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TEST 2
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that
differs from the rest in the pronunciation of the underlined part in each of the
following questions from 1 to 2.
Question 1: A. advises
B. raises
C. devises
D. goes
Question 2: A. example
B. exotic
C. excellent
D. exhaust
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that
best combines each pair of sentences in the following questions from 3 to 4.
Question 3: The history of the United States is not long. It is
interesting. A. The history of the United States is too long
to be interesting.
B. The history of the United States is not long enough to be interesting.
C. The history of the United States is interesting whereas not long.
D. The history of the United States is not long but interesting.
Question 4: Some economists argue that new technology cause unemployment.

Others feel that it allows more jobs to be created.
A. Some economists argue that new technology causes unemployment, so others
feel that it allows more jobs to be created.
B. Arguing that new technology causes unemployment, other economists feel that
it allows more jobs to be created.
C. Besides the argument that new technology causes unemployment, some
economists feel that it allows more jobs to be created.
D. Some economists argue that new technology causes unemployment whereas
others feel that it allows more jobs to be created.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer
to each of the following questions from 5 to 16.
Question 5: We should participate in the movement ______ to conserve the
natural environment.
A. to organize
B. organized
C. organizing
D. which organized
Question 6: Some snakes lay eggs, but ______ give birth to live offspring.
A. others
B. the other
C. other
D. the others
Question 7: A number of prisoners ______ on the occasion of the Independence
Day this year.
A. have been released B. has been released C. were released D.was
released
Question 8: Jack found it hard to ______ the loss of his little dog.
A. get over
B. put off
C. get along
D. turn over
Question 9: Housework is less tiring and boring thanks to the invention of
______ devices.
A. labor-saving
B. environment-friendly
C. pollution-free
D. time-consuming
Question 10: The more ______ and positive you look, the better you will feel.

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A. confidence
B. confident
C. confide
D. confidently
Question 11: They'll be able to walk across the river______.
A. if the ice is thick enough
B. if the ice will be thick enough
C. when the ice will be thick enough
D. unless the ice is thick enough
Question 12: Granny is completely deaf. You will have to ______ allowances for
her.
A. bring
B. find
C. give
D. make
Question 13: Many people are still in ______ habit of writing silly things in
______ public places.
A. the – the
B. the - 0
C. 0 - the
D. 0 - 0
Question 14: Since 1950 the world ______ nearly one-fifth of the soil from its
agricultural land and one-fifth of its tropical forests.
A. has lost
B. lost
C. was losing
D. had been lost
Question 15: ______the distance was too far and the time was short, we decided
to fly there instead of going there by train.
A. To discover
B. Discovered
C. To have discovered D. Discovering
Question 16: Students are______less pressure as a result of changes in testing
procedures.
A. under
B. above
C. out of
D. upon
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks
from 17 to 21.
Nowadays people are more aware that wildlife all over the world is in
danger. Many species of animals are threatened, and could easily become (17)
______if we do not make an effort to protect them. There are many reasons for
this. In some cases, animals are hunted for their fur or for other valuable parts
of their bodies.
Some birds, (18) ______as parrots are caught alive and sold as pets. For
many animals and birds, the problem is that their habitat - the place where they
live - is disappearing. More (19) ______is used for farms, for houses or industry,
and there are fewer open spaces than there once were. Farmers use powerful
chemicals to help them (20) ______ better crops, but these chemicals pollute
the environment and harm wildlife. The most successful animal on earth human beings - will soon be the only ones left, (21) ______ we can solve this
problem.
Question 17: A. extinctive
B. extinction
C. extinct
D. extinctions
Question 18: A. for
B. such
C. like
D. or
Question 19: A. area
B. earth
C. land
D. soil
Question 20: A. go
B. run
C. make
D. grow
Question 21: A. however
B. unless
C. because
D. if
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase
that is

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CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following
questions from 22 to 23. Question 22: Helen Keller, blind and deaf from an
early age, developed her sense of smell so finely that she could identify friends
by their personal odors.
A. classify
B. communicate with C. describe
D. recognize
Question 23: The device is very sophisticated and should only be operated by
someone who is familiar with it.
A. delicate
B. complex
C. fragile
D. resilient
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that
differs from the other three in the position of the primary stress in each of the
following questions from 24 to 25.
Question 24: A. preparation B. transportation C. diagnostic
D. technology
Question 25: A. summer
B. carpet
C. visit
D. include
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is
closest in meaning to each of the following questions from 26 to 28.
Question 26: It was careless of you to leave the windows open last night.
A. You shouldn’t leave the windows open last night.
B. You are so careless that you left the windows open last night.
C. You shouldn’t have left the windows open last night.
D. You might have been careless because you left the windows open last night.
Question 27: Wealthy as they were, they were far
from happy. A. They were as wealthy as they
were happy.
B. They were not happy as they were wealthy.
C. Even if they were wealthy, they were not unhappy.
D. Although they were wealthy, they were not happy.
Question 28: The boy was too fat to run far.
A. The boy was very fat and couldn’t run far.
B. The boy’s fatness didn’t stop him running far.
C. The boy had to run a lot because he was too fat.
D. The boy became ill because he was too fat.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer
sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 29 to 36.
Advertising helps people recognize a particular brand, persuades them to try it,
and tries to keep them loyal to it. Brand loyalty is perhaps the most important goal
of consumer advertising. Whether they produce cars, canned foods or cosmetics,
manufacturers want their customers to make repeated purchases. The quality of
the product will encourage this, of course, but so, too, will affect advertising.
Advertising relies on the techniques of market research to identify potential
users of a product. Are they homemakers or professional people? Are they young

