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Water soluble polymers 2002 amjad

Water Soluble Polymers
Solution Properties and Applications
Edited by

Zahid Amjad
The B.F. Goodrich Company
Brecksville, Ohio

Kluwer Academic Publishers

New York / Boston / Dordrecht / London / Moscow


eBook ISBN:
Print ISBN:

0-306-46915-4
0-306-45931-0

©2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers
New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow

All rights reserved
No part of this eBook may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, recording, or otherwise, without written consent from the Publisher
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To my wife, Rukhsana, for her patience and encouragement


PREFACE

This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at the symposium on
Water Soluble Polymers: Solution Properties and Applications, sponsored by the Division
of Colloids and Surface Chemistry of the American Chemical Society.
The symposium took place in Las Vegas City, Nevada on 9 to 11th September, 1997
at the 214th American Chemical Society National Meeting. Recognized experts in their respective fields were invited to speak. There was a strong attendance from academia, government, and industrial research centers. The purpose of the symposium was to present
and discuss recent developments in the solution properties of water soluble polymers and
their applications in aqueous systems.
Water soluble polymers find applications in a number of fields of which the following
may be worth mentioning: cosmetics, detergent, oral care, industrial water treatment, geothermal, wastewater treatment, water purification and reuse, pulp and paper production,
sugar refining, and many more. Moreover, water soluble polymers play vital role in the oil
industry, especially in enhanced oil recovery. Water soluble polymers are also used in agriculture and controlled release pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, a fundamental knowledge of solution properties of these polymers is essential for most industrial scientists. An
understanding of the basic phenomena involved in the application of these polymers, such
as adsorption and interaction with different substrates (i.e., tooth enamel, hair, reverse osmosis membrane, heat exchanger surfaces, etc.) is of vital importance in developing high
performance formulations for achieving optimum efficiency of the system.
A serious problem encountered in many industrial processes is the build-up of undesirable deposits on the walls of water handling equipment. These deposits, especially on
heat transfer surfaces in cooling, boiler, geothermal, and distillation systems, lead to overheating, loss of system efficiency, unscheduled shutdown time, and ultimately heat exchanger failure. These deposits can be categorized into the following four groups: a)
mineral scales (i.e., CaCO3, CaSO4•2H2O, CaSO4, CaF2, Ca3(PO4)2, etc.), b) suspended
solids (i.e., mud or silt), c) corrosion products (i.e., Fe2O3, Fe3O4, ZnO, etc.), and d) microbiological mass. In reverse osmosis systems, deposition of unwanted materials may result
in poor water quality and premature membrane failure. The development of deposits on
heat exchanger and membrane surfaces continues to be a limiting factor in the efficient
operation of the systems. Thus, effective operation of industrial water systems continues
to depend on the control of deposits in these systems.
In the past few years, polymers have been successfully used by the water treatment
industry for numerous functions including scale inhibition, metal ion stabilization, crystal


vii


viii

Preface

modification, and dispersancy. Polymers used in water treatment formulations are usually
anionic and have molecular weight ranging from 500 to 20,000 daltons. In wastewater
treatment, high molecular weight polymer are used as flocculating and coagulating agents.
In cosmetics and hair care applications, the industrial chemist depends on the use of water
soluble polymers to develop an aesthetically pleasing, functional, and stable product.
Polymers also offer unique opportunities in the controlled release of active from the formulated product. In detergents use of polymers as builders is prevalent.
This volume provides an introduction to the use of water soluble polymers in many
fields ranging from oral care, cosmetics, detergent, pharmaceutical, to industrial water
treatment. A wide range of expertise has been brought together to this book in such a diverse applications. The first four chapters address the solution properties of polymers. The
next five chapters examine the growth and inhibition of hydroxyapatite, an important
component of teeth, bones, and urinary stones. In the next 8 chapters use of polymers in
industrial water and wastewater treatment applications is presented. The final two chapters
deal with the use of polymers in hair care and detergent applications.
I hope this book will prove to be a valuable addition to the library of the academic
researchers and, even more so, for the technology-focused industrial scientist involved
with polymers who are interested in expanding their applications into new fields.
Zahid Amjad
Cleveland, Ohio


