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Aldehydes Ketones Chemistry of the Carbonyl Group

Chemistry 110
Bettelheim, Brown & March
Sixth Edition

Introduction to General,
Organic and Biochemistry
Chapter 17
Aldehydes & Ketones
Chemistry of the Carbonyl Group


Aldehydes & Ketones
¾The

functional group of an aldehyde is a carbonyl group
bonded to a hydrogen atom.
¾in methanal, the simplest aldehyde, the carbonyl group is
bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
¾In other aldehydes, it is bonded to one hydrogen atom and
one carbon atom.
O


O

O

C

C

C

H
H
methanal
formaldehyde

¾The

H3C
H
ethanal
acetaldehyde

O

H3C
CH3
propanone
acetone

cyclopentanone

functional group of a ketone is a carbonyl group
bonded to two carbons.


Aldehydes, R-CHO
¾Aldehydes have one hydrogen atom bonded to the carbonyl
group (methanal, the simplest, has two).
¾The group is somewhat more polar than ethers, but like


ethers it cannot donate a hydrogen bond to itself. Thus
aldehydes are less volatile (higher boiling) than alkanes or
ethers but are more volatile than alcohols or carboxylic acids.
They are slightly less soluble in water than the alcohols of
similar molecular weight.
δ−
¾Simple aldehydes have very
O
pungent and irritating odors and
δ+ C
are toxic. Aldehydes are
H
unsaturated and undergo
addition reactions with polar
aldehyde
molecules, like alcohols.
group is planar


Ketones - RC(O)R’
¾Ketones have two carbon atoms bonded to the carbonyl
group.
¾The group is somewhat more polar than ethers but like
ethers and aldehydes it cannot donate a hydrogen bond to
itself. Thus ketones are less volatile (higher boiling) than
alkanes or ethers, but are more volatile than alcohols or
carboxylic acids and are somewhat less soluble in water than
the alcohols of similar molecular weight.

δ
¾Ketones have pleasant,
O

distinctive odors and are
nontoxic. They are also
unsaturated and undergo
addition reactions with polar
molecules like alcohols.

C

C
δ+

C

ketone
group is planar


Naming Aldehydes
Common names for aldehydes are derived from carboxylic acids.
Carboxylic Acid
O
formic acid
HCOH
acetic acid

O
CH3COH

Aldehyde
formaldehyde

O
HCH

acetaldehyde

O
CH3CH

O
propionic acid CH3CH2COH

O
propionaldehyde CH3CH2CH

O
butyric acid CH3CH2CH2COH

O
butyraldehyde CH3CH2CH2CH

O
benzoic acid

benzaldehyde
COH
These two are also IUPAC!

O
CH


IUPAC Naming of Aldehydes
¾ The longest continuous chain of carbons
containing the –CHO group is the Parent
Alkanal (PA). Alkane minus e , add al.
¾ Number the chain always starting with the –
CHO group as carbon number 1.
¾ Construct the name by locating the other
substituent groups along the PA and listing
them alphabetically, again using di, tri, etc. for
identical groups. Always separating numbers
from numbers with commas, and from words
with hyphens. The aldehyde group never needs
a locator number.


Naming Aldehydes – IUPAC Names
Common Name
formaldehyde

O
HCH

acetaldehyde

O
CH3CH

propionaldehyde
butyraldehyde

Give the IUPAC Name!
IUPAC Name

O
CH3CH2CH
O
CH3CH2CH2CH
O

benzaldehyde

CH


IUPAC Name the Following Aldehydes
CH3

O
CH3CHCH

CH3CH2CHCHCH3
O CH

CH3
CH3 O
CH3CHCCH2CH
Br CH3
CH3

O

CH2CH2CH3

HCCH2CCH3
CH3

CH3

O
CH3CHCH2CCH2CHCH
CH3CH2 CH3

O CH
CH3CH2CH2CHCH2CH2CH3


Naming of Ketones - IUPAC
¾ The longest continuous chain of carbons containing the
C=O group is the Parent Alkanone (PA). Alkane minus e,
then add the ending -one, pronounced “own”.
¾ Number the chain always starting from the end closest to
the C=O group. If more than one possible carbonyl
position, precede the PA with a locator number separated
by hyphens.
¾ Construct the name by locating the other substituent
groups along the PA and listing them alphabetically, again
using di, tri, etc. for identical groups. Always separating
numbers from numbers with commas, and from words
with hyphens.