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or old? Are they city dwellers or country dwellers? Such questions have a bearing
on where and when ads should be placed. By studying readership breakdowns for
newspapers and magazines as well as television ratings and other statistics, an
advertising agency can decide on the best way of reaching potential buyers.
Detailed research and marketing expertise are essential today when advertising
budgets can run into thousands of millions of dollars.
Advertising is a fast-paced, high-pressure industry. There is a constant need for
creative ideas that will establish a personality for a product in the public's mind.
Current developments in advertising increase the need for talented workers. In the
past, the majority of advertising was aimed at the traditional white family breadwinner father, non- working mother, and two children. Research now reveals
that only about 6 percent of American households fit this stereotype. Instead,
society is fragmented into many groups, with working mothers, single people and
older people on the rise. To be most successful, advertising must identify a
particular segment and aim its message toward that group.
Advertising is also making use of new technologies. Computer graphics are
used to grab the attention of consumers and to help them see products in a new
light. The use of computer graphics in a commercial for canned goods, for
instance, gave a new image to the tin can.
Question 29: What does the passage
mainly discuss? A. How to develop a
successful advertising plan.
B. New techniques and technologies of market research.
C. The central role of advertising in selling products.
D. The history of advertising in the United States.
Question 30: The word "this" in bold type in paragraph 1 refers to______.
A. the quality of the product
B. effective advertising
C. repeatedly buying the same brand
D. the most important goal
Question 31: It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that advertisers must______.
A. encourage people to try new products
B. aim their message at homemakers and professional people
C. know about the people who will buy the product
D. place several ads in newspapers and magazines
Question 32: According to paragraph 2, market research
includes______. A. studying television ratings.
B. hiring researchers with backgrounds in many fields.
C. searching for talented workers.
D. determining the price of a product.
Question 33: The author implies that the advertising industry requires______.
A. millions of dollars
B. a college-educated work force
C. innovative thinking
D. government regulation
Question 34: According to the passage, most advertising used to be directed
at______.
A. working mothers with children
B. two-parent families with children

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C. unmarried people
D. older adults
Question 35: The phrase "in a new light" in bold type in paragraph 5 is closest in
meaning to ______.
A. differently
B. with the use of color enhancement
C. more distinctly
D. in a more energy-efficient way
Question 36: Where in the passage does the author give an example of a new
development in advertising?
A. Paragraph 1
B. Paragraph 2
C. Paragraph 5
D. Paragraph 3
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to show the underlined part
that needs correction in each of the following questions from 37 to 39.
Question 37: (A) A person's body postures, movements (B) but positions more
often tell us (C) exactly (D) what they mean.
Question 38: I believe that (A) only very self-confident, (B) knowledge and
attentive students (C) will prefer 100% of (D) eye contact time.
Question 39: (A)The major goals of primary education is (B) to achieve basic
literacy (C) and numeracy (D) among all students.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer
sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 40 to 46.
Instructors at American colleges and universities use many different
teaching methods. Some instructors give assignments everyday. They grade
homework. Students in their classes have to take many quizzes, a midterm exam,
and a final test. Other instructors give only writing assignments. Some teachers
always follow a course outline and usually use the text book. Others send
students to the library for assignments.
The atmosphere in some classrooms is very formal. Students call their
instructors “Professor Smith,” “Mrs Jones,” and so on. Some teachers wear
business clothes and give lectures. Other classrooms have an informal
atmosphere. Students and teachers discuss their ideas. Instructors dress informally,
and students call them by their first names. American teachers are not alike in
their teaching styles.
At most American colleges and universities, facilities for learning and
recreation are available to students. Students can often use type-writers, tape
recorders, video machines, and computers at libraries and learning centres. They
can buy books, notebooks, and other things at campus stores. They can get advice
on their problems from counselors and individual help with their classes from
tutors. Students can relax and have fun on campus, too. Some schools have
swimming pools and tennis courts. Most have snack bars and cafeterias.
Question 40: What is the main idea of the first paragraph?
A. Ways of using the textbook
B. Ways of giving assignments
C. Ways of teaching
D. Ways of taking an exam.
Question 41: Where do students call their instructors “Professor Smith,” “Mrs
Jones,”?

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A. In classrooms with informal atmosphere B. In classrooms with formal
atmosphere
C. At libraries
D. At learning centres
Question 42: Which of the following
statements is TRUE? A. American teachers
do not dress informally.
B. The atmosphere in American classrooms is always formal.
C. The atmosphere in American classrooms is always relaxed and friendly.
D. American students can call their teachers by their first names.
Question 43: What does the phrase business clothes in paragraph 2 mean?
A. clothes that only business people wear.
B. trendy clothes
C. casual clothes
D. formal clothes
Question 44: Where do students and teachers discuss their ideas?
A. In classrooms with informal atmosphere B. In classrooms with formal
atmosphere
C. At libraries
D. At learning centres
Question 45: What can’t students do at most American colleges and
universities? A. buy anything at campus stores.
B. ask their counselors and tutors for advice.
C. use the computers that are linked to libraries.
D. have tutors and counselors solved their problems.
Question 46: Which of the following statements is NOT true about schools in
American? A. They are well-equipped.
B. They have stores on campus.
C. They have no recreation facilities.
D. They offer sports and leisure facilities for students.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the most suitable
response to each of the following exchanges from 47 to 48.
Question 47: Jane: “Would you rather have coffee or orange juice?” Susan:
“______”.
A. I like both
B. I have either
C. Either, please
D. I’d rather to have coffee
Question 48: Khanh: “I’d like the blue jacket, please! Can I try it on?”
Tien:“Yes, ______”.
A. you would
B. you must
C. certainly
D. you do
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word or phrase
that is
OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following questions
from 49 to 50. Question 49: I prefer secure jobs because I don’t like keeping on
moving and changing all the time.
A. challenging
B. demanding
C. safe
D. stable

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Question 50: The format allowed me to offer constructive criticism and ensure
that their conversation remained on track during the project.
A. useful
B. negative
C. meaningful
D. positive