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to all the contributors for their cooperation and hard work in preparing
their respective chapters and to all those who made the symposium possible and this volume available. Financial support of the national and international scientists is gratefully
acknowledged. Special thanks are extended to the American Chemical Society Division of
Colloid and Surface Chemistry, ACS Corporation Associates, Avlon Industries, ColgatePalmolive Company, and The B.F. Goodrich Company. Their generous assistance contributed substantially to the success of the symposium.
I am thankful to Drs. Michael M. Reddy and Petros G. Koutsoukos for serving as the
various session chairmen, and to John Zibrida for his efforts in the selection of industrial
speakers. I want to give special thanks to Jeff Pugh for his efficient and organized handling of the considerable correspondence associated with both the symposium and the
book. I would like to thank the management of The B.F. Goodrich, in particular Dr. Victoria F. Haynes, for encouragement and support in organizing this symposium and the editing of this volume. Thanks are also extended to the editorial staff of Plenum Publishing
Corporation, and especially to Susan Safren, for assistance during all stages of production
of this book. Finally, I would to thank my wife for contending with me during the several
weekends I was finalizing the manuscript.

ix


ABOUT THE EDITOR

Zahid Amjad is a Research Fellow in the Advanced Technology Group of The B. F.
Goodrich Company. A native of Pakistan, he received his M.Sc. in Chemistry from Panjab
University and a Ph.D. from Glasgow University, Scotland. Dr. Amjad was a Lecturer at
the Institute of Chemistry of Panjab University, and was Assistant Research Professor at
the State University of New York at Buffalo. After spending 3 years with Calgon Corporation, he joined The B.F. Goodrich Company where he has served since 1982. Dr. Amjad’s
current major interests include biological and industrial applications of water soluble and
water swellable polymers, interaction of polymers at solid-liquid interface, membranebased separation processes, and controlled-release of pharmaceuticals.
Dr. Amjad has presented invited lectures at various national and international meetings, contributed to several books, and published numerous papers on the properties and
behavior of water soluble and water swellable polymers, as well as on crystal growth and
inhibition kinetics, control and removal of foulants from water purification apparatus—particularly membrane-based processes, and controlled release of actives. He is
holder of 28 patents and has edited three books. He has been inducted into National Hall
of Corporate Inventors, is the recipient of the 1997 EDI Innovation Award, and is a member of several professional organizations. He is also on the Adjunct Faculty in Pharmaceutical Sciences at the School of Pharmacy, Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe,
Louisiana.

251


253

Index Terms
AA: see Acrylic acid
AA/AHPSE/PEGAE
calcium phosphate scale inhibition and
as clay dispersant agent
Acrylamide, wastewater treatments and
Acrylic acid
characteristics of
interfacial adsorption kinetics
poly: see Poly(acrylic acids)
2-(Acryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium
chloride, wastewater treatments and
Activation free energy
Additives, crystallization kinetics and
Adsorption
activation energy and
alumina powder
diffusion control of
electrostatic resistance to
hydroxyapatite and
hydroxyapatite crystal growth and
hydroxypropylcellulose, on HAP
kinetics of
polyacrylic acid
polymer: see Polymer adsorption
of polyvinyl pyrrolidone on alumina
of SDS on HAP
of SPVPA to hydroxyapatite beads
water-soluble macromolecules
AIBN: see Azobisisobutyronitrile
Alkaline hair relaxers
Alumina, polyacrylic acid adsorption on
Alumina powder adsorption
Aluminum separation
AMD-co-AETAC polymers
characterization of
flocculation experiments
preparation of
wastewater treatments and
Amorphous silica
Amphoteric acrylamide copolymers
application to detergents
preparation of
Amphoterics
Anhydrite scales, formation on heat exchanger
surfaces
Anionic polymers, examples of
Antiscalants, silica
Arrhenius expression
Azobisisobutyronitrile

Links

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193
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5
20

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51
15
24
15
19
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71
105
11
25
26
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59
231
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194
195
195
195
194
175
245
246
232
183
232
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17
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254

