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Permeability properties of plastics and elastomers 2003 massey

Table of Contents
Introduction
1.0

Nature of Barrier Polymeric Materials .............................................................................
1.1 Transport of Gases and Vapors ..................................................................................
1.2 Mass Transport of a Gas ............................................................................................
1.3 Special Situations—Coatings and Laminates.............................................................
1.4 Factors Affecting Permeability ....................................................................................
1.5 Polymers 101 ..............................................................................................................
1.6 Molecular Design ........................................................................................................
1.7 Elastomers 101 ...........................................................................................................

2.0

Collected Comparative Barrier Properties of Plastics and Elastomers ....................... 5

3.0

Processing ....................................................................................................................... 19


4.0

Markets and Applications for Packaging: Overview .................................................... 22
4.1 Packaging Materials ................................................................................................. 22
4.2 Markets and Applications ......................................................................................... 23

5.0

Automotive Fuels ............................................................................................................ 29

6.0

Multilayer Films ...............................................................................................................
6.1 General Constructions and Characteristics ..............................................................
6.2 Barrier Layers ...........................................................................................................
6.3 Relative Humidity of Barrier Layer ............................................................................
6.4 Application and Design .............................................................................................
6.5 Retort Sterilized Packages .......................................................................................
6.6 Illustrated Multilayer Packaging ................................................................................

40
40
40
43
43
44
45

7.0

Food and Beverage Packaging ......................................................................................
7.1 Food and Drug Administration, FDA.........................................................................
7.2 Barrier Resins ...........................................................................................................
7.3 Oriented Materials ....................................................................................................

49
49
49
51


8.0

Standard Measurements and Tests ...............................................................................
8.1 Units of Measurement ..............................................................................................
8.2 Standard Test Methods .............................................................................................
8.2.1 Gas Transmission .........................................................................................
8.2.2 Water Vapor Transmission ............................................................................
8.2.3 Rubber ..........................................................................................................
ASTM Tests ......................................................................................................................

52
52
53
53
54
55
55

9.0

1
1
1
2
2
3
4
4


vi

Thermoplastics
Acetal Resins
Polyoxymethylene (Acetal) - Chapter 1 ....................................................................................... 57
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 57

Acrylic Resin
Acrylonitrile-Methyl Acrylate Copolymer (AMA) - Chapter 2 ..................................................... 61
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 62
Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 64

Cellulosic Plastic
Cellulosic - Chapter 3 ................................................................................................................... 67
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 67

Fluoroplastic
Fluoropolymer - Chapter 4 ........................................................................................................... 69
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 69
Ethylene-Chlorotrifluoroethylene Copolymer (ECTFE) - Chapter 5 ......................................... 75
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 75
Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 77
Ethylene-Tetrafluoroethylene Copolymer (ETFE) - Chapter 6 ................................................... 81
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 82
Fluorinated Ethylene-Propylene Copolymer (FEP) - Chapter 7 ................................................ 85
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 85
Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 89
Perfluoroalkoxy Resin (PFA & MFA) - Chapter 8 ........................................................................ 91
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 92
Polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) - Chapter 9 ...................................................................... 95
Tabular Information ............................................................................................................. 96
Graphical Information .......................................................................................................... 99
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) - Chapter 10 ............................................................................ 101
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 102
Polyvinyl Fluoride (PVF) - Chapter 11 ....................................................................................... 109
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 109
Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) - Chapter 12 ........................................................................... 111
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 112
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 117
Hexafluoropropylene, Tetrafluoroethylene, Ethylene (HTE) - Chapter 13 .............................. 123
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 123

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© Plastics Design Library


vii
Tetrafluoroethylene, Hexafluoropropylene, Vinylidene Fluoride
Terpolymer (THV) - Chapter 14 ............................................................................................. 125
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 125

Ionomer
Ionomer - Chapter 15 .................................................................................................................. 127
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 128

Parylene
Parylene - Chapter 16 ................................................................................................................. 131
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 132

Polyamide
Nylon Overview - Chapter 17 ..................................................................................................... 135
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 135
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 136
Amorphous Nylon - Chapter 18 ................................................................................................. 137
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 138
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 141
Nylon 6 – PA6 - Chapter 19 ......................................................................................................... 145
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 145
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 154
Nylon 66 – PA 66 - Chapter 20 .................................................................................................... 155
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 156
Nylon 6/66 – PA 6/66 - Chapter 21 .............................................................................................. 163
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 163
Nylon 6/12 – PA 6/12 - Chapter 22 .............................................................................................. 165
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 166
Nylon 6/6.9 – PA 6/69 - Chapter 23 ............................................................................................. 171
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 171
Nylon 6.6/6.10 – PA 66/610 - Chapter 24 .................................................................................... 173
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 173

Polyamide Nanocomposite
Polyamide Nanocomposite - Chapter 25 .................................................................................. 175
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 175
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 176

Polycarbonate
Polycarbonate - Chapter 26 ........................................................................................................ 177
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 177