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TEST 3
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word whose
underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the
following questions. Question 1: A. subscribed
B. launched
C.
inspired
D. welcomed
Question 2: A. sour
B. hour
C. pour
D. flour
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs
front the other three in the position of the primary stress in each of the following
questions.
Question 3: A. conserve
B. achieve
C. employ
D. waver
Question 4: A. perseverance B. application
C. agriculture
D.
dedication
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the underlined part
that needs correction in each of the following questions.
Question 5: It is (A) recommended that (B) people (C) to take regular (D) exercise.
Question 6: (A) More than ten students (B) have failed the exam, (C) that surprised
(D) the class teacher.
Question 7: The world is becoming more (A) industrialized and the number of animal
(B) species that have become (C) extinct (D) have increased.
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to
each of the following questions.
Question 8: He is exhausted. He ______ around the whole afternoon trying to clean
the house before the guests arrive.
A. has been running
B. has run
C. be running
D. was running
Question 9: Barack Obama is ______ President of ______ United States.
A. the/ the
B. a/ 0
C. the/ 0
D. the/ an
Question 10: John would like to specialize______computer science.
A. of
B. to
C. in
D. at
Question 11: ______he arrived at the bus stop when the bus came.
A. Hardly had
B. No sooner had
C. No longer has D. Not until had
Question 12: Many young people in rural areas don’t want to spend their lives on the
farm like their
______ parents. So they leave their home villages to find well-paid jobs in the fastgrowing industrial zones.
A. long-term
B. up-to-date
C. weather-beaten D. wide-ranging
Question 13: If she had known how awful this job was going to be, she______ it.
A. would accept
B. wouldn't accept
C. wouldn’t have accepted
D. would have accepted
Question 14: John asked me ______that film the night before.
A. that I saw
B. had I seen
C. if I had seen
D. if had I seen

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Question 15: Remember that things such as language, food and clothing are simply
expressions of our cultural______.
A. solidarity
B. identity
C. assimilation
D. celebration
Question 16: Waste paper can be used again after being ______.
A. produced
B. recycled
C. wasted
D. preserved
Question 17: - “Your parents must be proud of your results at school".
- “______”
A. Sorry to hear that
B. Thanks. It’s certainly encouraging.
C. Of course
D. I am glad you like it.
Question 18: The government is aiming______50 % reduction______
unemployment.
A. to/in
B. at/in
C. at/of
D. for/of
Question 19: No one enjoys ______ in public.
A. being made fun of
B. to be made fun of
C. making fun of
D. to make fun of
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the most suitable
response to complete each of the following questions.
Question 20: John was in Hanoi and wanted to send a parcel to his parents. He asked
a local passerby the way to the post-office. Choose the most suitable response to fill in
the blank in the following exchange.
-John: “Can you show me the way to the nearest post office,
please?” -Passer-by: “______”.
A. Not way, sorry.
B. Just round the comer over there.
C. Look it up in a dictionary!
D. There’s no traffic near here.
Question 21: Lora has just bought a new skirt that she likes very much. Choose the
most suitable response to fill in the blank in the following exchange.
-Jane: “You look great in that red skirt,
Lora!” -Lora: “______”.
A. No, I don't think so.
B. Oh, you don't like it, do you? C. Thanks,
I bought it at Macy’s.
D. Thanks, my mum bought it.
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) CLOSEST
in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Question 22: I’m becoming increasingly absent-minded. Last week, I locked myself
out of my house twice.
A. being considerate of things.
B. remembering to do right things.
C. forgetful of one’s past
D. often forgetting things.
Question 23: Sports and festivals form an integral part of every human society.
A. informative
B.delighted
C. exciting
D. essential
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s)
OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following
questions.

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Question 24: Although it’s a long day for us, we feel we are contented with what we
do.
A. interested
B. dissatisfied
C. excited
D. shocked
Question 25: I can’t stand people who treat animals cruelly.
A. gently
B. cleverly C. reasonably
D. brutally
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is
closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
Question 26: However old and worn his clothes were, they look clean and of
good quality. A. His clothes looked clean and of good quality but they were old
and worn.
B. His clothes, though old and worn, looked clean and of good quality.
C. He was fond of wearing such old and worn clothes because they were of good
quality.
D. No matter what good quality his clothes had, they looked old and worn.
Question 27: In spite of his poverty, he led a devoted life to the
revolutionary cause. A. He could not devote his life to the revolutionary
cause because of his poverty.
B. If he had not been so poor, he could have devoted his life to the revolutionary
cause.
C. Poor as he was, he led a devoted life to the revolutionary cause.
D. He led a devoted life to the revolutionary cause, but he was so poor.
Question 28: I thought Ỉ should not stay at
home yesterday. A. I regretted staying at home
yesterday.
B. I regretted for staying at home
yesterday
C. I regret for staying at home
yesterday.
D. I regret to stay at home yesterday.
Mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best
combines each pair of sentences in the following questions
Question 29: People should not throw rubbish in the park. People should not cut
down the trees in the park.
A. People should either throw rubbish or cut down the trees in the park.
B. People should neither throw rubbish nor cut down the trees in the park.
C. People should either throw rubbish nor cut down the trees in the park.
D. People should neither throw rubbish or cut down the trees in the park
Question 30: Most of the classmates couldn't come. He invited them to the birthday
party.
A. Most of the classmates he invited to the birthday party couldn’t come.
B. Most of the classmates he was invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
C. Most of the classmates that he invited them to the birthday party couldn't come.