Index Terms
Bacteria, attachment to saliva-coated beads
Benzene hexacarboxylic acid, hydroxyapatite
crystal growth and
Boltzmann’s constant
Borate–carbazole reaction, uronic acid and
Boric acid, poly(vinyl alcohol) solubility and
1-Bromonaphthalene, surface tension of
Brownian diffusion coefficient
Calcite crystal growth
Calcium carbonate
formation in natural water
inhibition by maleic acid copolymers
Calcium carbonate crystal growth
kinetic inhibition of
organic inhibitors of
relative inhibition of
Calcium phosphate inhibitors, efficacy of
Calcium phosphate nucleation
on FEP
on PMMA
radiofrequency glow discharge and
on silicone rubber
Calcium phosphate scale, novel inhibitor of
Calcium sulfate dihydrate scale, formation on
heat exchanger surfaces
Calculus, dental: see Dental calculus
Capillary suction time
Cationic polymers
hair care and
performance on sludge
Cations, crystallization in presence of
Chlorides, recycled water and
Chondroitin sulphate, hydroxyapatite
adsorption and
Chromatography, high performance size exclusion
Citric acid, hydroxyapatite crystal growth
inhibition and
Clay dispersant, AA/AHPSE/PEGAE as
Colloidal particles, isolatiodseparation of
Concentrated particulate suspensions
Conformation: see Polymer concentration
Constant composition
Contact angle
Cooling tower
agricultural waste in
biologically treated wastewater in
boiler blowdown in
boiler condensate in

Links
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77
18
64
34
58
5
124

136

132
117
119
131
131
122
150
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59
59
59
149
183
200
233
202
58
221
71
196
84
159
193
23
56
57
214
215
216
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Index Terms
Cooling tower (cont.)
low TDS water
municipal wastewater in
reuse of blowdown
scale formation in
scrubber blowdown in
seawater and
side-stream softening
wet dry
Cooling water treatment
calcium phosphate scale
optimization in recycled waters
Copolymers
of acrylic acid
characterization of
HMPAAs and
maleic acid
of pyreneacrylamide
Corrosion
control in recycled water
control of
Corrosion inhibitors
molybdate/phosphonate
molybdate/zinc
orthophosphate
zinc
Cosmetics industry, water-soluble polymers in
Crosslink density, in HMPAAs
Crystal growth
calcite
hydroxyapatite: see Hydroxyapatite crystallization
impurities and
organophosphonate inhibition of
polyelectrolytes and
in pure solution
pyrophosphate inhibition of
of SPVPA
Crystalline structure, of poly(vinyl alcohol) gels
Crystallinity
optimal freezing times and
of poly(vinyl alcohol)
Crystallization
cations and
of gypsum
hydroxyapatite: see Hydroxyapatite crystallization
of hydroxyapatite
in presence of additives/impurities
PVA gels and
thermodynamics of

Links
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214
212
118
214
215
210
210
149
207
5
195
4
120
5
207
149
218
218
218
219
219
231
20
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52
78
120
52
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92
35
37
36
58
183
65
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32
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Index Terms

Links

Crystallization kinetics
additives/impurities influence on
constant composition method and
dosigraph and
potentiometer and
stoichiometrics and
Cyclohexane, interfacial adsorption kinetics
Cyclohexane/water interface
dynamic interfacial tension data
HMPAA adsorption and
hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acids) and

56
51
56
56
56
56
20

Decane, surface tension of
Dental calculus
etiology of
sodium polyvinylphosphonic acid inhibition of
Dental calculus formation
SPVPA effects
Dental plaque
etiology of
sodium polyvinylphosphonic acid inhibition of
SPVPA effects on
Dental plaque formation
SPVPA effects on
Deodorant textiles, copolymer treatment effects
Detergents, amphoteric acrylamide copolymers
Dialysis equilibrium, SDS concentration
determination and
Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, crystal
growth inhibition
Dicarboxylic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal
growth and
Diffusion coefficient
Diiodomethane, surface tension of
Dimethyl sulfoxide, as poly(vinyl alcohol) solvent
Dissolution studies
Disulfide bonds, hair relaxers and
DMSO: see Dimethyl sulfoxide
Dodecaine, surface tension of
Dosigraph, crystallization kinetics and
Drop volume, Kruss Drop Volume Tensiometer and
Drop volume technique
Drop volume tensiometry
DuNouy ring method
Dynamic interfacial tension
cyclohexane/water interface and
determination of