© Plastics Design Library

Table of Contents


viii

Polyester
Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT) - Chapter 27 ....................................................................... 181
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 181
Polyethylene Napthalate (PEN) - Chapter 28 ............................................................................ 183
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 183
Polycyclohexylenedimethylene Terephthalate (PCTG) - Chapter 29 ...................................... 185
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 185
Polycyclohexylenedimethylene Ethylene Terephthalate (PETG) - Chapter 30 ...................... 187
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 187
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) - Chapter 31 ........................................................................ 189
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 190
Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) - Chapter 32 ............................................................................... 201
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 202
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 204

Polyimide
Polyimide - Chapter 33 ............................................................................................................... 205
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 205

Polyolefin
Polyethylene Overview - Chapter 34 ......................................................................................... 209
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 209
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 210
Ultra Low Density Polyethylene (ULDPE) - Chapter 35 ........................................................... 217
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 217
Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) - Chapter 36 ....................................................................... 219
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 219
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 226
Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) - Chapter 37 ......................................................... 227
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 228
Medium Density Polyethylene and Linear Medium Density
Polyethylene (MDPE & LMDPE) - Chapter 38 ...................................................................... 235
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 235
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) - Chapter 39 ...................................................................... 237
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 237
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 247
Polyolefin Plastomers (POP) - Chapter 40 ................................................................................ 249
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 249
Cyclic Olefin Copolymer (COC) - Chapter 41 ........................................................................... 251
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 251
Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer (EVA) - Chapter 42 ............................................................ 253
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 254
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 257

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ix
Ethylene - Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (EVOH) - Chapter 43 ...................................................... 259
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 259
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 275
Ethylene-Acrylic Acid Copolymer (EAA) - Chapter 44 ............................................................. 281
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 281
Polypropylene (PP) - Chapter 45 ............................................................................................... 283
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 284
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 290
Polybutene, Polybutylene (PB) - Chapter 46 ............................................................................ 291
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 291

Polyphenylene Sulfide
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) - Chapter 47 ............................................................................... 293
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 293

Polysulfone
Polysulfone - Chapter 48 ............................................................................................................ 295
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 295

Polyvinyl Alcohol
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVOH) - Chapter 49 ..................................................................................... 297
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 297

Styrenic Resin
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer (ABS) - Chapter 50 ............................................ 299
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 299
Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate Copolymer (ASA) - Chapter 51 ............................................... 303
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 303
Polystyrene (PS) - Chapter 52 .................................................................................................... 307
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 308
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 310
Oriented Polystyrene (OPS) - Chapter 53 ................................................................................. 311
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 311
General Purpose Polystyrene (GPPS) - Chapter 54 ................................................................. 313
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 313
High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) - Chapter 55 ........................................................................... 315
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 315
Styrene-Acrylonitrile Copolymer (SAN) - Chapter 56 .............................................................. 317
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 318
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 320

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Table of Contents


x
Styrene-Butadiene Block Copolymer (SBS) - Chapter 57 ....................................................... 323
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 323

Vinyl Resin
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Chapter 58 ...................................................................................... 325
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 326
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 329
Polyvinylidene Chloride (PVDC) - Chapter 59 .......................................................................... 331
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 332
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 352
Polyvinylidene Chloride Coated Films (PVDC) Coated
Polyester Films - Chapter 60 ................................................................................................. 355
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 356
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 367

Thermoplastic Alloys
Plastic Alloy
Polyethylene/Polystyrene Alloy - Chapter 61 ........................................................................... 369
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 369

Multilayer Structures
Co-Continuous Lamellae Multilayer Systems
Co-Continuous Lamellar Structures - Chapter 62 ................................................................... 371
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 371
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 372
Laminar Multilayer Structure - Chapter 63 ............................................................................... 375
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 376
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 384

Multilayer Films
Multilayer Films - Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Barrier - Chapter 64 .............................................. 385
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 385
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 398
Multilayer Films - Polyvinylidene Chloride Barrier - Chapter 65 ............................................ 401
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 401
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 409
Multilayer Films - Plasma Polymerization - Chapter 66 ........................................................... 411
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 411
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 412

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xi
Multilayer Films - Laminated Fluoropolymer Films - Chapter 67 ........................................... 413
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 413
Multilayer Films - General - Chapter 68 .................................................................................... 415
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 416

Thermosets
Epoxy Resin
Epoxy Thermoplastic - Chapter 69 ............................................................................................ 419
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 419

Thermoplastic Elastomers
Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomer
Olefinic Thermoplastic Elastomers (TPO) - Chapter 70 .......................................................... 421
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 422

Polyether Block Amide
Polyether Block Amide (PEBA) - Chapter 71 ............................................................................ 427
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 427

Polybutadiene Thermoplastic Elastomer
Polybutadiene Thermoplastic Elastomer (TPE) - Chapter 72 ................................................. 435
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 435

Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer
Polyester Thermoplastic Elastomer - Chapter 73 .................................................................... 439
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 440

Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer
Styrenic Thermoplastic Elastomer - Chapter 74 ...................................................................... 443
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 444

Vinyl Thermoplastic Elastomer
Vinyl Thermoplastic Elastomer - Chapter 75 ............................................................................ 451
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 451

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xii

Rubbers
Butadiene Rubber
Polybutadiene - Chapter 76 ........................................................................................................ 455
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 455
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 457

Butyl Rubber
Butyl Rubber - Chapter 77 .......................................................................................................... 459
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 460
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 461

Bromobutyl Rubber
Bromobutyl Rubber - Chapter 78 ............................................................................................... 465
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 466

Chlorobutyl Rubber
Chlorobutyl Rubber - Chapter 79 ............................................................................................... 467
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 468

Polyisobutylene Rubber
Polyisobutylene Rubber - Chapter 80 ....................................................................................... 469
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 469

Specialty Elastomers
Specialty Elastomers - Chapter 81 ............................................................................................ 471

Chlorosulfonated Polethylene Rubber
Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber (CSPE) - Chapter 82 ................................................. 473
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 473

Epichlorohydrin Rubber
Epichlorohydrin Rubber (ECO) - Chapter 83 ............................................................................ 475
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 475

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xiii

Ethylene-Propylene Rubber
Ethylene-Propylene Rubbers (EPM, EPDM) - Chapter 84 ........................................................ 477
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 477
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 480

Fluoroelastomer
Vinylidene Fluoride-Hexafluoropropylene Copolymer - Chapter 85 ...................................... 481
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 481

Natural Rubber
Natural Rubber - Chapter 86 ...................................................................................................... 483
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 483
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 486

Neoprene Rubber
Polychloroprene Rubber (CR) - Chapter 87 .............................................................................. 487
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 487

Nitrile Rubber
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer (NBR) - Chapter 88 .......................................................... 489
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 489
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 492

Polysulfide Rubber
Polysulfide Rubber - Chapter 89 ................................................................................................ 493
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 493

Polyurethane Rubber
Polyurethane - Chapter 90 .......................................................................................................... 495
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 495
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 498

Silicone Rubber
Silicone or Polysiloxane - Chapter 91 ....................................................................................... 499
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 499

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Table of Contents


xiv

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber
Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) - Chapter 92 ........................................................................ 501
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 502
Graphical Information ........................................................................................................ 504
Additional Barrier Materials - Chapter 93 ................................................................................. 505
Metallized Films ..................................................................................................................... 505
Biodegradable or Organic Films .......................................................................................... 505
Barrier Properties .................................................................................................................. 505
Tabular Information ........................................................................................................... 506

Appendices

Permeability of Gloves ............................................................................................................... 509
Permeation Rates ........................................................................................................................ 535
Permeability Units Conversion .................................................................................................. 553
Glossary of Terms ....................................................................................................................... 557

Indices
Trade Name .................................................................................................................................. 587
References ................................................................................................................................... 591

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509

Appendix I

Permeability of Gloves
Gloves are made from several different materials. The
following chapter outlines glove permeability by material type, listed below are a few characteristics of
some of the broad use materials.
Natural Rubber: Excellent flexibility and resistance
to tearing. Good resistance to numerous acids and
ketones.[2029]
• Applications. Poultry, food processing,
small parts assembly, pharmaceutical
manufacturing, and janitorial/plant maintenance.[1129]
Polychloroprene Rubber -Neoprene: Multi-purpose
chemical resistance: acids and aliphatic solvents; no
proteins.
Performs well when exposed to sunlight and
ozone.[2029] Neoprene gloves offer broad-spectrum protection, with excellent resistance to a wide range of
chemicals, including oils, acids, caustics, and solvents.[1129]
• Applications. Petrochemicals, degreasing, electronics, refining, and handling oils, acids, caustics, alcohols, and
solvents.[1129]
Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Copolymer - Nitrile: Very
good resistance to abrasion and perforation. Very good
resistance to hydrocarbon derivatives; no proteins.[2029]
Superior choice over rubber or neoprene when exposed
to aromatic and petroleum solvents, as well as caustics and animal fats.[1129]

© Plastics Design Library

• Applications. Chemical processing (oil
refining, and petrochemicals), food processing (red meat, poultry, vegetables,
fruit, dairy, and canning), aerospace and
automotive degreasing, automotive assembly and painting, machining operations (using cutting oil and coolants,
metal fabrication), graphic arts (printing
cleanup), furniture manufacturing, electronics (semiconductors, circuit board
manufacturing).[1129]
Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA): Nearly inert to strong solvents, including aromatics, aliphatics, and chlorinated
solvents—chemicals which quickly deteriorate natural rubber, neoprene, and PVC gloves. PVA also offers good resistance to snags, punctures, abrasion, and
cuts.[1129]
• Applications. Electronics, handling
strong organic solvents, working with
epoxies and prepreg.[1129]
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Good resistance to acids
and bases; no proteins.[2029]
• Applications. Handling chromic acid,
caustics, oils, and petroleum solvents.[1129]
Key to Permeation Ratings:
BTT Breakthrough Time.
LDL Lowest Detectable Level.
µg/cm2/min

Micrograms per square centimeter per minutes.