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D. Most of the classmates which he invited to the birthday party couldn't come.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks
from 31 to 35.
In Germany, it's important to be serious in a work situation. They don't mix work
and play so you shouldn't make jokes (31)______ you do in the UK and USA when
you first meet people. They work in a very organized way and prefer to do one thing
at a time. They don't like interruptions or (32) ______changes of schedule. Punctuality
is very important so you should arrive on time for appointments. At meeting, it’s
important to follow the agenda and not interrupt (33) ______speaker. If you give a
presentation, you should focus (34) ______ facts and technical information and the
quality of your company's products. You should also prepare well, as they may ask a
lot of questions. Colleagues normally use the family names, and title - for example
'Doctor' or 'Professor', so you shouldn't use first names (35) ______ a person asks you
to.
Question 31. A. while
B. as if
C.such as
D. as
Question 32. A.sudden
B. suddenly
C. abruptly
D.
promptly
Question 33. A. other
B. others
C. another
D.
the other
Question 34. A. on
B. to
C. at
D. in
Question 35. A. if only
B. as
C. unless
D.
since
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
For many people who live in cities, parks are an important part of the landscape.
They provide a place for people to relax and play sports, as well as a refuge from the
often harsh environment of a city. What people often overlook is that parks also
provide considerable environmental benefits.
One benefit of parks is that plants absorb carbon dioxide - a key pollutant - and
emit oxygen, which humans need to breathe. According to one study, an acre of trees
can absorb the same amount of carbon dioxide that a typical car emits in 11,000 miles
of driving. Parks also make cities cooler. Scientists have long noted what is called the
Urban Heat Island Effect: building materials such as metal, concrete, and asphalt
absorb much more of the sun’s heat and release it much more quickly than organic
surfaces like trees and grass. Because city landscapes contain so much of these
building materials, cities are usually warmer than surrounding rural areas. Parks and
other green spaces help to mitigate the Urban Heat Island Effect.
Unfortunately, many cities cannot easily create more parks because most land is
already being used for buildings, roads, parking lots, and other essential parts of the
urban environment. However, cities could benefit from many of the positive effects of
parks by encouraging citizens to create another type of green space: rooftop gardens.
While most people would not think of starting a garden on their roof, human beings

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have been planting gardens on rooftops for thousands of years. Some rooftop gardens
are very complex and require complicated engineering, but others are simple container
gardens that anyone can create with the investment of a few hundred dollars and a few
hours of work.
Rooftop gardens provide many of the same benefits as other urban park and
garden spaces, but without taking up the much-needed land. Like parks, rooftop
gardens help to replace carbon dioxide in the air with nourishing oxygen. They also
help to lessen the Urban Heat Island Effect, which can save people money.
In the summer, rooftop gardens prevent buildings from absorbing heat from the
sun, which can significantly reduce cooling bills. In the winter, gardens help hold in
the heat that materials like brick and concrete radiate so quickly, leading to savings on
heating bills. Rooftop vegetable and herb gardens can also provide fresh food for city
dwellers, saving them money and making their diets healthier. Rooftop gardens are
not only something everyone can enjoy, they are also a smart environmental
investment.
Question 36: Based on its use in paragraph 2, it can be inferred that mitigate belongs
to which of the following word groups?
A. exacerbate, aggravate, intensify
B. obliterate, destroy, annihilate
C. allay, alleviate, reduce D. absorb, intake, consume
Question 37: Using the information in paragraph 2 as a guide, it can be inferred that
______.
. A. cities with rooftop gardens are cooler than those without rooftop
gardens.
B. some plants are not suitable for growth in rooftop gardens.
C. most people prefer parks to rooftop gardens.
D. most people prefer life in the country over life in the city.
Question 38: Based on the information in paragraph 3, which of the following best
describes the main difference between parks and rooftop gardens?
A. Parks are expensive to create while rooftop gardens are not.
B. Parks are public while rooftop gardens are private.
C. Parks absorb heat while rooftop gardens do not.
D. Parks require much space while rooftop gardens do not.
Question 39: The author claims all of the following to be the benefits of rooftop
gardens except______.
A. increased space for private relaxation.
B. savings on heating and cooling costs .
C. better food for city dwellers.
D. improved air quality.
Question 40: According to the author, one advantage that rooftop gardens have over
parks is that they______.
A. decrease the Urban Heat Island Effect. B. replenish the air with nourishing oxygen.
C. do not require the use of valuable urban land.
D. are less expensive than traditional
park spaces.
Question 41: The author’s tone in the passage is best described as ______.
A. descriptive
B. passionate
C. informative D. argumentative
Question 42: It can be inferred from the passage that the author would most likely
endorse a program that ______.

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A. permitted the construction of buildings in city park land provided they have
rooftop gardens.
B. extended discounts on plants to customers who use them to create rooftop gardens.
C. offered free admission to schools willing to take their students on field trips to the
city park.
D. promised vacation getaways to cooler destinations for those trapped in the city at
the peak of summer.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.
One of the most interesting authors of the twentieth century, J.R.R Tolkien,
achieved fame through his highly inventive trilogy. The Lord of the Rings. Born in
1892, Tolkien received his education from Oxford and then served in World War I.
After the war, he became a professor of Anglo -Saxon and English language and
literature at Oxford University.
Although published in 1965, the three books that comprise the Lord of the Rings
were written in intervals from 1936 to 1949. This was mainly due to Tolkien's
responsibilities as a professor and the outbreak of World War II. By the late 1960s,
this fascinating trilogy had become a sociological phenomenon as young people
intently studied the mythology and legends created by Tolkien.
The trilogy is remarkable not only for its highly developed account of historical
fiction but also its success as a modern heroic epic. The main plot describes the
struggle between good and evil kingdom as they try to acquire a magic ring that has
the power to rule the world. The novels, which are set in a time called Middle Earth,
describe a detailed fantasy world. Established before humans populated the Earth,
Middle Earth was inhabited by good and evil creatures such as hobbits, elves,
monsters, wizards, and some humans. The characters and the setting of Middle Earth
were modeled after mythological stories from Greece and Northern Europe.
Although readers have scrutinized the texts for inner meaning and have tried to
connect the trilogy with Tolkien's real life experiences in England during World War
II, he denied the connection. He claims that the story began in his years as an
undergraduate student and grew out of his desire to create mythology and legends
about elves and their language.
Tolkien was a masterful fantasy novelist who used his extensive knowledge of
folklore to create a body of work that is still read and enjoyed throughout the world
today.
Question 43: What can we assume is NOT true about
Middle Earth? A. Middle Earth was based on European
folktales.
B. Middle Earth was a fictional world.
C. The good and evil kingdom fought for the power.
D. People dominated Middle Earth.
Question 44: The word "scrutinized” in the fourth paragraph could be replaced
by______.
A. examined
B. denied
C. enjoyed
D. criticized