58

13
20
1

92
92
91
95

100

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92
96
91
100
246
245
107
78
78
17
58
32
34
231
58
56
13
12
16
10
13
12

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Index Terms

Links

Electrolytes, inorganic
Electrosteric stabilization
Endochondral ossification, hydroxyapatite and
Energy, activation
Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy
Energy production, scale formation in
Enzymatic degradation, kinetics of
Enzymes
guar galactomannans and
guar gum solutions and
guar solution viscosity and
Epton method, of SDS concentration determination
Equilibrium interfacial tension
determination of
DuNouy ring method and
Equilibrium swelling
crystallinity of poly(vinyl alcohol) and
Ethylene glycol, surface tension of

54
8
63
15
179
118
41

Feed water, mineral scale formation
FEP: see
Poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoro-propylene)
Flocculation
AMD-co-AETAC polymers and
cake solids and
capillary suction time and
filtrate turbidity an
free drainage rate and
wastewater sludge and
Fluorescence spectroscopy
polymer conformation and
polymer interaction and
Food additives, guar gum and
Formamide, surface tension of
Freezing/thawing, poly(viny1 alcohol) solubility
Fulvic acid
calcium carbonate formation
hydroxyapatite crystal growth and

132

Galactomannans, as food additives
Galactosamine, hydroxyapatite adsorption and
α−Galactosidase, guar hydrolysis and
Gas production
guar use in
inhibitor needs
Gelation
DMSO as poly(viny1 alcohol) solvent
phase separation and
Gelation rates, poly(vinyl alcohol)

41
43
44
107
9
10
10
34
36
58

195
200
200
200
200
196
23
23
42
58
31
132
77

81

42
71
46
42
170
32
33
32

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258

Index Terms
Geothermal wells, calcium carbonate scale
formation in
Gingivitis
Glucosamine, hydroxyapatite adsorption and
Glucose, hydroxyapatite crystal growth inhibition and
Glycerol, surface tension of
Glycolic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal growth inhibition
and
Glycosaminoglycans
hydroxyapatite crystal growth and
hydroxyapatite crystal growth inhibition and
Goniometer, direct contact angle measurements
Guar galactomannans, enzymatic modification of
as food additive
Guar gum
enzymatic degradation of
gas production and
hydraulic fracturing of
mining industry and
oil production and
paper production and
Guaran
Guar hydrolysis, α-galactosidase and
Guar solutions
degradation time and
enzymatic hydrolysis of
enzyme concentration and
molecular/rheological property changes
rheology of enzymatic degradation
SEC and
viscosity of
Gypsum crystallization
inhibition on heat exchanger surfaces
temperature–time profiles of
Hair
physical structure of
relaxed
increasing strength of
minimizing swelling of
tensile strength of
water-soluble polymers in
Hair care
amphoterics in
anionic polymers and
cationic polymers in
nonionic polymers in
HAP: see Hydroxyapatite
Hair relaxers, cationic polymer effects in

Links
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92
71
84
58
84
67
63
57
41
42
43
42
42
42
42
41
42
46
41
43
41
43
41
41
41

44

183
187

235
237
239
231
231
232
232
233
234
240

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259

Index Terms
Hair swelling, hydrogenated starch hydrolysate and
Heat exchanger surfaces, gypsum scale inhibition on
Hemihydrate scales, formation on heat exchanger
surfaces
Heptane, surface tension of
Hexacarboxylic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal
growth and
Hexadecane, surface tension of
HMPAA: see Poly(acrylic acid),
hydrophobically modified
HPC: see Hydroxypropylcellulose
HSA: see Human serum albumin
Human serum albumin, adsorption on PMMA
Humic acid, calcium carbonate formation
Humic compounds, hydroxyapatite crystal growth and
Hydraulic fracturing
Hydrogen bonding
Hydrogen bonds, hair relaxers and
Hydrogenated starch hydrolysate, hair swelling and
water solubility and
Hydrogen bonds, hair relaxers and
Hydrogenated starch hydrolysate, hair swelling and
Hydrolysis
of guar solutions
water solubility and
Hydrophobes
content in HMPAAs
oil/water interface and
Hydroxyapatite
adsorption by hydroxypropylcellulose
adsorption isotherms
calcium phosphate nucleation and
desorption of hydroxypropylcellulose after dilution
desorption of SDS after dilution
growth inhibition by glycosaminoglycans
hydroxypropylcellulose adsorption on
mammalian hard tissue formation and
SDS adsorption on
surface complex formation effects on stability
Hydroxyapatite beads
bacterial attachment to
SPVPA adsorption to
Hydroxyapatite crystallization
benzene hexacarboxylic acid and
citric acid inhibition of
dental calculus formation and
dicarboxylic acid influence on
fulvic acid and
glucose inhibition of
glycolic acid inhibition of

