers and Clients .................................................. 217

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Chapter 6: Managing Network Software. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Understanding Software Licenses ............................................................. 222
Using a License Server ................................................................................ 224
Options for Deploying Network Software ................................................. 226
Deploying software manually ........................................................... 226
Running Setup from a network share .............................................. 226
Installing silently ................................................................................ 227
Creating an administrative installation image ............................... 229
Pushing out software with group policy ......................................... 229
Keeping Software Up to Date ..................................................................... 230

Chapter 7: Solving Network Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
When Bad Things Happen to Good Computers ....................................... 234
Fixing Dead Computers ............................................................................... 235
Ways to Check a Network Connection...................................................... 236
A Bunch of Error Messages Just Flew By!................................................. 237
Double-Checking Your Network Settings ................................................. 237
Using the Windows Networking Troubleshooter .................................... 238
Time to Experiment ..................................................................................... 239
Who’s on First? ............................................................................................ 240
Restarting a Client Computer..................................................................... 240
Booting in Safe Mode .................................................................................. 242
Using System Restore ................................................................................. 242
Restarting Network Services ...................................................................... 244
Restarting a Network Server ...................................................................... 245
Looking at Event Logs ................................................................................. 246
Documenting Your Trials and Tribulations ............................................. 247

Chapter 8: Network Performance Anxiety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Why Administrators Hate Performance Problems .................................. 249
What Exactly Is a Bottleneck? .................................................................... 250
The Five Most Common Network Bottlenecks ........................................ 252
The hardware inside your servers .................................................. 252
The server’s configuration options ................................................. 252
Servers that do too much ................................................................. 253
The network infrastructure .............................................................. 254
Malfunctioning components ............................................................. 254
Tuning Your Network the Compulsive Way ............................................. 255
Monitoring Network Performance ............................................................. 256
More Performance Tips .............................................................................. 258

Chapter 9: Backing Up Your Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
Backing Up Your Data ................................................................................. 259
All about Tapes and Tape Drives .............................................................. 260

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Backup Software .......................................................................................... 261
Types of Backups ........................................................................................ 262
Normal backups ................................................................................. 263
Copy backups ..................................................................................... 264
Daily backups ..................................................................................... 264
Incremental backups ......................................................................... 264
Differential backups........................................................................... 265
Local versus Network Backups.................................................................. 266
How Many Sets of Backups Should You Keep? ........................................ 267
A Word about Tape Reliability................................................................... 268
About Cleaning the Heads .......................................................................... 269
Backup Security ........................................................................................... 270

Chapter 10: Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning . . . 271
Assessing Different Types of Disasters..................................................... 272
Environmental disasters ................................................................... 272
Deliberate disasters ........................................................................... 273
Disruption of services ....................................................................... 273
Equipment failure .............................................................................. 274
Other disasters................................................................................... 274
Analyzing the Impact of a Disaster ............................................................ 275
Developing a Business Continuity Plan .................................................... 276
Holding a Fire Drill....................................................................................... 277

Book IV: TCP/IP and the Internet...................................... 279
Chapter 1: Introduction to TCP/IP and the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281
What Is the Internet? ................................................................................... 281
A Little Internet History .............................................................................. 283
TCP/IP Standards and RFCs ....................................................................... 284
The TCP/IP Protocol Framework ............................................................... 286
Network Interface layer..................................................................... 286
Network layer ..................................................................................... 287
Transport layer .................................................................................. 287
Application layer ................................................................................ 288

Chapter 2: Understanding IP Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
Understanding Binary ................................................................................. 289
Counting by ones ............................................................................... 289
Doing the logic thing ......................................................................... 291
Working with the binary Windows Calculator ............................... 292
Introducing IP Addresses ........................................................................... 293
Networks and hosts ........................................................................... 294
The dotted-decimal dance ................................................................ 294

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Classifying IP Addresses ............................................................................. 295
Class A addresses .............................................................................. 297
Class B addresses .............................................................................. 299
Class C addresses .............................................................................. 299
Subnetting..................................................................................................... 299
Subnets ................................................................................................ 300
Subnet masks...................................................................................... 300
Network prefix notation .................................................................... 302
Default subnets .................................................................................. 302
The great subnet roundup ................................................................ 303
IP block parties .................................................................................. 303
Private and public addresses ........................................................... 304
Network Address Translation .................................................................... 305