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


510
Table A01-01. Natural Rubber Glove Film
Reference: 1) Ansell Edmont Canners and Handlers 392; unsupported glove film, 0.48 mm thick.
2) Mapa Professional Industrial Gloves, 0.4572 mm thick.
Key Permeation Rate: N = None detected.
Key Comments:
L = Low permeation, 0 to½ eyedropper size drops per hour.
P = Poor permeation rate, 501 to 5000 eyedropper size drops per hour.
F = Fair permeation rate, 51 to 100 eyedropper size drops per hour.
G = Good permeation rate, 6 to 50 eyedropper size drops per hour.
V = Very good permeation rate, 1 to 5 eyedropper size drops per hour.
N = No permeation detected during a 6 hour test.
# = Rate too large to measure.

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min)

(phr)

Acetaldehyde

23

CAS 75-07-0

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

7

< 900

7.4

115.3

F

1
2

Acetic Acid
CAS 64-19-7

glacial

23

110

1

glacial

46.6

45.4

2

50% conc.

203

3.5

2

Acetone
CAS 67-64-1

23

Acetonitrile

10

< 900

8.5

158.9

23

4

<9

23

80

CAS 107-13-1

4

Acrylic Acid
Ammonium Hydroxide
CAS 1336-21-6

0.01

F

1
2

V

> 50

1
2
1

29% conc.
concentrated

23

29 % conc.
Amyl Alcohol

23

90

1

23.1

43.1

25

<9

2
V

1

<9

V

1

0

N

2

<9

V

1

0

N

2

Anline
CAS 62-53-3

25
>480

Benzaldehyde

23

0.008

10

Bis(2-Hydroxyethyl)
amine
CAS 111-42-2
Bromoproplonic Acid

>480
23

1.1

190

1

Butanone (2-)
CAS 78-93-3

7.2

391

2

25

77.7

2

7.81

710.1

2

200

<9

Butoxyethanol (2-)
CAS 11-76-2
Butyl Acetate
CAS 123-86-4
Butyl Alcohol

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves

23

V

1

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511
Table A01-01. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min)

(phr)

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

Butyl Cellosolve
CAS 111-76-2

23
23

Butyrolactone (γ-)

45

< 90

25

77.7

60

< 90

111.9

0.81

10

< 90

32

8.15

10

< 90

17

261

G

1
2

G

1

Carbolic Acid
CAS 108-95-2

2

Cellosolve
CAS 110-80-5

solvent

23

G

1
2

Cellosolve Acetate
CAS 111-15-9

23

Citric Acid

10% conc.

Chromic Acid

50% conc.

23

0.25

0

G

1
2

N

1

27

#

2

136

14.6

2

CAS 7738-94-5
Cresol (3-)

m-Cresol

CAS 108-39-4
Cyclohexane

23

CAS 110-82-7
Diacetone Alcohol

23

Diamine

10

< 90

6.3

>780

15

<9

218

0.7

12

1.1

0

G

1
2

V

1
2

CAS 302-01-2
Dibutyl Phthalate

23

200

Diethanolamine

> 480

1
2

CAS 111-42-2
Dimethyl Sulfoxide

DMSO

CAS 67-68-5

DMSO

23

180

DMSO
Dimethylacetamide

DMAC

23

CAS 127-19-5
Dimethylacetamide

256

3.35

15

< 90

47

53.7

L

1
2

G

1
2

DMF

CAS 127-19-5
Dioxane

< 0.9

23
1,4

23

Electroless Copper

MacDemid
9048

23

0.25

Electroless Nickel

MacDemid
J60/61

23

0.25

25

<9

57

18.4

5

< 900

V

1
2

F

1

0

N

1

0

N

1

F

1

CAS 123-91-1

Epichlorohydrin

© Plastics Design Library

23

5

< 900

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


512
Table A01-01. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min)

(phr)

Ethanol

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

31.5

5.66

2

32

8.15

2

17

261

2

5

< 900

F

1

<9

V

1

CAS 64-17-5
Ethoxyethanol (2-)
CAS 110-80-5
Ethoxyethyl Acetate (2-)
CAS 111-15-9
Ethyl Acetate

23

CAS 141-78-6
Ethyl Alcohol

ethanol

CAS 64-17-5
Ethyl Alcohol Amine

23
monoethanolamine

Ethyl Glycol Ether

15
31

5.66

2

23

50

< 0.9

L

1

23

25

<9

V

1

<9

L

1

Ethylene Glycol
CAS 107-21-1

23

0.25

Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl
Etheracetate

0
> 480

0

2

17

261

2

32

8.15

2

10

< 90

G

1

>480

0

N

2

> 480

0

N

2

CAS 111-15-9
Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl
Ether
CAS 110-80-5
Formaldehyde

37% conc.