Links
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183
183
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78
58

59
132
77
42
27
231
234
31
231
234
43
31
21
9
109
66
60
110
110
63
105
114
108
112
95
97
63
77
84
91
78
77
84
84

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260

Index Terms
Hydroxyapatite crystallization (cont.)
hexacarboxylic acid influence on
humic compound influence on
inhibition of
kinetics of
magnesium inhibition of
mellitic acid inhibition of
phytic acid inhibition of
plaque formation and
poly(acrylic acid) and
poly(acrylic acid) inhibition of
pyrophosphate inhibition of
SPVPA adsorption and
tannic acid and
tricarboxylic acid influence on
zinc inhibition of
Hydroxyapatite disks, saliva-coated,
bacterial attachment to
Hydroxyapatite suspension, stability
Hydroxypropylcellulose
adsorption on hydroxyapatite
binding of SDS by
desorption of
mammalian hard tissue formation and
surface complex formation and
Impurities
crystal growth and
crystallization kinetics and
nucleation and
Industrial water systems, scale formation and
Interfacial adsorption, kinetics of
Interfacial tension, see also Dynamic interfacial
tension; Equilibrium interfacial tension
contact angle measurement determination of
drop volume technique determining

Links
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77
67
96
84
84
84
91
77
84
84
93
77
78
84
95
105
105
109
110
114
111

109

52
51
52
183
20

57
12

Kinetics
of adsorption studies
crystallization
of crystallization
hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acids)
hydroxyapatite crystal growth
hydroxyapatite crystal growth rate and
of interfacial adsorption
Kruss Drop Volume Tensiometer
Kruss Processor Tensiometer K12

11
51
56
1
96
84
20
13
10

Langmuir adsorption isotherm curves

60

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261

Index Terms
Light scattering studies
Lime-soda softening
Macromolecules
hydroxyapatite and
mineralization in presence of
water-soluble
Magnesium, hydroxyapatite crystal growth
inhibition and
Magnesium silicate
Maleic acid copolymers
affinity constants of
calcium carbonate inhition and
chemical composition of
crystal growth and
Mammalian hard tissues, formation of
Mellitic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal growth
inhibition and
Melting point, of poly(vinyl alcohol)
Metals, recycled water and
Methanolysis, of poly(vinyl acetate)
Methylene blue diphasic titration, SDS
concentration determination and
Mineral scale formation
hydroxyapatite crystallization and
inhibition by polymers
precipitation inhibition of
semi-empirical inhibition model
Mineralization, macromolecules and
Mining industry, guar gum and
Molecular weight
acrylic acids
pyreneacrylamide
water solubility and
Molybdate/phosphonate, corrosion inhibition and
Molybdate/zinc, corrosion inhibition and
Nonionic polymers, hair care and
Nucleation
impurities and
on polymer surfaces
scale inhibitors and
Octane, surface tension of
Oil production
guar use in
inhibitor needs
Oil-in-water emulsions
HMPAAs and
Oil/water interface, hydrophobes and

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5
211

66
59
59
84
175
126
117
120
120
114
84
36
221
32
107
131
77
163
164
165
59
42
5
5
31
218
218
234
52
59
169
58
42
170
1
1
9

