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MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ RELATIVE CLAUSE

RELATIVE CLAUSE
(MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ)
A. RELATIVE CLAUSE
Who, Whom, Which, Whose, That ,
Where, When, Why
Relative Pronouns (đại từ quan hệ)
Relative Adverbs (trạng từ quan hệ)
Thường mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ (mệnh đề tính từ) dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước nó
1. Who:
 Thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người và làm chủ từ ( S ) cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ. Sau “Who” là 1
động từ.
− I saw the policeman. He helped us last week.
→ I saw the policeman who helped us last week.
− The man is my brother. He is standing over there.
→ The man who is standing over there is my brother.
2. Whom:
 Thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người và làm túc từ ( O ) cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ. Sau “Whom” là 1
chủ từ (Noun / pronoun).
− I know the girl. John spoke to her.
→ I know the girl whom John spoke to.
− The woman is his English teacher. You met her yesterday.

→ The woman whom you met yesterday is his English teacher.
3. Which:
 Thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật và làm chủ từ hay túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ. Sau “Which” là
1 động từ (nếu which là S), và 1 chủ từ (nếu which là O).
− She works for a company. That company makes cars.
→ She works for a company which makes cars.
− The book is very interesting. I bought it last week.
→ The book which I bought last week is very interesting.
4. Whose:
 Là đại từ quan hệ sở hữu. Nó được dùng để thay thế cho các tính từ sở hữu (my, your, his, her, our, their)
hay danh từ ở dạng sở hữu cách (Jimmy’s father, the dog’s tail…). Sau “Whose” là 1 danh từ.
− Mary was looking after a monkey. The monkey’s leg had been broken.
→ Mary was looking after a monkey whose leg had been broken.
− The woman lives alone with 2 dogs. Her children are living abroad.
→ The woman whose children are living abroad lives alone with 2 dogs.
5. Where: Mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ để nói đến nơi chốn (dùng để thay thế cho cụm từ chỉ nơi chốn.)
− I’d like to live in the country. There is a lot of sunshine there.
→ I’d like to live in the country where there is a lot of sunshine.
− The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed in that hotel last summer.
→ The hotel where we stayed last summer wasn’t very clean.
6. When: Mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ để nói đến thời gian ( dùng để thay thế cho cụm từ chỉ thời gian)
− Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day.
→ Do you still remember the day when we fist met?


7. Why : Mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ lý do ( dùng để thay thế cho cụm từ chỉ lý do)
− The reason why I phone you is to invite you to our club meeting.
8. That:
“That” có thể thay thế cho who, whom và which (trong cách dung trang trọng), trừ một số trường hợp
ngọai lệ
 “That” buộc phải dùng trong các trường hợp sau :

Sau các tính từ so sánh nhất kể cả “ the first, the second …., the next, the last …”
− It was the most interesting film that I have ever seen.
− It was the last letter that she sent me.

“That” được dùng sau các đại từ bất định (someone, anyone, everyone, no one ...) và một
số từ như: “ all / every / any / only ”
− These are all the books that we have.
− She gives her son anything that he asks for.



Nếu cụm từ đứng trước là danh từ chỉ người và vật hay người và nơi chốn.
− The boys and the cows that we saw along the road were merrily taking the pumpkins home.
− All the people and places that appear in his photos are very lively.
 “That” không được dùng trong các trường hợp sau :

“That” không được dùng sau giới từ
− This is the woman from whom we bought the picture. ( = that we bought the picture from... )

“That” không được dùng trong mệnh đề không giới hạn và mệnh đề nối tiếp.
− Mr Nam, who is 50 years old, is my physic teacher

B. KINDS OF RELATIVE CLAUSE ( CÁC LỌAI MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ )
1.

Mệnh đề quan hệ giới hạn ( Defining / Restrictive Relative Clause )
Mệnh đề này được dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước, nó là bộ phận quan trọng trong câu. Nếu bỏ
nó đi thì mệnh đề chính còn lại không có nghĩa rõ ràng
− The man who is speaking is my teacher.
Mệnh đề “who is speaking” bổ nghĩa cho “The man” vì nếu không giải thích rõ “người đang nói chuyện”
thì người nghe sẽ không biết ta muốn đề cập đến “người đàn ông “ nào.
− The book which I borrowed from you is very interesting.
Tương tự như trên, ta vẫn chưa xác định được đó là “quyển sách” nào, nên phải có mệnh đề để giải thích
rõ “đó là quyển sách tôi mượn của bạn”.
2. Mệnh đề quan hệ giải thích hay còn gọi là mệnh đề không giới hạn
( Non-defining / Non-Restrictive Relative Clause)
Mệnh đề này chỉ là phần giải thích thêm hay bổ sung thêm thông tin cho danh từ đứng trước. Nếu bỏ nó đi
thì mệnh đề chính còn lại vẫn có nghĩa rõ ràng. Khi viết mệnh đề này thường được tách khỏi mệnh đề chính
bằng 1 hoặc 2 dấu phẩy. Đại từ “That” không được dùng trong lọai mệnh đề này. Ta cũng không được lược
bỏ đại từ quan hệ trong lọai mệnh đề này.
− My father, who is fifty years old, is a doctor.
Trong trường hợp này “my father” đã dược xác định rõ (đó chính là ba tôi) nên mệnh đề “who is fifty
years old” chỉ là phần giái thích thêm, không quan trọng.
3. Mệnh đề quan hệ nối tiếp ( Sentence Relative Clause )