CAS 50-00-0

23
37% conc.

Formalin

solution

CAS 50-00-0
Formic Acid

23

150

Furfural

90% conc.

23

15

<9

V

1
1

Hexamethylidisilizane

23

15

< 900

F

1

23

150

<9

V

1

108

258

Hydrazine
CAS 302-01-2

65% conc.

Hydrochloric Acid

37.5% conc.

CAS 7647-01-0

concentrated

23

10% conc.

23

37.5% conc.

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves

2

290
0.25

1
0

44.8

N
0.22

1
2

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513
Table A01-01. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min)

(phr)

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

Hydrofluoric Acid

48% conc.

CAS 7664-39-3

48% conc.

Hydrogen Peroxide

30% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

Hydroquinone

saturated

23

0.25

0

N

1

0

N

1

200

<9

V

1

24

7.3

23

190

48% conc.

1

> 480

Hydroxyethyl Amine [bis(2-]

> 480

0

1.1

2

Isobutyl Alcohol
CAS 78-83-1
Isopropyl Alcohol
CAS 67-63-0

23
isopropanol;
IPA

23

200

<9

39.5

6.74

2
V

1
2

Lactic Acid

85% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

Lauric Acid, with ethylene
oxide

36% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

Maleic Acid

saturated

23

0.25

0

N

1

Methyl Alcohol

methanol
V

1

CAS 67-56-1

23

Methyl Cellosolve
Methyl Ethyl Ketone

23

<9

30

0.48

200

<9

V

1

F

1

2

MEK

CAS 78-93-3

23

Methyl Glycol Ether
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone

200

23
MIBK

5

< 900

7.21

391

200

<9

16

> 50

75

<9

46.6

>50

55

<9

136

14.6
< 90

2
V

1
2

CAS 108-10-1
Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (N-)

NMP

23

V

1

CAS 872-50-4
Methylamine
Methylphenol (3-)

23
m-methylphenol

2
V

1
2

CAS 108-39-4
Morpholine

23

200

Muriatic Acid

23

290

G

1
1

CAS 7647-01-0

© Plastics Design Library

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


514
Table A01-01. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min)

(phr)

23

0.25

Nitric Acid

50% conc.

CAS 7697-37-2

10% conc.
50% conc.

Nitrobenzene

Permeation
Rate

0
> 480

23

10

Comment

Reference

N

1

(µg/cm2/min)

< 90

N

2

G

1

CAS 98-95-5
Nitromethane

95.5% conc.

23

10

< 90

G

1

Nitropropane

95.5% conc.

23

5

< 90

G

1

Octyl Alcohol

23

Oleic Acid

23

0.25
0.25

Oxalic Acid

saturated

23

Palmitic Acid

saturated

23

Perchloric Acid

60% conc.

23

Phenol

saturated

CAS 108-95-2

30

V

1

0

<9

N

1

0

N

1

0

N

1

5
0.25

23

1

90

1

111.9
Phosphoric Acid

85% conc.

CAS 7664-38-2

concentrated

23

0.25

85% conc.
Potassium Hydroxide

0
> 480

2
N

0

1
2

KOH
50% conc.

CAS 1310-58-3

23

Propyl Alcohol

23

Pyridine

23

0.25

CAS 110-86-1
Sodium Hydroxide

0.81

0

N

1

> 480

0

200

<9

V

1

10

< 900

F

1

8.6

361

2

2

NAOH
50% conc.

CAS 1310-73-2

23

0.25

0
> 480

Sulfuric Acid

50% conc.

CAS 7664-93-9

battery acid
47%

23

0.25

23

0.25

50% conc.
Tannic Acid
Toluene Diisocyanate

65% conc.

N
0

0
> 480

1
2

N

1

N

1

0
0

TDI

CAS 584-84-9
Tricresyl Phosphate

TCP

Triethanolamine

TEA

CAS 102-70-6

23

7

< 90

G

1

23

45

< 0.9

G

1

< 0.9

L

1

23

0.25

0
> 480

0

2

> 480

0

2

Trihydroxythriethylamine
CAS 102-71-6

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves

© Plastics Design Library


515
Table A01-02. Polychloroprene Rubber (Neoprene)
Reference: 1) Ansell Edmont Neoprene 29–840; unsupported glove film, 0.38 mm thick.
2) Ansell Edmont Neox supported (lined) glove film, specified by glove film weight.
3) Mapa Professional Industrial Gloves, 0.750 mm thick.
Key Permeation Rate: N = None detected.
Key Comments:
L = Low permeation, 0 to½ eyedropper size drops per hour.
P = Poor permeation rate, 501 to 5000 eyedropper size drops per hour.
F = Fair permeation rate, 51 to 100 eyedropper size drops per hour.
G = Good permeation rate, 6 to 50 eyedropper size drops per hour.
V = Very good permeation rate, 1 to 5 eyedropper size drops per hour.
N = No permeation detected during a 6 hour test.
# = Rate too large to measure.

