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elements of ecology 8e smith smith test bank chapter 21

Elements of Ecology, 8e (Smith/Smith)
Chapter 21 Ecosystem Energetics
21.1 Short Answer Questions
1) The heterotrophic component of the ecosystem is often subdivided into two subsystems:
consumers and ________.
Answer: decomposers
Topic: Introduction to Part 6
2) An ecosystem with inputs of matter and energy is a(n) ________ ecosystem.
Answer: open
Topic: Introduction to Part 6
3) A(n) ________ chemical reaction must absorb energy in order to proceed.
Answer: endothermic
Topic: Section 21.1
4) The ________ law of thermodynamics states that when energy is transferred or transformed,
part of the energy assumes a form that cannot pass on any further.
Answer: second
Topic: Section 21.1
5) ________ primary production is the total rate of photosynthesis or energy assimilated by
plants.
Answer: Gross
Topic: Section 21.2

6) The amount of accumulated organic matter found in an area at a given time is the ________
crop biomass.
Answer: standing
Topic: Section 21.2
7) For photosynthesis and productivity to occur, a plant must open its ________ to take in carbon
dioxide.
Answer: stomata
Topic: Section 21.3
8) In a body of water, the depth at which the availability of light is such that the rate of
photosynthesis equals the rate of respiration is called the ________ depth.
Answer: compensation
Topic: Section 21.4
9) Organic carbon produced within an ecosystem is termed ________.
Answer: autochthonous
Topic: Section 21.5
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10) Relative net primary productivity is the ratio of net primary productivity to standing
________.
Answer: biomass
Topic: Section 21.6
11) Net primary ________ is the energy available to the heterotrophic component of the
ecosystem.
Answer: production
Topic: Section 21.8
12) ________ efficiency is the ratio of production to assimilation, which measures how
efficiently the consumer incorporates assimilated energy into secondary production.
Answer: Production
Topic: Section 21.9
13) Within any ecosystem, the two major food chains are the ________ food chain and the
grazing food chain.
Answer: detrital
Topic: Section 21.10
21.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) According to the first law of thermodynamics,
A) chemical reactions are exothermic.
B) entropy tends to increase.
C) potential energy tends to degrade into an unavailable form.


D) energy is neither created nor destroyed.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 21.1
2) Plants assimilate energy through the process of
A) decomposition.
B) respiration.
C) photosynthesis.
D) regeneration.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 21.2
3) An ecologist studying productivity in a sample of grasses measures gross primary productivity
as 1000 kcal / m2 / yr and autotrophic respiration as 100 kcal / m2 / yr. Based on these
calculations, the net primary productivity would be
A) 10 kcal / m2 / yr.
B) 900 kcal / m2 / yr.
C) 1100 kcal / m2 / yr.
D) 10,000 kcal / m2 / yr.
Answer: B
Topic: Section 21.2
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4) Net primary productivity in an ecosystem increases as mean annual temperature
A) and mean annual rainfall decrease.
B) decreases and mean annual rainfall increases.
C) increases and mean annual rainfall decreases.
D) and mean annual rainfall increase.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 21.3
5) Net primary productivity is generally greatest at
A) tropical latitudes near the equator.
B) subtropical latitudes (e.g., 25° of latitude).
C) temperate latitudes (e.g., 50° of latitude).
D) polar latitudes (e.g., 80° of latitude).
Answer: A
Topic: Section 21.3
6) In the surface waters of oceans, the two most limiting nutrients for primary productivity are
A) sulfur and phosphorus.
B) sulfur and nitrogen.
C) nitrogen and iron.
D) nitrogen and phosphorus.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 21.4
7) Low-moisture conditions favor allocation by a plant to
A) leaves.
B) stems.
C) roots.
D) flowers.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 21.6
8) Secondary production is limited primarily by
A) water availability.
B) nutrient availability.
C) primary production.
D) light availability.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 21.8
9) Which organism is most likely to have the highest assimilation efficiency?
A) endothermic carnivore, such as a lion
B) ectothermic carnivore, such as a snake
C) endothermic herbivore, such as a deer
D) ectothermic herbivore, such as a grasshopper
Answer: A
Topic: Section 21.9
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10) The base of the detrital food chain is formed by
A) primary producers.
B) decomposers.
C) herbivores.
D) dead organic matter.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 21.10
11) In most terrestrial and many aquatic ecosystems, the ________ food chain is the dominant
pathway of energy flow.
A) detrital
B) grazing
C) consumer
D) heterotroph
Answer: A
Topic: Section 21.12
12) Rates of herbivory are highest in
A) aquatic ecosystems dominated by phytoplankton.
B) aquatic ecosystems dominated by vascular plants.
C) terrestrial ecosystems dominated by herbaceous plants.
D) terrestrial ecosystems dominated by woody plants.
Answer: A
Topic: Section 21.12
13) If herbivores eat 1000 kcal of plant energy, approximately how much energy will be
converted into the tissues of herbivores?
A) 1 kcal
B) 10 kcal
C) 100 kcal
D) 1000 kcal
Answer: C
Topic: Section 21.13
21.3 True/False Questions
1) When a chemical reaction results in the loss of energy from the system, the reaction is
exothermic.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.1
2) The second law of thermodynamics is valid only in a closed system, such as a living organism.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.1

