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Cracking the GMAT 2019 Luyện thi GMAT 2019 The Princeton Review bản đẹp



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Someofthecontentinthe“GMATInsider”haspreviouslyappearedinTheBest296Business
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paperbacksbyRandomHousein2012;andDoINeedanMBA?FiguringOutifBusinessSchool
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Acknowledgments
Our GMAT course is much more than clever techniques and powerful
computer score reports; the reason our results are great is that our
teachers care so much about their students. Thanks to all the teachers
who have made the GMAT course so successful, but in particular the
coregroupofteachersanddevelopmentpeoplewhohelpedgetitoffthe
ground: Alicia Ernst, Tom Meltzer, Paul Foglino, John Sheehan, Mark
Sawula, Nell Goddin, Teresa Connelly, Phillip Yee, Kimberly Beth
Hollingsworth, Bobby Hood, Chris Chimera, Chris Hinkle, Peter Hanink,
andCathyEvins.


Special thanks to John Fulmer, Kyle Fox, Jim Havens, Ted Klein, and
KeithHehrfortheirvaluablecontributionstothe2019editionofthisbook.
Special thanks to Adam Robinson, who conceived of and perfected the
Joe Bloggs approach to standardized tests and many of the other
successfultechniquesusedbyThePrincetonReview.
Wearealso,asalways,veryappreciativeofthetimeandattentiongiven
toeachpagebyLizRutzel,JimMelloan,andDeborahWeber.


Contents
Cover
TitlePage
Copyright
Acknowledgments
GetMore(Free)Content

PartI:Orientation
1 Introduction
2 HowtoThinkAbouttheGMAT
3 CrackingtheAdaptiveSections:BasicPrinciples
4 CrackingtheAdaptiveSections:IntermediatePrinciples
5 CrackingtheAdaptiveSections:AdvancedPrinciples
6 TakingtheGMAT

PartII:HowtoCracktheMathGMAT
7 GMATMath:BasicPrinciples
8 POEandGMATMath
9 DataSufficiency:BasicPrinciples
10 Arithmetic
11 Algebra
12 AppliedArithmetic
13 Geometry
14 AdvancedDataSufficiency

PartIII:HowtoCracktheVerbalGMAT
15 SentenceCorrection
16 ReadingComprehension
17 CriticalReasoning


PartIV:HowtoCracktheIntegratedReasoning
GMAT
18 IntegratedReasoning:Basics
19 IntegratedReasoning:Strategies
20 IntegratedReasoning:Drills

PartV:HowtoCracktheAnalyticalWriting
Assessment
21 AnalyticalWritingAssessment

PartVI:AnswerKeytoDrills
PartVII:ThePrincetonReviewGMATMathand
VerbalWarm-UpTestandExplanations
22 GMATMathandVerbalWarm-UpTest
23 GMATMathandVerbalWarm-UpTest:Answersand
Explanations

PartVIII:ThePrincetonReviewGMATMathand
VerbalPracticeBinsandExplanations
24 GMATMathandVerbalPracticeBins
25 GMATMathandVerbalPracticeBins:AnswersandExplanations


1 GotoPrincetonReview.com/cracking.
2 EnterthefollowingISBNforyourbook:9781524758233
3 AnswerafewsimplequestionstosetupanexclusivePrinceton
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Onceyou’veregistered,youcan…
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PrincetonReviewGMATtitles
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—4weeks,8weeks,12weeks
• Watchshortvideotutorialsinwhichtop-notchPrincetonReview
teachersdiscussGMATquestiontypesandstrategies,working
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administrators,andarticlescontainingawealthofadviceabout
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edition
• GetourtakeonanyrecentorpendingupdatestotheGMAT

LookForTheseIconsThroughoutTheBook
ONLINEVIDEOTUTORIALS
ONLINEARTICLES
ONLINEPRACTICEDRILLS
ONLINEPRACTICETESTS
PROVENTECHNIQUES
APPLIEDSTRATEGIES
TIME-SAVINGTIP
MOREGREATBOOKS


WATCHOUT


PartI
Orientation
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

Introduction
HowtoThinkAbouttheGMAT
CrackingtheAdaptiveSections:BasicPrinciples
CrackingtheAdaptiveSections:IntermediatePrinciples
CrackingtheAdaptiveSections:AdvancedPrinciples
TakingtheGMAT


Chapter1
Introduction
Congratulationsonyourdecisiontoattendbusinessschool,andwelcome
to Cracking the GMAT, 2019 Edition! Preparing for the GMAT is an
important part of the process, so let’s get started. This chapter will
provide you with a strategic plan for acing the GMAT, as well as an
overviewofthetestitself,includingquestionformatsandinformationon
howthetestisscored.