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Permeation
Rate
(µg/cm2/min)

Comment

Reference

Acetaldehyde
CAS 75-07-0

23

10

< 9000

P

1

23

17

< 9000

P

2

39

106

3

Acetic Acid

glacial

23

420

1

CAS 64-19-7

glacial

23

> 360

N

2

glacial

> 480

N

3

50% conc.

> 480

3

Acetone
CAS 67-64-1

23

5

< 900

F

1

23

10

< 900

F

2

36

295

3

Acetonitrile
CAS 107-13-1

Acrylic Acid

23

30

<9

V

1

23

90

< 0.9

L

2

143

1.71

23
23

3

70
0.25

Acrylonitrile

1
0

109

< 0.9

L

54.9

2
3

CAS 107-13-1
Ammonium Fluoride

40% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

23

0.25

0

N

2

Ammonium Hydroxide
CAS 1336-21-6

concentrated

23

> 360

concentrated

23

> 360

29% conc.
Amyl Alcohol

23
23

© Plastics Design Library

0.25

1
2

> 480

N

> 360

< 0.9

L

1

< 0.9

L

2

0

3

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


516
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Permeation
Rate
(µg/cm2/min)

Comment

Reference

Anline
CAS 62-53-3

Aqua Regia

23

35

<9

V

1

23

180

<9

V

2

415

8.88

23
23

Aroclor 1254

3

45
0.25

1
0

N

2

50% TDB
160

3033

3

CAS 71-43-2

21

> 704

3

Benzene Chloride

28

275.8

3

Benzene

CAS 108-90-7
Bis(2-Hydroxyethyl) amine
CAS 111-42-2
> 480
Bromoproplonic Acid

N

3

23

180

1

23

240

2

Butanone (2-)
CAS 78-93-3

25

892

3

> 480

N

3

Butoxyethanol (2-)
CAS 11-76-2
Butyl Acetate
CAS 123-86-4
Butyl Alcohol

45

577

23

240

<9

V

3
1

23

> 480

< 0.9

L

2

23

90

<9

V

1

< 0.9

L

2

V

1

Butyl Cellosolve
CAS 111-76-2

23
23

Butyrolactone (γ-)

0.25

0
> 480

N

10

<9

3

> 480

N

3

40

0.48.7

3

56

370

3

Carbolic Acid
CAS 108-95-2
Carbon bi-chloride

carbon di-chloride

CAS 127-18-4
Carbon tetra-chloride
CAS 56-23-5
Cellosolve
CAS 110-80-5

solvent

23

45

< 0.9

L

1

solvent

23

240

< 0.9

L

2

> 480

N

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves

3

© Plastics Design Library


517
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

Cellosolve Acetate
CAS 111-15-9
23

25

< 90

G

1

23

75

<9

V

2

127

236

3

28

275.8

3

13

287

3

CAS 71-55-6

56

1447.3

3

O-Chlorotoluene

36

305

3

24

305

3

> 480

N

3

Chlorobenzene
CAS 108-90-7
Chloroform
Chlorothene

CAS 95-49-8
P-Chlorotoluene
CAS 106-43-4
Chromic Acid

50% conc.

CAS 7738-94-5
Citric Acid
Cresol (3-)

10% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

10% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

2

m-cresol

CAS 108-39-4

> 480

N

3

66

11.4

3

184

98

3

Cumene
Cyclohexane
CAS 110-82-7
Cyclohexyl Alcohol

23
23

300
0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

< 0.9

L

2

Diamine
CAS 302-01-2
Dibutyl Phthalate
1,2 –Dichlorobenzene
CAS 95-50-1
1,3-Dichlorobenzene

> 480

N

23

120

< 0.9

L

3

23

300

<9

V

49

352

3

42

327

3

> 480

N

3

23

10.3

3

12

1703

3

> 480

N

3

28

487.9

3

1
2

CAS 541-73-1
Dichlorofluoromethane
CAS 75-71-8
1,2 –Dichloroethane
Dichloromethane
CAS 75-09-2
Diethanolamine
CAS 111-42-2
Diethyl Ether
CAS 60-29-7

© Plastics Design Library

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


518
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Diethylene Oxide (1,4-)

Permeation
Rate
(µg/cm2/min)