¾ Common Names are formed by listing each substituent
group as a separate word in ascending molecular weight
order, followed by the word “ketone”.


Naming Ketones –Common & IUPAC
Common Name

O
CH3CCH3
O
CH3CCH2CH3
O
CH3CH2CCH2CH3
O
CH3CH2CH2CCH3
O

IUPAC Name


Name the following Ketones
CH3

Use IUPAC or Common names.
O

CH3CHCH2CH2CH2CCH3

H3C

O

O
CH2CH2CCH3

O

O

CCH3

C


Reactions of Aldehydes - Oxidation
¾Aldehydes

are oxidized to carboxylic acids by a variety of
oxidizing agents, including potassium dichromate.

O
C H
4-methylpentanal

K2Cr 2O7
H2SO4

O
C OH
4-methylpentanoic acid

¾liquid

aldehydes are so sensitive to oxidation by O2 of the
air that they must be protected from contact with air
during storage.
O
O
O2 (air)
C H
C OH
butanal
butanoic acid
butyraldehyde
butyric acid

Ketones resist oxidation even by dichromate!


Oxidation of Aldehydes & α-Hydroxyketones
Tollen’s test is a definitive test for aldehydes:
RCH O(aq) + 2 [Ag(NH3)2] (aq) + 3 OH (aq)
RCO2 (aq) + 2 Ag(s) + 2H2O + 2NH3(aq)
On a clean test tube a silver “mirror” forms
Benedict’s test is a test for sugars and is based on the ready
oxidation of alpha-hydroxy aldehydes and ketones:
RCH O(aq) +

2
2 [Cu(citrate)] (aq) +

5 OH (aq)

RCO2 (aq) + Cu2O(s) + 3H2O + 2 citrate(aq)
A brilliant blue solution disappears, a brick-red ppt. forms.


Oxidation of Aldehydes & Ketones
¾Tollen’s test: A simple test that shows clearly whether an
unknown is an aldehyde or a ketone.
¾Benedict’s test: A simple test that detects the presence of
alpha hydroxy aldehydes and ketones – i.e. sugars. Simple
aldehydes do not give a good Benedict’s test. A simple early test
for sugar, glucose, in the urine. Groups giving a positive test:
All occur among various carbohydrates.

O
RCHCH

O O
RC CH

RCHCR'
OH

OH
α-hydroxy aldehyde

O

α-keto aldehyde

α-hydroxy ketone .

An α-substituent is one on a carbon next to a carbonyl carbon.


Which of the Following Compounds
Give a Positive Benedict’s Test?
HO

O

HOCH2CHCH

OH O
HOCH2CHCHCH
OH

O
HOCH2CCH2OH

O
HOCH2CH2CCH3


Reduction of Aldehydes & Ketones
¾The Oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols was a
principal route to aldehydes and ketones respectively.
¾Conversely the reduction of aldehydes and ketones may be
carried out by various reducing agents. Industrially the
reduction is commonly carried out with a transition metal
catalyst and hydrogen gas under pressure.
O

CH 3CH 2CH

+ H2

aldehyde

Ni
heat, pressure

OH

O
CH 3CCH 3
ketone

CH 3CH 2CH 2OH
primary alcohol

+

H2

Ni
heat, pressure

CH 3CHCH 3
secondary alcohol


Reduction of Aldehydes & Ketones
¾In the laboratory the reagent NaBH4 is commonly used. This
reagent is a source of hydride ion, H-, in which hydrogen has a
pair of electrons and bears a negative charge.
CH3
H3C

CH3 O
C

1) Hydride ion from NaBH4 adds to the
carbonyl carbon producing an alkoxide anion.

H

citronellal
citronella oil, lemon oil

CH3
H3C

CH3

H
O
H
C
H

1) NaBH4

H3C
2) H O+
3

CH3

CH3 O
H
C
H

2) Aqueous acid then neutralizes
the alkoxide anion.