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262

Index Terms
Organic azole, corrosion inhibition and
Organic inhibitors, calcium carbonate
crystal growth and
Organophosphonates, crystal growth inhibition
Orthophosphate, corrosion inhibition and
Osmosis, reverse
Paper production, guar gum and
Periodonititis
pH, effects, polyethylene oxide adsorption on silica
pH trigger, HMPAA and
Phase separation, gelation and
Phosphonates, recycled water and
Photo Correlation spectroscopy
Phytic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal growth
inhibition and
Plaque, dental: see Dental plaque
PMMA: see Poly(methyl methacrylate)
Polyacrylic acid
Poly(acrylic acid)
hydrophobically modified
adsorption efficiency in
crosslink density and
hydrophobe content in
low pressure region in
material characterization and
pH trigger and
hydroxyapatite crystal growth and
hydroxyapatite crystal growth inhibition and
neutralized
Polyacrylic acid adsorption, solids concentration
effects on
Poly(aspartic acid), scale deposition experiments and
Polyelectrolytes
cationic, in wastewater treatments
crystal growth experiments and
ordinary–extraordinary transition of
topological structure of
Polyethylene oxide, adsorption on silica
Polymer adsorption
density
methods of
solid concentration effect on
fluorescence spectroscopy and
pyrene labeled polyethylene oxide
solid concentration effect on
at solid/liquid interface
Polymer surfaces, nucleation on
Polymeric antiscalants, silica and

Links
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131
78
219
211
41
92
26
8
33
217
23
84

232
1
19
20
21
15
4
8
77
84
6
25
188
193
120
199
196
26
23
29
25
23
23
25
23
23
59
173

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263

Index Terms
Polymer conformation
Polymers
alumina surface and
characterization of
concentrated particulate suspensions and
electrosteric stabilization of
in hair care
nonionic
recycled water and
structured
Poly(methyl methacrylate)
calcium phosphate nucleation on
crystallization kinetics and
human serum albumin adsorption on
interfacial tension of
Polyquatemium-6
Polyquatemium-7
Polyquatemium-10
Poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-hexafluoropropylene)
calcium phosphate nucleation on
crystallization kinetics
Poly(vinyl acetate), methanolysis of
Poly(vinyl alcohol)
aqueous solutions of
boric acid and
dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent
dissolution studies
equilibrium swelling studies
long-term stability of
melting point of
poly(vinyl acetate) and
retrogradation of
solidification of
stability of
temperature of
water solubility characteristics of
Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels
biomedical applications of
crystalline structure of
freeze-dried
heat-treated
mechanical stability of
optimal freezing/thawing cycles
organic solvents and
rapid cycling conditions and
rapid freeze/thaw cycles and
stability of
synthesis of
water solubility of
Poly(viny1 alcohol) hydrogels:
see Poly(vinyl alcohol) gels

Links
23
26
5
23
8
231
234
217
194
59
51
59
59
233
233
233
59
51
32
33
34
32
34
34
32
36
32
32
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32
31
32
35
32
32
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264

Index Terms
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone, adsorption on alumina and
Potentiometer, crystallization kinetics and
Precipitation inhibition, mechanistic aspects of
Precipitation techniques
Pre-exponential factor
PVA: see Poly(vinyl alcohol)
PYA: see Pyreneacrylamide
Pyrene labeled polyethylene oxide,
fluorescence at silica/water interface
Pyreneacrylamide
characteristics of
interfacial adsorption kinetics
Pyrophosphate
crystal growth inhibition
hydroxyapatite crystal growth inhibition and
Radiofrequency glow discharge, crystallization
kinetics and
RFGD: see Radiofrequency glow discharge
Rheology
guar solution enzymatic degradation
of guar solution hydrolysis
suspension
Scale formation
calcium carbonate
control in recycled water
maleic acid copolymers and
SDS: see Sodium dodecylsulfate
SEC, guar solution enzymatic degradation
Shear viscosity, guar solutions and
Silica
amorphous
antiscalants for
polyethylene oxide adsorption on
polymeric
polymeric antiscalants and
problems with
recycled water and
solubility in water systems
water treatment systems and
Silicate salts
Silica/water interface, pyrene labeled
polyethylene oxide fluorescence at
Silicone rubber, calcium phosphate nucleation on
Sodium dodecylsulfate
adsorption on HAP
binding by hydroxypropylcellulose

Links
26
56
164
77
55

23
5
5
20
78
84

51

41
43
23
131
117
207
120
41
41
175
176
26
175
173
175
221
173
175
173
23
59
108
109