HOWTOUSETHISBOOK:ASTRATEGICPLAN
FORACINGTHEGMAT
1.LearntheFamedPrincetonReviewTestTakingStrategies
In the next few chapters, you’ll find the strategies that have given our
GMATstudentstheedgeforthepast20years.

2.LearntheSpecificMathandVerbalSkills
You’llNeed
Ourcoursesincludeanextremelythoroughreviewofthemathandverbal
skillsourstudentsneedtoacetheGMAT,andthisbookwillgiveyouthat
samereview.

3.PracticeEachTypeofQuestion—atthe
DifficultyLevelYouNeedtoMaster
Two of the GMAT’s sections, the Quantitative and Verbal sections, are
computer adaptive. These sections quickly hone in on your ability level
and then mostly give you questions at or just above that level. It makes
sense for you to practice on the level of problem you will actually see
during the test. Cracking the GMAT is the only book out there with
practice questions grouped by difficulty. Page after page of practice
questions are arranged at the back of this book in difficulty “bins”—just
likethequestionsontherealGMAT—sothatyoucanconcentrateonthe
question level you will have to answer on the actual test in order to get
thescoreyouneed.
TheIntegratedReasoningsectionoftheGMATisnotcomputeradaptive.
We’veprovidedtwocompleteIntegratedReasoningsectionsattheback
ofthisbooktohelpyouprepareforthissectionofthetest.


4.PeriodicallyTakeSimulatedGMATsto
MeasureYourProgress
As you work through the book, you’ll want to take our online practice
teststoseehowyou’redoing.ThesetestscloselymimictheGMATsoyou
can become familiar with the test’s content and structure. Our tests
includeadaptivesectionsfortheQuantitativeandVerbalsectionsanda
non-adaptive section for the Integrated Reasoning section. Our practice
tests can be found at PrincetonReview.com. In addition, we actively
encouragestudentstouseTheOfficialGuideforGMATReview,whichis
published by the Graduate Management Admission Council (GMAC). It
contains actual test questions from previous administrations of the
GMAT. You should also take at least one of the real practice tests
availablethroughtheGMATwebsite,www.mba.com.

Makesurethatyouregisteryourbooktoaccess
yourtests.Pleaserefertothe“GetMore(Free)
Content”spreadafewpagesbacktolearnhowtodo
justthat.

5.HoneYourSkills
Usingthedetailedscorereportsfromyourpracticeexams,you’llbeable
to zero in on problem areas and quickly achieve mastery through
additionalpractice.Andasyourscorerisesontheadaptivesections,this
book is ready with more difficult question bins to keep you on track for
the score you need. You can use the two practice Integrated Reasoning
sectionsinthisbooktohelpyouprepareforyourpracticetestsandyour
realGMAT.

6.KeepTrackoftheApplicationProcess


Throughoutthebook,youwillfindinformativesidebarsexplaininghow
and when to register for the test, how and when to apply to business
school, the advantages and disadvantages of applying early, and much
more.Plus,atPrincetonReview.com,you’llbeabletotakeadvantage
ofourpowerfulweb-basedtoolstomatchyourselfwithschoolsthatmeet
yourneedsandpreferences.
ImportantWebsites
ToregisterfortheGMAT:www.mba.com

ImportantPhoneNumbers:
ToregisterfortheGMAT:800-717-GMAT
ToreachGMACCustomerService:866-505-6559or
703-668-9605

WHATISTHEGRADUATEMANAGEMENT
ADMISSIONTEST?
The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is a standardized
testusedbybusinessschoolsasatooltodecidewhomtheyaregoingto
letintotheirMBAprograms.

WhereDoestheGMATComeFrom?
TheGMATispublishedandadministeredbytheGraduateManagement
Admission Council (GMAC). GMAC is a private company. We’ll tell you
moreaboutthemlateroninthisbook.

MoreGreatBooks!
Checkoutoursurvey-drivenguide,TheBest294
BusinessSchools,forprofilesofthenation’stopb-


schools.

WhatDoestheTestLookLike?
TheGMATisofferedonlyoncomputer.The3.5hourtestisadministered
at a secure computer terminal at an approved testing center. You enter
your multiple-choice answers on the screen with a mouse; you must
composeyouressayfortheWritingAssessmentsectiononthecomputer
aswell.