This reaction has the advantage
of not reducing the double bond!


Reduction of Aldehydes & Ketones
¾In biological systems, the reduced form of Nicotinamide
Adenine Dinucleotide, NADH, is used. This reagent is also a
source of hydride ion, H-.

O

δ-

C

O

δ+

H

H O
H
C
H

H

O

H

H

O

H

C
H

¾A common biological reduction occurs in muscle fibers
during glycolysis: The reduction of pyruvate to lactate:

O O
H3C C C O
pyruvate

NADH

O O
H3C C C O
H

H3O+

H
O O
H3C C C O
H
lactate


Addition Reactions to the Carbonyl Group
¾Alcohols add to the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones
to form hemiacetals, a “half acetal”.
¾The hemiacetal functional group is a tetrahedral carbon
between an oxygen and a hydroxyl group.
H
δ+
δ
O
H
O
CH3
CH3
CH3CH2CH + O CH
CH3CH2CH
δ+
δCH
O CH
3

aldehyde
O δCH3CH2CCH3
δ+

ketone

hemiacetal

alcohol
H

δ+

+ O

δ-

CH3
CH

O

CH3CH2CCH3 CH3

CH3
alcohol

H

CH3

hemiacetal

O CH
CH3


Addition Reactions to the Carbonyl Group
¾The equilibrium between hemiacetals and aldehydes or
ketones usually favors the latter, except in one important case.
¾When the alcohol and aldehyde (ketone) are the same
molecule and a 5- or 6-membered ring can form by the
addition, then the hemiacetal predominates.

O

OH

C
*

HO

H

HO

O
HO

C
*

*
O
cyclic hemiacetal

H

H
* O

cyclic hemiacetal


Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides
Hemiacetals
CH2OH

HOCH2 O
CH2OH
*C O
HO C H
frontside

*
HO
OH

backside

D-α-fructose
OH

backside

H C OH
H C OH
CH2OH
D-fructose

frontside

HOCH2 O
HO

D-β-fructose

OH
*
CH2OH

OH


Which of the following compounds are
hemiacetals?
Look for a tetrahedral carbon between two oxygen atoms!
O

CH3

O

CH3O

OH

HO

OCH3
HOCH2OCH2CH3

HOCH2CH
CH3

CH3
CH3OCHOH


Draw the Alcohol - Aldehyde/Ketone for
each of the hemiacetals below.
First look for (mark) the carbon
atom between two oxygen atoms!

CH3O
HO

The hydroxyl oxygen is the
oxygen atom of the carbonyl!

O
OH
CH3
CH3OCHOH

HOCH2OCH2CH3

The other oxygen is from the
alcohol part and its hydroxy
hydrogen comes from the free
hydroxy!
The carbon-oxygen bond to the
marked carbon is broken to form
the alcohol and the carbonyl of
the aldehyde or ketone!


Hemiacetals React Further with Alcohols
An acid catalysed condensation reaction.
CH3O

+

HO

CH3OH

O
OH

+

CH3OH

CH3
CH3OCHOH

+

CH3OH

HOCH2OCH2CH3 + CH3OH

H+

CH3O
CH3O

H

+

H+

an acetal + H2O

O
OCH3
an acetal + H2O
CH3
CH3OCHOCH3
an acetal + H2O

H+ CH OCH OCH CH
3
2
2
3
an acetal + H2O


Acetals are Hydrolysed by Water in Acid
CH3

CH3OCHOCH3

H

First, find (mark) the
carbon atom between two
oxygens!

H

Then circle the two alkoxy
groups on each side of that
marked carbon atom!

+ H2O

CH3
CH3CH2OCOCH2CH3
+ H2O
CH
3

H
+ H2O

Use the hydrogen atoms on
water to make these two
alkoxy groups the two
alcohols!

H
+ H2O

Use the oxygen on the water
to make the carbonyl group
using the marked carbon
atom!

CH3CH2O
CH3CH2O
OCH2CH3
CH3CH2CHOCH3


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