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Question 45: What does this paragraph mainly discuss?
A. J.R.R Tolkien's work as a professor.
B. All of J.R.R Tolkien's fantasy books.
C. J.R.R Tolkien and his trilogy.
D. The popularity of J.R.R Tolkien.
Question 46: According to the passage, when did "the Lord of the Rings" trilogy
become popular with young people?
A. In the late 1960s B. After World War II C. In 1892 D. Between 1936 and
1946
Question 47: When did Tolkien begin to create this trilogy?
A. When he was a student B. During World War I C. When he
was a professor
D. During World War II
Question 48: What does the word "trilogy" in the first
paragraph mean? A. A specific type of fantasy novel. B. A
long novel.
C. A group of three literary books.
D. An unrelated group of books.
Question 49: What is the setting of Tolkien's trilogy?
A. Modem - day Greece.
B. England in the 1800's.
C. Oxford University.
D. Middle Earth.
Question 50: The word "fascinating" in the second paragraph could be replaced by
______.
A. thrilling
B. extremely interesting C. boring
D. terrifying
-THE END-

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TEST 2
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best
combines each pair of sentences in the following questions.
Question 1. Transportation has been made much easier thanks to the invention of cars.
However, cars are the greatest contributor of air pollution.
A. The invention of cars has made transportation much easier, but cars are among the
greatest contributors of air pollution.
B. However easier the invention of cars has made transportation, it is cars that are among
the greatest contributors of air pollution.
C. Although the invention of cars has made transportation much easier, cars are the
greatest contributor of air pollution.
D. Although the invention of cars has made transportation much easier, people use cars to
contribute to the pollution of air.
Question 2. Our products are environmentally-friendly. We package all of them in
recyclable materials. A. The recyclable package of our products makes them look
environmentally-friendly.
B. Our products are packaged in recycled materials to be environmentally-friendly.
C. Packing our products in recyclable materials, we made them environmentallyfriendly.
D. Packed in recyclable materials, our products are environmentally-friendly.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs
from the other three in position of primary stress in each of the following questions.
Question 3. A. devastate
B. determine
C. stimulate
D. sacrifice
Question 4. A. appeal
B. reserve
C. confide
D. decent
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word whose
underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the
following questions.
Question 5. A. attempts
B. obeys
C. studies
D. conserves
Question 6. A. question
B. nation
C. vacation
D. exhibition
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to
each of the following questions.
Question 7. The U23 Vietnamese football team’s performance has garnered ______
from around the world and shown promise for Vietnam’s soccer horizon.
A. attentively
B. attend
C. attention
D. attentive
Question 8. The joke would not be funny if it ______ into French.
A. be translated
B. was be translated
C. has been translated
D. were
translated
Question 9. Many of the pictures ______ from outer space are presently on display in
the public library.

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A. having sent
B. sent
C. sending
D. were sent
Question 10. Everybody is tired of watching the same commercials on TV every
night, ______?
A. are they
B. haven’t they
C. aren’t they
D. don’t they
Question 11. After he ______ his work, he went straight home.
A. has finished
B. would finish
C. has been finishing
D.had
finished
Question 12. The authorities ______ actions to stop illegal purchase of wild animals
and their associated products effectively. However, they didn’t do so.
A. needed have taken B. should have taken
C. had to take D. must have taken
Question 13. Mary’s lawyer advised her ______ anything further about the accident.
A. not saying
B. not to say
C. not tell
D. telling
Question 14. Although he is my friend, I find it hard to ______ his selfishness.
A. catch up with
B. come down with
C. put up with
D. keep up with
Question 15. We expected him at eight, but he finally ______ at midnight.
A. came off
B. turned up
C. came to
D. turned in
Question 16. John congratulated us ______our exam with high marks.
A. for passing
B. on passing
C. to pass
D. on pass
Question 17. The first week of classes at university is a little ______because so many
students get lost, change classes or go to the wrong place.
A. notorious
B. uncontrolled
C. chaotic
D. arranged
Question 18. Paul is a very ______character, he is never relaxed with stranger.
A. self-satisfied
B. self-conscious
C. self-confident D. self-directed
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s)
CLOSEST in meaning to the underlined word(s) in each of the following questions.
Question 19. The government decided to pull down the old building after asking for
the ideas from the local residents.
A. demolish
B. purchase
C. maintain
D. renovate
Question 20. Tet marks the beginning of spring and, for agrarian people who depend
on the lunar calendar to manage their crops, the start of the year.
A. farmers
B. old people
C. traditional ones
D. minority
people
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word(s) or phrase
that is OPPOSITE in meaning to the underlined part in each of the following
questions.
Question 21. Ships crossing the oceans can receive signals from satellites that enable
them to calculate their position accurately.
A. uneasily
B. imprecisely
C. carelessly
D. untruthfully
Question 22. He is very absent-minded. He is likely to forget things or to think about
something different from what he should be thinking about.
A. easy-going B. retentive C. old-fashioned
D. unforgettable