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3) Productivity may be expressed in units of energy per unit area per unit time or in units of dry
organic matter per unit area per unit time.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.2
4) Net primary productivity cannot be measured in aquatic ecosystems.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.2
5) Net primary productivity is greater in areas with a long photosynthetic period than in areas
with a short photosynthetic period.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.3
6) Net primary productivity is greater in temperate grasslands than in tropical rain forest.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.3
7) Net primary productivity is greater in the open ocean than along the coast.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.4
8) In most marine ecosystems, autochthonous inputs of organic carbon are greater than
allochthonous inputs of carbon.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.5
9) In plants, low water availability favors the allocation of energy to the roots.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.6
10) In a temperate rain forest, primary productivity remains relatively constant.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.7
11) Primary productivity in forests often increases during the early stages of stand development
and then decreases again as the forest ages and standing biomass increases.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.7
12) Secondary production in an ecosystem is always less than primary production.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.8
13) In endotherms, an increase in mass-specific metabolic rate lowers production efficiency.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.9
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14) Primary producers form the base of all food chains.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.10
15) In all food chains, the flow of energy is unidirectional from the bottom to the top.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.10
16) Consumption efficiency is the ratio of ingestion to production.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.11
17) In terrestrial and shallow-water ecosystems, the grazing food chain is dominant over the
detrital food chain.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.12
18) In stream and river ecosystems, the grazing food chain is of minor importance compared
with the detrital food chain.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 21.12
19) In most ecosystems, the biomass of carnivores is greater than the biomass of producers.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.13
20) In all ecosystems, the biomass of primary producers is greater than the biomass of
herbivores.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 21.13
21) Brian Silliman's research demonstrated that productivity in highly productive coastal salt
marshes is controlled by bottom-up forces, such as physical conditions and nutrient availability.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Field Studies: Brian Silliman
22) Wealthy nations typically have lower rates of human appropriation of net primary
productivity (HANPP) than developing nations.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Ecological Issues: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity

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21.4 Essay Questions
1) Define net primary productivity and describe an experiment for how it can be measured.
Topic: Section 21.2
2) Describe the effects of temperature, moisture, length of photosynthetic period, and nutrient
availability on net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems.
Topic: Section 21.3
3) Describe the changes that might be expected to occur in allochthonous and autochthonous
sources of carbon in the energy balance of flowing water ecosystems from the smaller headwater
streams to larger river systems.
Topic: Section 21.5
4) Explain the difference between primary production and secondary production. How is
secondary production affected by primary production?
Topic: Section 21.8
5) What are the two main food chains of ecosystems? Which is more dominant in terrestrial
ecosystems and why?
Topic: Sections 21.10 and 21.12
6) Explain why energy is lost as it is transferred from one trophic level to another. What are the
effects of energy loss on the biomass of different trophic levels?
Topic: Sections 21.1 and 21.13
7) How do humans affect net primary productivity? Does the affluence of a society affect how
humans appropriate net primary productivity?
Topic: Ecological Issues: Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity

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