Chapter 3: Using DHCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .307
Understanding DHCP .................................................................................. 307
Configuration information provided by DHCP ............................... 307
DHCP servers...................................................................................... 308
How DHCP actually works ................................................................ 308
Understanding Scopes ................................................................................ 310
Feeling excluded? ............................................................................... 311
Reservations suggested .................................................................... 311
How long to lease? ............................................................................. 312
Working with a DHCP Server...................................................................... 313
Installing and configuring a DHCP server ....................................... 313
Managing a DHCP server................................................................... 316
How to Configure a Windows DHCP Client............................................... 318
Automatic Private IP Addressing ..................................................... 319
Renewing and releasing leases......................................................... 319

Chapter 4: Using DNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321
Understanding DNS Names ........................................................................ 321
Domains and domain names ............................................................ 322
Fully qualified domain names........................................................... 323
Top-Level Domains ...................................................................................... 324
Generic domains ................................................................................ 324
Geographic domains.......................................................................... 325
The Hosts File .............................................................................................. 327
Understanding DNS Servers and Zones .................................................... 330
Zones ................................................................................................... 330
Primary and secondary servers ....................................................... 332
Root servers ....................................................................................... 332
Caching................................................................................................ 335
Understanding DNS Queries....................................................................... 335
A real-life DNS example ..................................................................... 336

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Zone Files and Resource Records ............................................................. 337
SOA records ........................................................................................ 339
NS records .......................................................................................... 340
A records............................................................................................. 340
CNAME records .................................................................................. 341
PTR records ........................................................................................ 341
MX records ......................................................................................... 342
Reverse Lookup Zones ................................................................................ 342
Working with the Windows DNS Server.................................................... 343
How to Configure a Windows DNS Client ................................................. 345

Chapter 5: Using FTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347
Discovering FTP ........................................................................................... 347
Configuring an FTP Server .......................................................................... 348
Installing FTP ...................................................................................... 348
Creating an FTP site........................................................................... 348
Changing the FTP site properties .................................................... 351
Adding content to your FTP site ...................................................... 353
Accessing an FTP Site with a Browser ...................................................... 354
Using an FTP Command Line Client .......................................................... 355
FTP Command and Subcommand Reference ........................................... 358
The FTP command ............................................................................. 358
! (Escape) ............................................................................................ 359
? (Help) ................................................................................................ 359
append................................................................................................. 359
ascii ...................................................................................................... 360
bell ....................................................................................................... 360
binary .................................................................................................. 360
bye ....................................................................................................... 360
cd ......................................................................................................... 360
close..................................................................................................... 361
debug ................................................................................................... 361
delete ................................................................................................... 361
dir ......................................................................................................... 361
disconnect .......................................................................................... 362
get ........................................................................................................ 362
glob ...................................................................................................... 362
hash ..................................................................................................... 363
help ...................................................................................................... 363
lcd ........................................................................................................ 363
literal ................................................................................................... 363
ls .......................................................................................................... 364
mdelete................................................................................................ 364
mdir ..................................................................................................... 364
mget ..................................................................................................... 364
mkdir ................................................................................................... 365

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mls ....................................................................................................... 365
mput .................................................................................................... 365
open ..................................................................................................... 365
prompt................................................................................................. 366
put ........................................................................................................ 366
pwd ...................................................................................................... 366
quit ....................................................................................................... 367
quote.................................................................................................... 367
recv ...................................................................................................... 367
remotehelp ......................................................................................... 368
rename................................................................................................. 368
rmdir .................................................................................................... 368
send ..................................................................................................... 368
status ................................................................................................... 369
trace ..................................................................................................... 369
type ...................................................................................................... 369
user ...................................................................................................... 370
verbose................................................................................................ 370

Chapter 6: TCP/IP Tools and Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Using the arp Command ............................................................................. 371
Using the hostname Command .................................................................. 372
Using the ipconfig Command ..................................................................... 373
Displaying basic IP configuration .................................................... 373
Displaying detailed configuration information .............................. 374
Renewing an IP lease ......................................................................... 374
Releasing an IP lease ......................................................................... 375
Flushing the local DNS cache ........................................................... 375
Using the nbtstat Command....................................................................... 375
Using the netdiag Utility ............................................................................. 377
Using the netstat Command ....................................................................... 378
Displaying connections ..................................................................... 379
Displaying interface statistics .......................................................... 379
Using the nslookup Command ................................................................... 382
Looking up an IP address .................................................................. 382
Using nslookup subcommands ........................................................ 383
Displaying DNS records .................................................................... 384
Locating the mail server for an e-mail address .............................. 385
Taking a ride through DNS-Land ...................................................... 386
Using the pathping Command ................................................................... 389
Using the ping Command ........................................................................... 390
Using the route Command.......................................................................... 391
Displaying the routing table ............................................................. 391
Modifying the routing table .............................................................. 394
Using the tracert Command ....................................................................... 395