Comment

Reference

74

212

3

92

173

3

> 180

< 90

G

1

< 0.9

L

2

CAS 123-91-1
Dimethylacetamide
CAS 127-19-5
Dimethyl Sulfoxide

DMSO

CAS 67-68-5

DMSO

23

DMSO

23

0.25

DMSO

0
> 480

N

3

Dimethylformamide

DMF

CAS 62-12-2

DMF

23

10

< 90

G

1

DMF

23

60

< 90

G

2

217

21.4

Dioctyl Phthalate
Dioxane

3

DOP

23

> 360

< 0.9

L

1

DOP

23

120

< 0.9

L

2

1, 4

CAS 123-91-1

74

Electroless Copper

MacDemid 9048

Electroless Nickel

MacDemid J60/61

212

3

23

0.25

0

N

1

MacDemid 9048

23

0.25

0

N

2

MacDemid J60/61

23

0.25

0

23

0.25

Epichlorohydrin

23

Ethanol

0
10

< 900

> 480

N

N

1

N

2

F

2
3

CAS 64-17-5
Ethoxyethanol (2-)

N

CAS 110-80-5

> 480

3

Ethoxyethyl Acetate (2-)
CAS 111-15-9

127

136

3

23

15

< 90

G

1

23

200

< 90

G

2

37

443

23

90

<9

V

1

23

180

<9

V

2

> 480

N

Ethyl Acetate
CAS 141-78-6

Ethyl Alcohol

ethanol

CAS 64-17-5

Ethyl Alcohol Amine

3

monoethanolamine

3

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

2

Ethyl Ether

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves

23

10

< 90

G

1

23

10

< 90

G

2

28

488

3

© Plastics Design Library


519
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Ethyl Glycol Ether

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

23

45

< 0.9

L

1

23

240

< 0.9

L

2

23

10.3

Ethylene Di-chloride
CAS 107-06-2

3

Ethylene Glycol
CAS 107-21-1

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

2

> 480

N

3

127

136

3

> 480

N

3

45

9

3

23

120

< 0.9

L

1

23

120

<9

V

2

> 480

N

N

3

> 480

0

N

3

Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl
Etheracetate
CAS 111-15-9
Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl
Ether
CAS 110-80-5
Ethylene Oxide
CAS 75-21-8
Formaldehyde

37% conc.

CAS 50-00-0
37% conc.
Formalin

solution

CAS 50-00-0
Formic Acid

90% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

23

0.25

0

N

2

Freon 12
CAS 75-71-8

> 480

N

3

23

240

< 0.9

L

1

23

120

<9

V

2

> 480

N

Freon TF
CAS 76-13-1

3

Furfural

23

200

< 90

G

1

CAS 98-01-1

23

120

< 90

G

2

258

13.5

3

41

> 1327

3

186

19.1

3

Gasoline
CAS 8006-61-9
Heptane
CAS 142-82-5
Hexamethylidisilizane

23

50

1

23

60

2

23

45

< 900

F

1

90

< 90

G

2

132

42.7

Hexane
CAS 110-54-3

23

© Plastics Design Library

3

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


520
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

Hydrazine
CAS 302-01-2

65% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

65% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

2

Hydrochloric Acid

concentrated

23

0.25

0

N

1

CAS 7647-01-0

concentrated

23

0.25

0

N

2

10% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

10% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

2

> 480

37.5%

N

> 480

3

N

3

Hydrofluoric Acid
CAS 7664-39-3

48% conc.

23

60

1

48% conc.

23

75

2

48% conc.
Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydroquinone

> 480

N

5

3

30% conc.

23

30% conc.

23

saturated

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

saturated

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

7

N

1

N

2
2

Isoamyl Acetate
CAS 123-93-2

122

Isobutyl Alcohol

23

CAS 78-83-1

23

168.1

10
0.25

0
> 480

Isooctane
Isopropyl Alcohol

3

< 0.9

L

1

< 0.9

L

2

N

3

23

60

< 90

G

1

23

360

< 0.9

L

2

Isopropanol; IPA

CAS 67-63-0

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

2

> 480

N

3

66

11.4

3

Isopropyl Benzene
CAS 98-82-8
Kerosene
CAS 8008-20-6

23
23

> 360
0.25

0
> 480

Lactic Acid

85% conc.

Lauric Acid, with ethylene
oxide

36% conc.

Maleic Acid

saturated

< 0.9

L

1

< 0.9

L

2

N

3

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

2

23

0.25

0

N

1

23

0.25

0

N

2

23

0.25

0

N

1

23

0.25

0

N

2

Methane Di-chloride
CAS 75-09-2

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves

12

1703

3

© Plastics Design Library


521
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Methyl Alcohol

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

methanol

CAS 67-56-1

Methyl Cellosolve

23

60

< 0.9

L

1

23

15

< 0.9

L

2

245

0.6

23

25

< 90

G

3
1

23

70

<9

V

2

56

1448

3

143

1.71

3

Methyl Chloroform
CAS 71-55-6
Methyl Cyanide
CAS 75-05-8
Methyl Ethyl Ketone

MEK

CAS 78-93-3
Methyl Glycol Ether

25

892

23

25

< 90

G

3
1

23

70

<9

V

2

9

342

3

63

251

3

23

270

< 90

G

23

360

< 0.9

L

226

78.5

3

12

1703

3

> 480

N

3

Methyl Iodide
CAS 74-88-4
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone

MIBK

CAS 108-10-1
Methylamine
n-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone

1
2

CAS 872-50-4
Methylene Chloride
CAS 75-09-2
Methylphenol (3-)

m-methylphenol

CAS 108-39-4
Mineral Spirits
CAS 64475-85-0

Rule 66

23

Rule 66

23

90
0.25

0
> 480

<9

V

1

< 0.9

L

2

< 0.1

3

Muriatic Acid
CAS 7647-01-0
10% conc.