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265

Index Terms
Sodium dodecylsulfate (cont.)
desorption of
dialysis equilibrium method of
concentration determination
Epton method of concentration determination
hydroxypropylcellulose adsorption and
mammalian hard tissue formation and
methylene blue diphasic titration
surface complex formation and
total concentration of
Sodium polyvinylphosphonic acid
adsorption to hydroxyapatite beads
bacterial attachment assay
bacterial cultures and conditions
dental calculus/plaque inhibition
effect, calculus formation
effects, short-term plaque formation
seeded crystal growth
synthesis of
Solid/liquid interface
polymer adsorption and
polymer conformation at
Solids, recycled water and
Solids concentration
adsorption effects of
polyacrylic acid adsorption and
polyethylene oxide adsorption on silica and
Spectroscopy
fluorescence
Photon Correlation
SPVPA: see Sodium polyvinylphosphonic acid
StoichiometricsW crystallization kinetics and
Surface complex formation, biological significance of
Suspension pH, polyacrylic acid adsorption and
Suspension rheology
Swelling studies, of poly(vinyl alcohol)
Tannic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal growth and
Tensiometry, drop volume
Terpolymers
AA/AHPSE/PEGAE
calcium phosphate scale formation and
Tetradecaine, surface tension of
Thermodynamic characteristics, of poly(vinyl alcohol)
Thermoelectric power generation, water
conservation and
Thermogram, of poly(viny1 alcohol) gels
Tricarboxylic acid, hydroxyapatite crystal growth and
Trypticase labeling media

Links
110
107
107
105
114
107
111
107
91
97
94
94
92
95
96
92
92

100

23
23
221
29
25
27
23
23
56
114
25
23
34
77
16
151
151
149
58
32
208
35
78
94

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266

Index Terms
Uronic acid, borate–carbazole reaction
determination of
Vinyl phosphonyl dichloride
Viscometry
Viscosity
recycled
of guar solutions
time-dependent behavior of
Wastewater
Waste streams separation
biologically treated
municipal
recycled
Wastewater sludge, flocculation of
Wastewater treatments, cationic polyelectrolyte
applications in
Water
recycled
agricultural waste
bio-control of
biologically treated wastewater
boiler blowdown
boiler condensate
contaminants that affect
cooling water treatment optimization in
corrosion inhibitors
demineralizer fast-rinse
low TDS water
monitoring
municipal wastewater
phosphonates and
polymers and
process compatibility and
product formulation
program cost comparison
R.O. reject
scale inhibition in
scrubber blowdown
seawater
silica and
software and
storm runoff
types in cooling systems
surface tension of

Links

64
91
196

44
44

211
215
214
207
196
193

213
219
215
216
216
220
207
218
213
216
222
214
217
217
222
216
222
212
216
213
215
221
217
213
212
58

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267

Index Terms
Water conservation
cooling water treatment optimization and
in design phase
lime-soda softening
motivation for
reverse osmosis and
side-stream softening
thermoelectric power generation and
Water cooling systems
scale formation in
steam electrical generation
Water solubility
hydrogen bonding and
hydrolysis and
molecular weight and
of poly(vinyl alcohol)
Water treatment, silica and
Zeldovich factor
Zinc
corrosion inhibition and
hydroxyapatite crystal growth inhibition and

Links
208
207
209
211
208
211
210
208
118
208
31
31
31
31
175
55
218
84

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CONTENTS

1. Kinetics of Adsorption for Hydrophobically Modified Poly(Acrylic Acids) at
Cyclohexane/Water Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Christopher Rulison
2. Effect of Solids Concentration on Polymer Adsorption and Conformation . . . . .
Tsung-yuan Chen, Chidambaram Maltesh, and Ponisseril Somasundaran

1
23

3. Water Solubility Characteristics of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Gels Prepared by
Freezing/Thawing Processes
.......................................
Christie M. Hassan, Patrina Trakarnpan, and Nicholas A. Peppas

31

4. Enzymatic Modification of Guar Solutions: Viscosity–Molecular Weight
Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Akash Tayal, Vandita Pai, Robert M. Kelly, and Saad A. Khan

41

5. The Influence of Additives and Impurities on Crystallization Kinetics: An
Interfacial Tension Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wenju Wu and George H. Nancollas