1. One30minuteessaytobewrittenonthecomputer
usingagenericwordprocessingprogram
2. One30minute,12question,multiple-choice
IntegratedReasoningsection.SomeIntegrated
Reasoningquestionscanhavemultipleparts.
(optionalbreak)
3. A75minute,37questionmultiple-choiceMathsection
(optionalbreak)
4. A75minute,41questionmultiple-choiceVerbal
section

Onaverage,thiswouldgiveyoutwominutesforeachmathquestionand
alittlelessthantwominutesforeachverbalquestion—butyouwillfind
thatourPrincetonReviewstrategieswillslightlyrevisethesetimes.You
must answer a question in order to get to the next question—which
meansthatyoucan’tskipaquestionandcomebacktoit.Andwhileyou
arenotrequiredtofinishanyofthesections,yourscorewillbeadjusted
downwardtoreflectquestionsyoudidnotcomplete.
On each of the Math and Verbal sections, approximately one-quarter of
the questions you encounter will be experimental and will not count
toward your score. These questions, which will be mixed in among the


regular questions, are there so the test company can try out new
questions for future tests. We’ll have much more to say about the
experimentalquestionslater.

ButWait,There’sMore
One of the first options you’ll encounter when taking the GMAT is the
optiontochoosefromoneofthreepossibleordersfortheexamsections.
Youpickyourpreferredsectionorderonthedayofthetest.
Herearethepossiblesectionorders:
Order#1(ClassicOrder)
AnalyticWriting
Assessment

Order#2(Verbal
First)

Order#3(Math
First)

Verbal

Quantitative

IntegratedReasoning
Optional8minutebreak
Quantitative

Quantitative

Verbal

Optional8minutebreak
Integrated
Reasoning

Integrated
Reasoning

AnalyticalWriting
Assessment

AnalyticalWriting
Assessment

Verbal

HowDoYouKnowWhatOrdertoPick?
The answer to that depends on your goals for the test and your level of
comfort with the different sections. Are you looking to get a high Math
score,butyoudon’tcaresomuchabouttheVerbal?Hasyourschooltold


youtheyneverconsidertheessayandIntegratedReasoningsection?Are
yougoodatVerbalbutnotsogoodatMath?
The answer to these questions and other questions like them help to
informyoursectionorderchoice.

HowDoesThisImpactYourStudying?
We recommend that you take one test using the classic order. A major
goal of your first practice test is to simply get acquainted with the
sections,questiontypes,content,andtimingoftheGMATandtoattempt
to put into use some of the basic approaches for important question
types.
Taking a test using the classic section order provides a baseline score.
Having established a baseline score, you can then try out a different
sectionorderfortheremainingtest.Comparetheresultsofthetestwith
thedifferentsectionordertotheresultsofthetestwiththeclassicsection
orderandseeifthereareanyimprovements.
In addition to looking for score improvements, you should also pay
attention to a handful of other factors about your preferences in test
taking.
Forinstance,doyouliketoeaseintoatestorhitthegroundrunning?If
youliketoeaseintoatest,youmaywanttostickwiththeclassicsection
order.WhileallpartsofyourGMATscoreareimportant,mostschoolsdo
attach less importance to your AWA and Integrated Reasoning scores
than your Quantitative and Verbal scores. Remember, as well, that only
the Quantitative and Verbal scores are used in calculating the overall
score. So, if you like to ease into a test, the AWA and Integrated
Reasoningcanprovidethatwaytoeasein.
Doyouliketodothesectionyou’remostworriedaboutfirst?Sometest
takersliketogetthesectionthattheyaremostworriedaboutoutofthe
way.Ifthat’syou,you’llprobablywanttopickeithertheVerbalFirstor
Math First orders, depending on which section you are most worried
about!


Areyouworriedaboutfatigue?MosttesttakersfindtheGMATbothfastpacedandtiring.Fatiguecanbeaveryrealissue.Ifyouareworriedabout
fatigue, you probably want to do either the Verbal First or Math First
ordersastheyplacethetwoleastconsequentialsectionsattheendofthe
test.

WhatInformationIsTestedontheGMAT?
You will find several different types of multiple-choice questions on the
GMAT.

Math(37questionstotal)
ProblemSolving—approximately19questions
DataSufficiency(astrangetypeofproblemthatexists
onnoothertestintheworld)—approximately18
questions
Verbal(41questionstotal)
ReadingComprehension(testsyourabilitytoanswer
questionsaboutapassage)—approximately13
questions
SentenceCorrection(agrammar-relatedquestion
type)—approximately17questions
CriticalReasoning(alogic-basedquestiontype
recycledfromtheLSAT)—approximately11questions
IntegratedReasoning(12questionstotal)
TableAnalysis—dataispresentedinasortabletable
(likeanExcelspreadsheet);eachquestionusuallyhas
threeparts.
GraphicsInterpretation—achartorgraphisusedto
displaydata;eachquestionusuallyhastwoparts;
answersareselectedfromdrop-downboxes.


Multi-SourceReasoning—information(acombination
ofcharts,text,andtables)ispresentedontwoorthree
tabs;eachsetoftabbedinformationisusually
accompaniedbythreequestions.
Two-PartAnalysis—eachquestionusuallyhasfiveor
sixoptionsofwhichyouneedtopicktwo.