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Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is
closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
Question 23. -The shop assistant: “This is my last portable CD player. I’ll let you
have it for fifty dollars”. -Stevenson: “______?”. A. Could you give me your last
CD?
B. Can you tell me your favourite type of music?
C. Could you give me a discount?
D. Could you possibly give me fifty dollars?
Question 24. -Customer: “Can I try this
jumper
on?”.
-Salesgirl:
“______?”.
A. Yes, it costs one hundred and fifty dollars.
B. No, the shop is closed in half an hour.
C. Sorry, only cash is accepted here.
D. Sure, the changing rooms are over there.
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks.
Some people return to college as mature students and take full- or part-time
training courses in a skill will help them to get a job. The development of open
learning, (25)______ it possible to study when it is convenient for the students, has
increased the opportunities available (26)______ many people. This type of study was
formerly restricted to book-based learning and (27)______ course but now includes
courses on TV, CD-ROM or the Internet, and self-access courses at language or
computer centers. Americans believe that education is important at all stages of life
and should not stop (28) ______ people get their first job. About 40% of adults take
part in some kind of education. About half of them are trying to get qualifications and
skills to help them with their jobs while the (29)______ are taking recreational
subjects for personal satisfaction. Schools and community colleges arrange evening
classes, and a catalog of courses is published by local boards of education.
Question 25. A. making
B. finding
C. keeping
D. enabling
Question 26. A. to
B. by
C. about
D. with
Question 27. A. correspondent B. corresponded
C. correspondence
D.
corresponding
Question 28. A. whereas
B. when
C. that
D. otherwise
Question 29. A. remains
B. rest
C. left
D. excess
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions
Millions of people are using cell phones today. In many places, it is actually
considered unusual not to use one. In many countries, cell phones are very popular
with young people. They find that the phones are more than a means of
communication - having a mobile phone shows that they are cool and connected.
The explosion in mobile phone use around the world has made some health
professionals worried. Some doctors are concerned that in the future, many people

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may suffer health problems from the use of mobile phones. In England, there has been
a serious debate about this issue. Mobile phone companies are worried about the
negative publicity of such ideas. They say that there is no proof that mobile phones
are bad for your health. On the other hand, medical studies have shown changes in the
brain cells of some people who use mobile phones. Signs of change in the tissues of
the brain and head can be detected with modern scanning equipment. In one case, a
traveling salesman had to retire at young age because of serious memory loss. He
couldn't remember even simple tasks. He would often forget the name of his own son.
This man used to talk on his mobile phone for about six hours a day, every day of his
working week, for a couple of years. His family doctor blamed his mobile phone use,
but his employer's doctor didn't agree.
What is it that makes mobile phones potentially harmful? The answer is
radiation. High-tech machines can detect very small amounts of radiation from mobile
phones. Mobile phone companies agree that there is some radiation, but they say the
amount is too small to worry about. As the discussion about their safety continues, it
appears that it's best to use mobile phones less often. Use your regular phone if you
want to talk for a long time. Use your mobile phone only when you really need it.
Mobile phones can be very useful and convenient, especially in emergencies. In the
future, mobile phones may have a warning label that says they are bad for your health.
So for now, it's wise not to use your mobile phone too often.
Question 30. According to the passage, cell phones are especially popular with
young people because ______.
A. they cannot be replaced by regular phones.
B. they are indispensable in everyday communications.
C. they keep the users alert all the time.
D. they make them look more stylish.
Question 31. The phrase “negative publicity” in the passage most
likely means______.
A. information on the lethal effects of cell phones.
B. the negative public use of cell phones.
C. poor ideas about the effects of cell phones.
D. widespread opinion about bad effects of cell phones.
Question 32. The word “potentially” in the passage most closely means ______.
A. possibly. B. privately. C. certainly. D. obviously.
Question 33. According to the writer, people
should ______. A. never use mobile phones
in all cases.
B. only use mobile phones in medical emergencies.
C. keep off mobile phones regularly.
D. only use mobile phones in urgent cases.
Question 34. According to the passage, what makes mobile phones potentially
harmful is ______.
A. their raiding power.
B. their power of attraction.
C. their invisible rays.
D. their radiant light.

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Question 35. The man mentioned in the passage, who used his cell phone too often,
______.
A. could no longer think lucidly.
B. had a problem with memory.
C. abandoned his family.
D. suffered serious loss of social skills.
Question 36. The changes possibly caused by the cell phones are mainly
concerned with ______. A. the smallest units of the brain.
B. the mobility
of the mind and the body.
C. the arteries of the brain.
D. the resident memory.
Question 37. Doctors have tentatively concluded that cell phones may
.
A. cause some mental malfunction.
B. have damaged their users’
emotion.
C. change their users’ social behaviours. D.
change
their
users’
temperament..
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions
You can usually tell when your friends are happy or angry by the looks on their
faces or by their actions. This is useful because reading their emotional expressions
helps you to know how to respond to them. Emotions have evolved to help us respond
to important situations and to convey our intentions to others. But does raising the
eyebrows and rounding the mouth say the same thing in Minneapolis as it does in
Madagascar? Much research on emotional expressions has centered on such questions.
According to Paul Ekman, the leading researcher in this area, people speak and
understand substantially the same "facial language". Studies by Ekman's group have
demonstrated that humans share a set of universal emotional expressions that testify to
the common biological heritage of the human species. Smiles, for example, signal
happiness and frowns indicate sadness on the faces of people in such far- flung places
as Argentina, Japan, Spain, Hungary, Poland , Sumatra ,the United States, Vietnam,
the jungles of New Guinea , and the Eskimo villages north of Artic Circle. Ekman and
his colleagues claim that people everywhere can recognize at least seven basic
emotions: sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness, and surprise. There are,
however, huge differences across cultures in both the context and intensity of
emotional displays - the so called display rules. In many Asian cultures, for example,
children are taught to control emotional responses - especially negative ones- while
many American children are encouraged to express their feelings more openly.
Regardless of culture, however, emotions usually show themselves, to some degree ,
in people's behavior. From their first days of life, babies produce facial expressions
that communicate their feelings.
The ability to read facial expressions develops early, too. Very young children
pay close attention to facial expressions, and by age five, they nearly equal adults in
their skill at reading emotions on people's faces. This evidence all points to a
biological underpinning for our abilities to express and interpret a basic set of human
emotions. Moreover, as Charles Darwin pointed out over a century ago, some

