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Cambridge primary science stage 1 learner book



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Author acknowledgements
The Publisher is extremely grateful to the following schools for their comments and feedback during the development of this series:
Avalon Heights World Private School, Ajman
The Oxford School, Dubai
Al Amana Private School, Sharjah
British International School, Ajman
Wesgreen International School, Sharjah
As Seeb International School, Al Khoud
Photo credits
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Getty Images/World Commerce & Travel 5; p.15 tc © Maxal Tamor/Shutterstock; p.15 tr © Elizabeth A.Cummings/Shutterstock; p.15 b © 1997 John A. Rizzo/Photodisc/Getty Images/Eat,
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Shutterstock; p.16 tc © Barmalini/ Shutterstock; p.16 tr © Chaded Panichsri/Shutterstock; p.16 b © Sonya Etchison/Shutterstock; p.19 © Bogdanwanko/123rf; p.21 © Jag_CZ/Shutterstock;
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br , p.73 b © Witthaya P/Shutterstock; p.62 t © Tatuyoshi Toriu/123rf; p.62 b © Fortish/Shutterstock; p.64 br © Payless Images/Fotolia; p.66 t © Sandra Brunsch/Fotolia; p.66 b © Monkey
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Shutterstock; p.82 t © Tomislav Forgo/Fotolia; p.82 cr © Helga Lei /Shutterstock; p.82 cl © Dutourdumonde Photography/Shutterstock; p.82 b © Ingram Publishing Limited/Occupations
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Kalinovsky/123rf; p.88 t , p.92 cl, p.96 tl © Timquo/Shutterstock; p.88 bl © Vladimirs Poplavskis/123rf; p.88 br © Shannon Fagan/123rf; p.88 r © CJG-Asia/Alamy Stock Photo; p.89 t, p.103
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tl © Imagestate Media (John Foxx)/Wood Structures BS27; p.97 t © Karel Joseph Noppe Brooks/123rf; p.97 bl © Cherry-Merry/Shutterstock; p.97 br © Flashon Studio/123rf; p.98 t © Stuart
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2019 2018 2017

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9781471883910

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Contents
Being a scientist
What does a scientist do?
How to do a fair test

4
5

Biology
Unit 1 Plants
Unit 2 Ourselves
Unit 3 Living and growing
Quiz 1: Biology

6
28
51
72

Chemistry
Unit 4 Material properties
Quiz 2: Chemistry

74
95

Physics
Unit 5 Forces
Unit 6 Sound
Quiz 3: Physics

97
116
137

Glossary
Scientific dictionary

883910_SCIENCE_LEARNER_S1.indb 3

139

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Being a scientist
What does a scientist do?
Scientists are interested in the world around them. They ask
questions. They find answers by testing their ideas in different ways.
Scientists use
their senses to
observe things.
They record
what they find.

Scientists find information
in books and on the internet.
They share
what they
learn.

Scientists look for things that
are the same and different.
They group things, such as
animals in the sea.

Scientists observe things
to compare what happens.
Will the leaf float or sink?

Scientists measure
things. They look
for patterns in
their results.

Number of learners

Scientists
test their
ideas. They
try to keep
things fair.

12
10
8
6
4
2
0

Favourite juice

red

orange

yellow

purple

4

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Being a scientist

How to do a fair test
A fair test is a way to investigate a scientific question.
To carry out a fair test, scientists must think about certain things.
1

What do you want to
find out? Ask a scientific
question. Investigate, test
and measure the results.

10

Do you have
more questions?
Then you will
have to do more
investigating!

What will you
do to answer
your question?
3

What
equipment will
you need to
help you?

9

Was your test
good? Could you
make it better?
Use what you
found out to
answer your
question.

2

4

What thing
will you
change? What
effect will you
measure?

8

5

7

Will you put
your results into a
chart or a graph?

6

Record your
observations (results) by
writing or drawing.

Observe and
measure the
changes.