23

0.25

23

0.25

37.5% conc.

0

N

1

N

2

N

3

< 900

F

1

< 0.9

L

2

N

1

N

2

0
> 480

Naphtha
CAS 8030-30-6

VM&P

23

VM&P

23

0.25

15
0

Nitric Acid

10% conc.

23

0.25

0

CAS 7697-37-2

10% conc.

23

0.25

50% conc.

0
> 480

70% conc.

23

70% conc.

23

© Plastics Design Library

3

140
0.25

1
0

Nitrobenzene
CAS 98-95-5

N
N

2

104
132

3

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


522
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Nitromethane
Nitropropane

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Comment

Reference

1

95.5% conc.

23

60

<9

V

23

90

< 90

L

2

95.5% conc.

23

5

< 900

F

1

95.5% conc.

Oleic Acid

Palmitic Acid

Rate
(µg/cm2/min)

95.5% conc.

Octyl Alcohol

Oxalic Acid

Permeation

23

60

< 90

L

2

23

420

< 0.9

L

1

23

> 420

< 0.9

L

2

23

60

<9

V

1

23

150

< 0.9

L

2

saturated

23

0.25

0

N

1

saturated

23

0.25

0

N

2

saturated

23

0.25

0

N

1

saturated

23

0.25

Pentachlorophenol

N

2

23

6

0
< 0.9

L

1

23

6

< 0.9

L

2

23

30

< 900

F

1

45

<9

V

2

122

34

Pentane
CAS 109-66-0

23
Perchloric Acid

3

60% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

1

60% conc.

23

0.25

0

N

2

Perchloroethylene
CAS 127-18-4

40

1049

3

89

75

3

Petroleum Ether
CAS 8032-32-4
Phenol

saturated

CAS 108-95-2

23

180

< 90

G

1

23

390

< 0.9

L

2

> 480

N

3

Phosphoric Acid

concentrated

23

0.25

0

N

1

CAS 7664-38-2

concentrated

23

0.25

0

N

2

85% conc.
Polychlorinated Biphenyls,
PCBs;

> 480

N

3

161

3.33

3

TCB

50% CAS mixture
Potassium Hydroxide

KOH
50% conc.

CAS 1310-58-3

23

0.25

0

N

1

23

0.25

0

N

2

> 480
Propyl Alcohol

23
23

N

150
0.25

0

3

< 0.9

L

1

< 0.9

L

2

Pyridine
CAS 110-86-1

Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves

36

404

3

© Plastics Design Library


523
Table A01-02. (Cont’d.)

Penetrant

Penetrant

Temp.

Time

BTT

LDL

Note

(°C)

(days)

(min.)

(phr)

Silicone Etch
Sodium Hydroxide

Permeation
Rate

Comment

Reference

(µg/cm2/min)

23

0.25

0

N

1

23

0.25

0

N

2

23

0.25

0

N

1

23

0.25

0

N

2

NAOH 50% conc.

CAS 1310-73-2

> 480
Stoddard Solvents

23

N

180

23

0.25

0

3

<9

V

1

< 0.9

L

2

Sulfuric Acid

battery acid 47%

23

0.25

0

N

1

CAS 7664-93-9

battery acid 47%

23

0.25

0

N

2

50% conc.
95% conc.
Tannic Acid

> 480
23

N

3

180

1

95% conc.

23

65% conc.

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

65% conc.

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

2

> 360

2

Tetrachloroethane
CAS 79-34-5

52

404

3

40

1049

3

19

> 740

3

> 480

N

3

12

1517

3

> 480

N

3

Tetrachloroethylene
(1,1,2,2-)
CAS 127-18-4
Toluene

toluol

1

CAS 108-88-3
Toluene Diisocyanate

TDI

CAS 584-84-9
Trichloroethylene

TCE

CAS 79-01-6
Trichlorotrifluoroethane
CAS 76-13-1
Tricresyl Phosphate
Thiethanolamine
CAS 102-71-6

TCP

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

2

TEA, 85% conc.

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

1

TEA, 85% conc.

23

0.25

0

< 0.9

L

2

TEA

> 480

N

3

> 480

N

3

> 480

N

3

> 480

N

3

38

170

3

24

243

3

Trifluoroethanol
CAS 75-89-8
Trihydroxytriethylamine
CAS 102-71-6
Turpentine
CAS 8006-64-2
Vinyl Acetate
CAS 108-05-4
Xylene
CAS 1330-20-7

© Plastics Design Library

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Appendix I: Permeability to Gloves


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