51

6. Inhibition of Hydroxyapatite Growth in Vitro by Glycosaminoglycans:
The Effect of Size, Sulphation, and Primary Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paschalsi Paschalakis, Demitrios H. Vynios, Constantine P. Tsiganos, and
Petros G. Koutsoukos
7. Influence of Humic Compounds on the Crystal Growth of Hydroxyapatite . . . . .
Zahid Amjad and Michael M. Reddy

63

77

8. Crystal Growth of Hydroxyapatite in Vitro and Dental Calculus and Plaque
Formation on Human Teeth in Vivo
...............................
Abdul Gaffar, Edgard C. Moreno, John Afflitto, and Yelloji-Rao K. Mirajkar

91

9. Adsorption of Hydroxypropylcellulose on Hydroxyapatite via Formation of
Surface Complex with Sodium Dodecylsulfate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Saburo Shimabayashi, Sawa Nishine, Tadayuki Uno, and Tomoaki Hino

105

xi


xii

Contents

10. The Inhibition of Calcium Carbonate Formation by Copolymers Containing
Maleic Acid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pavlos G. Klepetsanis, Petros G. Koutsoukos, Gabriele-Charlotte Chitanu,
and Adrian Carpov
1 1. Kinetic Inhibition of Calcium Carbonate Crystal Growth in the Presence of
Natural and Synthetic Organic Inhibitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zahid Amjad, Jeff Pugh, and Michael M. Reddy

117

131

12. Novel Calcium Phosphate Scale Inhibitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Libardo A. Perez and Stephen M. Kessler

149

13. Inhibition of Mineral Scale Precipitation by Polymers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shiliang He, Amy T. Kan, and Mason B. Tomson

163

14. Pilot Test Results Utilizing Polymeric Dispersants for Control of Silica . . . . . . .
Charles W. Smith

173

15. Inhibition of Gypsum Scale Formation on Heat Exchanger Surfaces by
Polymeric Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Zahid Amjad
16. Applications of Structured Cationic Polyelectrolytes in Wastewater Treatments
Haunn-Lin T. Chen

183
193

17. Optimization of Cooling Water Treatment Formulations for Use in Recycled
Waters
......................................................
Paul J. Forbes

207

18. Water-Soluble Polymers in Hair Care: Prevention and Repair of Damage during
Hair Relaxing
................................................
Ali N. Syed, Wagdi W. Habib, and Anna M. Kuhajda

231

19. Application of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Amphoteric Acrylamide
Copolymers to Detergents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Yoshiyuki Hayashi, Danian Lu, and Nobuo Kobayashi

245

About the Editor

..........................................................

251

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

253


1

KINETICS OF ADSORPTION FOR
HYDROPHOBICALLY MODIFIED
POLY(ACRYLIC ACIDS) AT
CYCLOHEXANE/WATER INTERFACES
Christopher Rulison
Krüss USA
9305B Monroe Road
Charlotte, North Carolina 28720-1488

1. ABSTRACT
Hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acids) (HMPAA’S) are commonly used as
primary, pH sensitive, stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. It has been shown that electrosteric stabilization is one of the mechanisms. An important factor in steric stabilization
is the breadth of the extension of stabilizing molecules from the discontinuous phase interface into the continuous phase. It must be substantial. This dictates that the stabilizing
molecules be of substantial hydrodynamic volume. However, polymers with large hydrodynamic volumes diffuse slowly through solution (Brownian diffusion coefficients on the
order of 10–12 to 10–13 m2/s). This can be a restriction to their use as emulsifiers, since the
kinetics of emulsion coalescence begin to compete with the kinetics of interfacial adsorption of the stabilizing species. With these things in mind, we have developed a technique,
based on drop volume tensiometery, which can be used to determine the “adsorption/diffusion” coefficients that characterize the kinetics of polymers adsorbing at oil/water interfaces. We have previously used this technique to show that increased hydrophobic content
and increased crosslink density enhance adsorption efficiency for HMPAA’S. The current
work is a pH dependence study which shows that neutralizing HMPAA in aqueous solution decreases its adsorption efficiency.

2. INTRODUCTION
Hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acids) (HMPAA’s) are commonly used as
primary, pH sensitive stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions.1–6 It has been shown that elecWater Soluble Polymers, edited by Amjad
Plenum Press, New York, 1998

1


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