Lọai mệnh đề này được dùng để giải thích hay bổ nghĩa cho cả một mệnh đề phía trước. Trong trường
hợp này ta phải dùng đại từ “Which” để nối và dùng dấu phẩy tách riêng hai mệnh đề.
− You passed the exam. And this makes me happy.
→ You passed the exam, which makes me happy.
− They didn’t believe him. That made him very sad.
→ They didn’t believe him, which made him very sad.


Choose the best relative pronoun to complete the following sentences.
1. The place ________ we spent our holiday was really beautiful. ( what / who / where / which)
2. What was the name of the girl ________ passport was stolen? (whose / who / which / when)
3. The bed _______ I slept in was too soft. (whose / which / what / who )
4. Nora is the only person ________ doesn’t understand me. (which / whom / that / whose)
5. The man ________ she is married used to be a policeman. (who / whom / which / whose )
6. The film _______ I saw last night was very interesting. (which / when / that / whom)
7. The hotel ________ we stayed was not clean. (which / that / where / when)
8. The last time ________ I saw her, she looked very beautiful. (what / which / where / when)
9. What was the name of the people ________ car had broken down? (which / who / whom / whose)
10. I sometimes come back to the town ________ I was born. (what / where / that / which)
11. The reason ________ I phoned him was to invite him to the party. (what / whose / why / which)
12. She told me her address ________ I wrote on a piece of paper. (what / which / when / where)
13. Do you know the girl __________ Tom is talking to? (who / whom / which / whose)
14. I gave her all the money __________ I had. (which / what / when / that)
15. The party ________ we went to wasn’t very enjoyable. (who / when / which / where)
16. The stories ________ Tom tells are usually very funny. (when / which / where / who)
17. Have you seen the money ________ was on the table? ( what / which / where / whom)
18. The factory ________ John works in is the biggest in the town. (when / that / which / where)
19. Anyone ________ went to the party enjoyed it very much. ( who / whose / that / whom)
20. I argued with the woman __________ dog bit me. (who / whom / which / whose)
Combine the sentences, using relative pronoun
1. I thank the woman. She helped me.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. The book is mine. It’s on the table.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. The book was good. He read it last week.
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4. We know the man. His bicycle was stolen.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. The music was interesting. They listened to it last night.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. I saw the man. He closed the door.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. The student is from China. He sits next to me.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. The movie wasn’t very good. They saw it 2 days ago.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. I like the poem. You wrote it last week.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
10. The taxi driver was friendly. He took my sister to the airport.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
11. The boy was very nice. I visited his house last month.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________


12. The meeting was interesting. He went to it yesterday.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
13. She is reading a novel. It talk about an Indian woman.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
14. He lives in a dormitory. That dormitory is very big.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
15. The man is very kind. I talked to him yesterday.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
16. She writes a letter to thank her friends. She got a present from them.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
17. The man is Mr. John. You saw him at the party last night.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
18. The picture was beautiful. She was looking at it.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
19. The man is very gentle. He is examining the sick child.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
20. The girl was late. I was waiting for her.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
21. The job must be finished by Friday. David is doing it.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
22. The man is my uncle. I respect most his opinions.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
23. Did he tell you about the boy? We met him yesterday.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
24. The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation there.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
25. I’ll never forget the day. I met you then.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
26. The town is small. He grew up there.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
27. This is the village. His grandparents lives in that village.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
28. The man has left for Paris. He is my father’s friend.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
29. He often comes to visit Oxford City. He used to live there.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
30. This is the church. This church was built in 10th century.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
31. Mr. Brown is a very nice teacher. We study French with him.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
32. The girl is my sister. She is cooking in the kitchen.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
33. Mary is his friend. She is teaching in this class.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________


34. I’d like to live in the country. There is a beautiful river there.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
35. The man told me to come back today. I saw him yesterday.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
36. We know the man. His bicycle was stolen.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________



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