5

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Unit 1 Plants
Living things

1

2

Work with a partner. Look at
these pictures of living things.
a Name each living thing.
b Why do you think they are
living things?

Work with a partner.
Look at these pictures.
Which things do you think are:
a alive (living things)
b not alive?

A
C
cat

computer

girl

B

leaf
D

flower

c What do you think
living things can do?

Talk
partners
Talk to a
partner about
the word alive.
What do you
think it means?

car

Talk
partners

Scientific
words

living things
alive
not alive

You are alive. Talk to a partner.
a How do you know that you
are alive?
b What kinds of things can
you do?

6

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Plants

How do we know something is alive?
Think like a scientist!
You know that you are alive (a living thing) because you do these
things to stay alive:
I use
I eat.

I move.

my senses.
I can see, hear,
touch, taste and
smell things.

I breathe.
I grow.

1
Work with a partner. Look at the pictures of the elephants.
a Which elephant is alive (a living thing)?
b Which elephant is not alive?
c Has the toy elephant ever been alive?
d How do you know?
elephant A

elephant B

Scientific
words
eat
move
breathe
grow
senses

7

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Unit 1 Plants

Alive or never alive?

Scientific words

Think like a scientist!

never been alive

We know that some things in the world around us are alive.
Things are living if they can:
• eat • move
• breathe
• grow • use their senses.
Some things have never been alive,
such as this metal spoon and rock.

1
Work with a partner. Look at these pictures.

B

A

C

D

E

F

a Say which things are alive. Which things have never been alive?
b Why do you think that?

2

You will need…
● old magazines

Alive


scissors



glue

Never

been a
live

a Cut out some pictures of different things.
b Sort them into two groups: ‘alive’ and
‘never been alive’.
c Stick them onto a page like this.
8

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Plants

Plants are alive
Think like a scientist!
Did you know that plants
are alive? They are alive
(living things) because they:
• move
• make their own food
• need air
• grow
• make young plants.

1
Work with a partner. Look at the pictures of the two sunflowers.
a Which sunflower is alive? Which sunflower has never been alive?
b How do you know?
Think about what you
know about living things –
things that are alive.

Scientific
word
air
sunflower A

sunflower B

9

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Unit 1 Plants

Who do you agree with?
Talk
partners
Is this plant a living thing? Tad and Tariq could not agree on
the answer. Help them to find out.
Tad
I do not think
the plant is alive.
I cannot see when
it eats, moves or
breathes.

Tariq

The plant is alive!
We cannot always
see it, but plants
move when
they grow.

Talk to a partner.
a Do you agree with Tad or with Tariq?
b Why?

1

You will need…
Look at your pictures of plants.
● pictures of real and artificial plants
Some plants are alive.
Some are not alive.
a Work with a partner.
Sort the plants into two groups.
alive
not alive
b Talk to a partner.
How do you know which plant
is alive and which plant is not alive?
10

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Plants

Different plants
Think like a scientist!
We know that plants are living things.
Plants can be small or big. Trees are plants.
These pictures show some different plants.
flowering plant

grass
trees

1

You will need…
● old magazines
● scissors
● glue

a Find lots of pictures of plants.
Remember that trees and
grass are also plants.
b Cut out the pictures and stick
them onto some paper.
c Copy these sentences onto
your page.
• Plants are alive.
They are living things.
• Trees and grass are alive.
They are living things.

houseplant

Scientific word
trees

Challenge yourself!
a On your way home, look for
plants.
b How many different plants
did you see?
c If you have a camera, take
some pictures of plants in
your garden or near where
you live. Or, draw some of
the plants.
11

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Unit 1 Plants

The parts of a plant

Scientific
words

2

Think like a scientist!
We can name our body parts,
such as eyes, arms and legs.
Plants also have different
parts.
Some parts are above the
ground, such as the leaf,
flower and stem.
Some parts are under the
ground, such as the roots.