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emotional expressions seem to appear across species boundaries. Cross - cultural
psychologists tell us that certain emotional responses carry different meanings in
different cultures. For example, what emotion do you suppose might be conveyed by
sticking out your tongue? For Americans, this might indicate disgust, while in China it
can signify surprise. Likewise, a grin on an American face may indicate joy, while on
a Japanese face it may just as easily mean embarrassment. Clearly, culture influences
emotional expressions.
Question 38. According to the passage, we respond to others by______.
A. observing their emotional expressions.
B. looking at their faces.
C. watching their actions.
D. observing their looks.
Question 39. Many studies on emotional expressions try to
answer whether ______.
A. eyebrow raising means the same in Minneapolis and
Madagascar.
B. raising the eyebrows has similar meaning to rounding the mouth.
C. different cultures have similar emotional expressions.
D. rounding the mouth has the same meaning in Minneapolis and Madagascar.
Question 40. The word " evolved" in the passage is closest in meaning to______.
A. Developed B. increased C. reduced D. Simplified
Question 41. The best title for the
passage is______.
A. ways to control emotional
expressions.
B. A review of research on emotional expressions.
C. Human habits of displaying emotions.
D. cultural universals in emotional expressions.
Question 42. Unlike American children, Asian children are
encouraged to______. A. display their emotions openly.
B.
change their behaviour.
C. control their emotions.
D. conceal their positive emotions.
Question 43. Young children______.
A. are sensitive towards others' emotions.
B. take time to control their facial expressions.
C. spend a long time learning to read others' emotions.
D. make amazing progress in controlling their emotions.
Question
44.
The
biggest
difference lies in______.
A. how often positive emotions are
shown.
B. how emotional responses are controlled.
C. how intensive emotions are expressed.
D. how long negative emotions are displayed.

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Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the underlined part
that needs correction in each of the following questions.
Question 45. Fifty minutes are the maximum length of time allotted for the exam.
A. are
B. maximum
C. length
D. allotted
Question 46. The ocean probably distinguishes the earth from other planets of the
solar system, for scientists believe that large bodies of water are not existing on the
other planets.
A. from
B. probably
C. for
D. are not existing
Question 47. For its establishment, ASEAN Tourism Association has played an
important role in promoting and developing ASEAN Tourism services.
A. Tourism Association.
B. in promoting and developing.
C. For its.
D. played.
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that is
closest in meaning to each of the following questions.
Question 48. I don’t find it difficult to get up early in the morning.
A. It’s difficult for me to get up early in the morning.
B. I hate getting up early in the morning.
C. I used to get up early in the morning.
D. I’m used to getting up early in the morning.
Question 49. I thought she was the right person for the position, yet it turned out that
she was quite useless.
A. I was mistaken about her suitability for the position since she proved rather
incompetent.
B. Because I was expecting her to be competent, I was shocked to see her perform
rather badly
C. I was right in thinking that she was totally useless for the job.
D. Contrary to my initial impression, she was totally for the position.
Question 50. We couldn’t solve the problem until
our teacher arrived. A. When our teacher arrived, we
solved the problem.
B. Until our teacher arrived, we were able to solve the problem.
C. Not until we solved the problem could our teacher arrive.
D. Not until our teacher arrive could we solve the problem.

-------------------- THE END --------------------

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TEST 5
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to
each of the following questions.
Question 1. My father refuses to even listen to anyone else’s point of view. He is
______.
A. absent-minded
B. kind-hearted
C. open-minded
D. narrow-minded
Question 2. Toxic chemicals in the air and land have driven many species to the
______ of extinction.
A. verge
B. edge
C. border
D. tip
Question 3. Peter gave the teacher his personal ______ that his assignment would be
ready by Monday.
A. assurance
B. insurance
C. endurance
D. ensurance
Question 4. There ______ many visitors to this country since last year.
A. were
B. has been
C. have been
D. was
Question 5. We ______ today and I got into trouble because I hadn’t done it.
A. had checked our homework
B. were checked our homework
C. have our homework checking
D. had our homework checked
Question 6. The company hopes that the personnel ______ will be of varied
backgrounds and possess outstanding research skills.
A. who chose
B. to choose
C chosen
D. was chosen
Question 7. Cigarette smoking has been ______ breast as well as lung cancer.
A. originated from
B. concerned to
C. associated with
D. caused by
Question 8. Tommy will inherit everything ______ his uncle’s death.
A. in place of
B.
on account of
C. in the event of
D.
in
spite of Question 9. The equipment in our school needs______.
A. be modernized
B. modernizing
C. to modernize D. being modernized
Question 10. If you hadn’t stayed up so late last night, you______now.
A. wouldn’t have felt
B. wouldn’t feel
C. won’t feel
D. wouldn’t have fallen
Question 11. Nobody in both cars was injured in the accident last night, ______?
A. weren’t they
B. wasn’t he
C. were they
D. was he
Question 12. I’m afraid I’m not really ______ to comment on this matter.
A. qualitative
B. qualified
C. quality
D. qualifying
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 13 to 19.
People appear to be born to compute. The numerical skills of children develop so
early and so inexorably that it is easy to imagine an internal clock of mathematical
maturity guiding then growth. Not long after learning to walk and talk, they can set the
table with impressive accuracy - one plate, one knife, one spoon, one fork, for each of
the five chairs. Soon they are capable of nothing that they have placed five knives,
spoons, and forks on the table and, a bit later, that this amounts to fifteen pieces of
silverware. Having thus mastered addition, they move on to subtraction. It seems
almost reasonable to expect that if a child were secluded on a desert island at birth and