HowIstheGMATScored?
Assoonasyou’vefinishedtakingtheGMAT,yourcomputerwillcalculate
and display your unofficial results, not including your Writing
Assessment score. You can print out a copy of your unofficial results to
takewithyou.Within20days,youwillreceiveyourscorereportonline;a
writtenreportwillbeavailableonlybyrequest.
Most people think of the GMAT score as a single number, but in fact
therearefiveseparatenumbers:
1. Mathscore(reportedonascalethatrunsfrom0to60)
2. Verbalscore(reportedonascalethatrunsfrom0to60)
3. Totalscore(reportedonascalethatrunsfrom200to800andbased
onlyontheresultsofMathandVerbalsections)
4. AnalyticWritingAssessmentscore(reportedonascaleof0to6,in
halfpointincrements;6isthehighestscore)
5. IntegratedReasoningscore(reportedonascalefrom1to8inone
pointincrements)
Thereportwilllooksomethinglikethis:


Manybusinessschoolstendtofocusonthetotalscore,whichmeansthat
you may make up for weakness in one area by being strong in another.
Forexample,ifyourquantitativeskillsarebetterthanyourverbalskills,
they’llhelppullupyourtotalscore—althoughsomeofthemoreselective
schools say they prefer to see math and verbal sub-scores that are
balanced. Total scores go up or down in ten-point increments. In other
words,youmightreceive490or500ontheGMAT,butnever494or495.
The Integrated Reasoning section is scored from 1 to 8 in one-point
increments.
Questionshavemultipleparts,andyoumustanswereachpartcorrectly
to get credit for the question. The Integrated Reasoning score is not
includedintheOverallscore.
Youwillalsoseeapercentilerankingnexttoeachscore.Forexample,if
you see a percentile of 72 next to your Verbal score, it means that 72
percentofthepeoplewhotookthistestscoredlowerthanyoudidonthe
Verbalsection.

WHATISTHEPRINCETONREVIEW?
The Princeton Review is a test-preparation company founded in New
York City. It has branches in more than 50 cities across the country, as
well as abroad. The Princeton Review’s techniques are unique and
powerful, and they were developed after a study of thousands of real
GMAT questions. They work because they are based on the same
principlesthatareusedinwritingtheactualtest.ThePrincetonReview’s
techniques for beating the GMAT will help you improve your scores by
teachingyouto:
thinklikethetestwriters
takefulladvantageofthecomputer-adaptivealgorithmsuponwhich
theGMATisbased
findtheanswerstoquestionsyoudon’tunderstandbyusingProcess
ofElimination
avoidthetrapsthattestwritershavesetforyou(andusethosetraps


toyouradvantage)

AWarning
ManyofourtechniquesforbeatingtheGMATmaybeverydifferentfrom
thewaythatyouwouldnaturallyapproachproblems.Somemethodsmay
evenseemcounterintuitive.Restassured,however,thatmanytesttakers
haveusedourmethodstogetgreatGMATscores.Togetthefullbenefit
ofourtechniques,youmusttrustthem.Theonlywaytodevelopthistrust
istopracticethetechniquesandpersuadeyourselfthattheywork.

PracticewithRealQuestions
One reason coaching books do not use real GMAT questions is that
GMAC won’t let them. So far, the council has refused to let anyone
(including us) license actual questions from old tests. As we mentioned
above,thecouncilhasitsownreviewbookcalledTheOfficialGuidefor
GMATReview,whichweheartilyrecommendthatyoupurchase.GMAC
also puts out preparation software called GMATPrep, which can be
downloaded for free from www.mba.com. This software includes two
computer-adaptivetestsplusadditionalpracticesets,allofwhichfeature
realGMATquestions.BypracticingourtechniquesonrealGMATitems,
you will be able to prove to yourself that the techniques work and
increaseyourconfidencewhenyouactuallytakethetest.
And, remember, by using The Princeton Review’s practice questions
grouped by level of difficulty at the back of this book, you’ll be able to
concentrateontypesofquestionsyouareactuallylikelytosee.

AdditionalResources
In addition to the material in this book, we offer a number of other
resourcestoaidyouduringyourGMATpreparation.
Register your book at PrincetonReview.com to gain access to your
StudentTools,thecompanionwebsitetothisbook.Thereyouwillfind6
full-length GMAT exams, assorted videos that demonstrate step-by-step


approaches to GMAT question types and strategy, extra drills and
practice,andtonsofusefularticles,essays,andinformation.


Summary
ByusingacombinationofThePrincetonReview’sIntegrated
Reasoningintroduction,mathandverbalreviews,thepractice
questionscontainedinthisbook,andperiodicsimulatedtests,you
willbeabletoimproveyourscoreontheGMAT.
Thetestitselfistakenoncomputer.Itconsistsofthefollowing:


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