You will need…
● plant
● hand lens

leaf
flower
stem
roots

a Look closely at the roots.
Use a hand lens. It makes
things look bigger.
b What can you
see? Tell a
partner.

flower
stem

Talk
partners

leaf

roots

1

tomato plant

Work with a partner.
a Look at the picture of the
tomato plant above.
b Read the names of the parts
of the plant.

a Learn how to say the names
of the parts of the plant.
b Learn how to write them.
c Work with a partner. Test
each other on the names.

Challenge yourself!
At home, ask someone to help
you learn these words.
leaf

flower stem roots

12

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Plants

Going on a plant hunt
Think like a scientist!
Have you noticed that not all plants are the same?
But, even if plants look different, the names of the
plant parts are the same for every plant.

Scientific
words
same
different
similar

2

1

You will need…
● area with plants
● hand lens

a Go on a plant hunt in your
school grounds.
b Use your hand lens to help
you look closely at different
plants.

On your plant hunt, find out the
answers to these questions.
a Where is the stem, leaves,
flower and roots on each
plant that you look at?
b How are the plants similar
(almost the same)?
Do they all have leaves?
Are the leaves the same?
c How are the plants different?
d What does the biggest plant
look like?
e What does the smallest plant
look like?
Are all the
different parts of
one plant
the same as
other plants?

13

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Unit 1 Plants

Make a plant hunt wristband
Think like a scientist!
Every plant has leaves, a stem and roots.
Some plants have flowers.
Sometimes we cannot see the roots,
because they are under the soil.
Sometimes we cannot see the flowers.
It might not be the right time of the year.

1
You will need…
● card cut to fit your wrist
● double-sided sticky tape
card

double-sided sticky tape

Make a sticky wristband
like the one in the picture.
Your teacher will help you.

Scientific words
soil

year

2
Put your wristband on your wrist.
a Go outside. Collect some
leaves,
flowers
and petals.
Stick them
onto your
wristband.
b If you have
a camera, ask a partner to take
a photograph of you wearing
your wristband.

Challenge yourself!
Find some more parts of a plant
to put on your wristband.

14

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Plants

Seeds

Scientific words
seeds

Think like a scientist!

fruits

You know that plants are living things.
Plants have a stem, leaves and roots. Some plants have flowers.
Now you are going to learn about parts of a plant called seeds.
Some plants grow from seeds.
Here are some seeds and the plant they grow into.

sunflower seeds

orange pips (seeds)

oranges

sunflower

1

Be careful

You will need…
● fruits and vegetables
● spoon
● knife
● paper
Work with a partner.
a Carefully cut open some
fruits. Find the seeds inside.
b Draw or take a photograph
of each fruit and the seeds
inside it.
c Put the seeds on some paper.

Be careful
when you
use the knife.

2
a Sort your seeds from
Activity 1 into groups.
b How many different ways
can you sort your seeds?
Hint: Think about the size,
colour and shape of the seeds.
15

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Unit 1 Plants

Eating parts of plants
Think like a scientist!
Plants are important.
Humans and other animals eat different parts of plants.

1
a Work with a partner. Look at the pictures.
b Match the name of each part of the plant to the correct picture of
plants that we eat. stem leaves flower seeds roots

carrots

celery

cabbage

2

rice

courgettes

Taste some different plant parts to see what they are like.
Copy and complete this table. The first one has been done for you.
Plant Part
celery stem

Soft

Crunchy Hard

Talk
partners
Talk to a partner.
Which parts of a plant did
you eat yesterday or today?

Juicy

Sweet Like?

Did you know?
Look at this pumpkin.
It is a plant we like
to eat. It is huge!

16

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Plants

Growing seeds
Think like a scientist!
Seeds grow into plants.
You will now learn how to plant a seed.

1

You will need…
● seeds
● soil

1 Half fill the pot with soil.



plant pot



spoon

2 Place a seed on the soil.

3 Cover the seed with soil.

Work with a partner.
a Look at the pictures.
b Use them to help you plant your seeds.