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retrieved seven years later, he or she could enter a secondgrade mathematics class
without any serious problems of intellectual adjustment.
Of course, the truth is not so simple. This century, the work of cognitive
psychologists has illuminated the subtle forms of daily learning on which intellectual
progress depends. Children were observed as they slowly grasped - or, as the case
might be, bumped into - concepts that adults take for granted, as they refused, for
instance, to concede that quantity is unchanged as water pours from a short stout glass
into a tall thin one. Psychologists have since demonstrated that young children, asked
to count pencils in a pile, readily report the number of blue or red pencils, but must be
coaxed into finding the total. Such studies have suggested that the rudiments of
mathematics are mastered gradually, and with effort. They have also suggested that the
very concepts of abstract numbers - the ideas of oneness, a twoness, a threeness that
applies to any class of objects and is a prerequisite for doing anything more
mathematically demanding than setting a table - is itself far from innate.
Question 13. What does the passage mainly discuss?
A. The development of mathematical ability in children.
B. The use of mathematics in child psychology.
C. Trends in teaching mathematics to children.
D. The fundamental concepts of mathematics that children must learn.
Question 14. It can be inferred from the passage that children normally learn simple
counting ______.
A. soon after they learn to talk
B. by looking at the clock
C. when they walk
D. after they reach second grade in school
Question 15. The author implies that most small children believe that the quantity of
water changes when it is transferred to a container of a different ______.
A. quality
B. shape
C. color
D. weight
Question 16. The world “illuminated” in line 11 is closest in meaning to ____
______.
A. accepted
B. illustrated
C. lighted
D. clarified
Question 17. According to the passage, when small children were asked to count a
pile of red and blue pencils, they ______.
A. subtracted the number of red pencils from the number of blue pencils.
B. guessed at the total number of pencils.
C. counted only the pencils of then favorite color.
D. counted the number of pencils of each color.
Question 18. The word “prerequisite” in line 18 is closest in meaning to______ .
A. technique
B. theory
C. requirement
D. reason
Question 19. The word “itself” in line 19 refers to______.
A. the concept of abstract numbers
B. setting a table
C. any class of objects
D. the total
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word that differs
from the other three in the position of primary stress in each of the following
questions.

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Question 20. A. service
Question 21. A. disappear

B. combine
B. arrangement

C. reserve
C. occasional

D. police
D. opponent

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word whose
underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the
following questions.
Question 22. A. mouth
B. loudly
C. southern
D. thousand
Question 23. A. threatened
B. forced
C. passed
D. walked
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the sentence that best
completes each of the following exchanges.
Question 24. Tommy and Anna are discussing how to protect
the environment. -Tommy: “Do you think that we should plant
more trees to protect our environment?” -Anna: “
__________ .”
A. Yes, it’s an absurd idea.
B. Well, that’s very surprising
C. I can’t agree with you more.
D. It doesn’t matter at all.
Question 25. A shop keeper is talking to a customer.
-Shop keeper: “ ___________ ”
-Customer: “Yes. I’d like to buy a camera.”
A. Do you look for something?
B. Excuse me. Do you want to buy it?
C. Excuse me. Can I help you?
D. Excuse me. Can you help me buy something?
Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct word or phrase that best fits each of the numbered blanks
from 26 to 30.
A major revolution for the automated office is electronic mail. The customary
(26)______ system requires messages written on paper to be transmitted physically
from one location to another. With electronic mail, messages are converted (27)
______ electronic signals, transmitted anywhere in the world, and then changed back
into then original written forms, all in several seconds or minutes at (28) ______.
Through the use of video screens in company offices, a single document can be
transmitted to hundreds of people in dozens of branch offices simultaneously. Thus,
electronic mail, along with databases, can be an important asset in teleconferences.
(29)______, the use of electronic mail in the form of the “mail box” (30)______ to a
telephone is also of great value. Since in offices many telephone calls go uncompleted
on the first attempt, with electronic mail, two-way conversion is not essential, which
reduces telephone use and saves time.
Question 26. A. post
B. postal
C. posting
D. postage
Question 27. A. from
B. into
C. by
D. with
Question 28. A. most
B. least
C. all
D. last
Question 29. A. Accordingly
B. Furthermore
C. Whereas
D. However Question 30. A. attached
B. extended
C.
transmitted
D. spread

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Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet
to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions from 31 to 38.
We are descendants of the ice age. Periods of glaciation have spanned the whole
of human existence for the past 2 million years. The rapid melting of the continental
glaciers at the end of the last ice age spurred one of the most dramatic climate changes
in the history of the planet. During this interglacial time, people were caught up in a
cataclysm of human accomplishment, including the development of agriculture and
animal husbandry. Over the past few thousand years, the Earth's climate has been
extraordinarily beneficial, and humans have prospered exceedingly well under a
benign atmosphere.
Ice ages have dramatically affected life on Earth almost from the very beginning.
It is even possible that life itself significantly changed the climate. All living
organisms pull carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and eventually store it in
sedimentary rocks within the Earth's crust. If too much carbon dioxide is lost, too
much heat escapes out into the atmosphere. This can cause the Earth to cool enough
for glacial ice to spread across the land.
In general the reduction of the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has
been equalized by the input of carbon dioxide from such events as volcanic eruptions.
Man, however, is upsetting the equation by burning fossil fuels and destroying tropical
rain forests, both of which release stored carbon dioxide. This energizes the
greenhouse effect and causes the Earth to warm. If the warming is significant enough,
the polar ice caps eventually melt.
The polar ice caps drive the atmospheric and oceanic circulation systems. Should
the ice caps melt, warm tropical waters could circle the globe and make this a very
warm, inhospitable planet.
Over the past century, the global sea level has apparently risen upwards of 6
inches, mainly because of the melting of glacial ice. If present warming trends
continue, the seas could rise as much as 6 feet by the next century. This could flood
coastal cities and fertile river deltas, where half the human population lives. Delicate
wetlands, where many marine species breed, also would be reclaimed by the sea. In
addition, more frequent and severe storms would batter coastal areas, adding to the
disaster of the higher seas.
The continued melting of the great ice sheets in polar regions could cause
massive amounts of ice to crash into the ocean. This would further raise the sea level
and release more ice, which could more than double the area of sea ice and increase
correspondingly the amount of sunlight reflected back into space. The cycle would
then be complete as this could cause global temperatures to drop enough to initiate
another ice age.
Question 31. What is the main topic
of the passage? A. The coming of
another ice age.
B. The climate of the Earth over the years.
C. Man's effect on the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere.
D. The possibility that the popular ice caps will melt.

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