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Book V: Wireless Networking ........................................... 397
Chapter 1: Setting Up a Wireless Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Diving into Wireless Networking ............................................................... 400
A Little High School Electronics ................................................................ 400
Waves and frequencies ..................................................................... 401
Wavelength and antennas................................................................. 402
Spectrums and the FCC ..................................................................... 402
Eight-Oh-Two-Dot-Eleventy Something? (Or, Understanding
Wireless Standards)................................................................................. 404
Home on the Range ..................................................................................... 405
Wireless Network Adapters........................................................................ 406
Wireless Access Points ............................................................................... 407
Infrastructure mode .......................................................................... 408
Multifunction WAPs ........................................................................... 409
Roaming ........................................................................................................ 410
Wireless bridging ............................................................................... 410
Ad-hoc networks ................................................................................ 411
Configuring a Wireless Access Point ......................................................... 411
Basic configuration options.............................................................. 411
DHCP configuration ........................................................................... 413
Configuring Windows XP for Wireless Networking ................................. 414
Using a Wireless Network with Windows XP ........................................... 415
Connecting to a Wireless Network with Windows Vista ........................ 417
Connecting to a Wireless Network with Windows 7 ............................... 417

Chapter 2: Securing a Wireless Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
Understanding Wireless Security Threats................................................ 419
Intruders ............................................................................................. 420
Freeloaders ......................................................................................... 421
Eavesdroppers ................................................................................... 421
Spoilers................................................................................................ 422
Rogue access points .......................................................................... 422
What About Wardrivers and Warchalkers?.............................................. 423
Wardriving .......................................................................................... 423
Warchalking ........................................................................................ 424
Securing Your Wireless Network ............................................................... 425
Changing the password..................................................................... 425
Securing the SSID ............................................................................... 425
Enabling WEP ..................................................................................... 427
Using WPA........................................................................................... 428
Using MAC address filtering ............................................................. 429
Placing your access points outside the firewall ............................ 430

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Chapter 3: Hotspotting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
What Is a Hotspot? ...................................................................................... 431
What’s So Great about Hotspots? .............................................................. 432
Safe Hotspotting .......................................................................................... 432
Free Hotspots ............................................................................................... 432
Fee-Based Hotspots ..................................................................................... 433
T-Mobile .............................................................................................. 434
Boingo ................................................................................................. 434
Setting Up Your Own Hotspot .................................................................... 434

Chapter 4: Troubleshooting a Wireless Network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
Checking for Obvious Problems ................................................................ 437
Pinpointing the Problem ............................................................................. 438
Changing Channels ...................................................................................... 438
Fiddle with the Antennas ............................................................................ 439
Adding Another Access Point .................................................................... 440
Help! I Forgot My Router’s Password! ....................................................... 441

Chapter 5: Wireless Networking with Bluetooth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
Understanding Bluetooth ........................................................................... 443
Bluetooth Technical Stuff ........................................................................... 444
How to Add Bluetooth to Your Computer ................................................ 445
Using Bluetooth in Windows ...................................................................... 445
Installing a USB Bluetooth Adapter ........................................................... 446
Enabling Discovery ...................................................................................... 446
Installing a Bluetooth Mouse or Keyboard............................................... 447

Book VI: Mobile Networking ............................................ 449
Chapter 1: Managing Mobile Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
The Many Types of Mobile Devices .......................................................... 451
Considering Security for Mobile Devices ................................................. 453

Chapter 2: Managing BlackBerry Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
Understanding BlackBerry ......................................................................... 455
Adding a BES User ....................................................................................... 458
Locking and Erasing a Handheld ............................................................... 460

Chapter 3: Managing iPhone Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
Understanding the iPhone .......................................................................... 461
Integrating iPhone with Exchange ............................................................. 462
Enabling Exchange Mobile Services ................................................ 463
Enabling ActiveSync for a user’s mailbox....................................... 464
Configuring the iPhone for Exchange e-mail .................................. 465

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