2
You have planted your seeds.
a What will the seeds need to help them grow into plants?
b Draw pictures to show what you need to do next.
17

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Unit 1 Plants

What do seeds need to grow?
Talk
partners

Scientific word
prediction

In Activity 2 on page 17, you drew some pictures.
You drew what you needed to do next to help your
seeds grow into plants.
a Did you decide to water the seeds?
b Do you think seeds need water to grow?

1
You will need…
● plant pots
● seeds



soil



spoon



water

I put some seeds in a pot
and gave them four spoons of water
every day.
I put some seeds
in a pot and did not water
them at all.

Work with a partner.
a Do what each learner
in the picture did.
b Which seeds do you think
will grow? This is called a
prediction.
c Write your prediction
next to each pot.

My prediction:
I do not think
these seeds
will grow.

My prediction:
I think these seeds
will grow.

18

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Plants

How do seeds grow?
Think like a scientist!
Seeds do not need light to start to grow, but they do need water.
The picture below shows how a seed grows.
The seed has food, so that the plant can start to grow under the soil.
When the seed starts to grow, we say it germinates.
When the seed germinates, the roots grow first.
Then the shoot grows. Then the leaves grow.
When the seedling (young plant) grows above the soil, the leaves
can make food for the plant.
leaves

shoot

seedling

stem

seed

roots

Talk
partners

Scientific words
germinates
shoot
seedling

Talk to a partner.
a When your seed
grows into a plant, what do
you think it will look like?
b Draw what you think.

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Unit 1 Plants

Observe how a seed grows

1
Plant your seed in
soil in your clear
(see-through) pot.
Plant the seed at the
side of the pot so you
can observe (see)
how the seed grows.

You will need…
● seed
● clear plastic pot
● soil
● spoon
● water

Scientific
word

How will you make sure
that the seed germinates
(starts to grow)?

observe

2
a Make a ‘germination diary’ like this.
Day 1

Day 4

Day 8

Day 12

Day 16

Day 20

b On the different days, draw a picture to show how the seed
has grown.
c Label the parts of the new plant as it grows.
seed

shoot

root

leaves

seedling

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Plants

Do plants need light to grow?
Think like a scientist!
You know that plants
are living things.
You know that seeds
do not need light to
germinate.
You know that plants
need water to grow.

Talk
partners
Talk to a partner.
How would you find
out if plants need light
to keep growing?

1

I predict
that ...

You will need…
● two plants
● spoon
● card cone
● water
Rav and Roshan did a test to find out
if their plants needed light to keep
growing.
• Every day they watered both plants
with four spoons of water.
• They kept a diary of what happened
to each plant over nine days.
a Do the same test with a partner.
b Predict what you think will happen.
c Write your prediction by each plant.
d Keep a diary of what happened.
Day 1 Day 3 Day 5 Day 7 Day 9

Scientific
word
predict

No light
Light
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Unit 1 Plants

Measuring plants growing
Scientific word

Think like a scientist!

measure

Plants get taller as they grow.
We can measure how much they grow each day.
You are going to learn how to use cubes to measure
how tall plants grow.

1

Day 1

Day 2

Day 4

Day 6

6 cubes

9 cubes

15 cubes

20 cubes

Class 1 used cubes to measure a bean plant as it grew.
Look at the table to see how tall the bean plant was on each day.
Work with a partner. Answer these questions.
a How tall was the bean plant on Day 1?
b How tall was it on Day 4?
c How many more cubes had it grown from Day 4 to Day 6?
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Plants

Plants live in different places
Think like a scientist!
Plants are found all over the world.
Plants live where there is light and water.
Plants live in dry places and in wet places.

Plants live in hot places and in cold places.

Plants live on mountains and in rivers.

Talk
partners
Look at the pictures with a partner. Talk about other places where
plants grow.
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