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elements of ecology 8e smith smith test bank chapter3

Elements of Ecology, 8e (Smith/Smith)
Chapter 3 The Aquatic Environment
3.1 Short Answer Questions
1) The process by which water travels in a sequence from the air to Earth and returns to the
atmosphere is referred to as the ________ cycle.
Answer:
water
hydrologic
Topic: Section 3.1
2) The total amount of evaporating water from the surfaces of the ground and vegetation is called
________.
Answer: evapotranspiration
Topic: Section 3.1
3) The ________ of water is the amount of heat that is required to raise the temperature of water
one degree Celsius.
Answer: specific heat
Topic: Section 3.2
4) Small animals, such as water striders and water spiders, can run across a pond's surface due to
________.
Answer: surface tension
Topic: Section 3.2

5) ________ is the source of frictional resistance to objects moving through water.
Answer: Viscosity
Topic: Section 3.2
6) As sunlight passes through water, only ________ wavelengths are able to penetrate into
deeper water.
Answer: blue
Topic: Section 3.3
7) The region of the vertical depth profile where the temperature declines most rapidly is called
the ________.
Answer: thermocline
Topic: Section 3.4
8) The upper layer of warm, low-density water of an open body of water is called the ________.
Answer: epilimnion
Topic: Section 3.4
9) A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances is called a ________.
Answer: solution
Topic: Section 3.5
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10) The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration is called ________.
Answer: diffusion
Topic: Section 3.6
11) The solubility of oxygen ________ as water warms.
Answer: decreases
Topic: Section 3.6
12) In the open ocean, concentrations of oxygen reach a minimum value of 500—1000 m, a
region referred to as the oxygen ________.
Answer: minimal zone
Topic: Section 3.6
13) The abundance of hydrogen ions in solution is a measure of ________.
Answer: acidity
Topic: Section 3.7
14) ________ solutions are those that have a higher concentration of OH- (hydroxyl ions) than
H+ ions.
Answer: Alkaline
Topic: Section 3.7
15) Aquatic organisms are unable to tolerate low pH conditions largely because acidic waters


contain high concentrations of ________.
Answer: aluminum
Topic: Section 3.7
16) A region of ________ occurs where deep waters of the ocean move upward to the surface.
Answer: upwelling
Topic: Section 3.8
17) The physical movements of water caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and the Moon
are called ________.
Answer: tides
Topic: Section 3.9
18) The area lying between the water lines of high and low tide is referred to as the ________.
Answer: intertidal zone
Topic: Section 3.9
19) The place where freshwater streams and rivers meet the sea and mix with saltwater is called
a(n) ________.
Answer: estuary
Topic: Section 3.10

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20) An underground layer of permeable, water-bearing substrate is known as a(n) ________.
Answer: aquifer
Topic: Ecological Issues: Groundwater Resources
3.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) About 75% of the Earth's surface is covered by
A) water.
B) bare ground.
C) forest.
D) grassland.
Answer: A
Topic: Introduction to Chapter 3
2) The energy driving the global water cycle is provided by
A) wind.
B) tides.
C) rotation of the Earth on its axis.
D) solar energy.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.1
3) The evaporation of water from internal surfaces of leaves, stems, and other living parts of a
plant is called
A) osmosis.
B) transpiration.
C) diffusion.
D) infiltration.
Answer: B
Topic: Section 3.1
4) Most of Earth's water resides in
A) the oceans.
B) the polar ice caps and glaciers.
C) freshwater lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams.
D) groundwater.
Answer: A
Topic: Section 3.1
5) The individual atoms of a water molecule are held together by
A) ionic bonds.
B) hydrogen bonds.
C) covalent bonds.
D) weak bonds.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 3.2
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6) Water takes longer than air to warm up or cool off because of water's high
A) specific heat.
B) viscosity.
C) surface tension.
D) density.
Answer: A
Topic: Section 3.2
7) The density of water is greatest at
A) -4°C.
B) 0°C.
C) 4°C.
D) 100°C.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 3.2
8) The streamlined body shape of many aquatic organisms that swim helps reduce frictional
resistance caused by water's high
A) buoyancy.
B) viscosity.
C) surface tension.
D) density.
Answer: B
Topic: Section 3.2
9) Aquatic organisms generally require less structural support (e.g., skeletons) due to water's high
A) specific heat.
B) buoyancy.
C) surface tension.
D) viscosity.
Answer: B
Topic: Section 3.2
10) As light enters water, the last wavelengths absorbed are
A) red wavelengths.
B) yellow wavelengths.
C) green wavelengths.
D) blue wavelengths.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.3

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11) An organism that lives in a deep marine environment may exhibit all the following physical
characteristics, except
A) large eyes.
B) bioluminescence.
C) colorful skin pigmentation.
D) streamlined body.
Answer: C
Topic: Sections 3.2 and 3.3
12) The upper layer of warm, less dense water is referred to as the
A) thermocline.
B) hypolimnion.
C) epilimnion.
D) benthic zone.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 3.4
13) A scientist measures the temperature of a lake at various depths and finds very little variation
between temperatures at the surface and at the bottom of the lake. The temperature
measurements were most likely taken in a
A) temperate lake during summer.
B) temperate lake during winter.
C) tropical lake during summer.
D) tropical lake during winter.
Answer: B
Topic: Section 3.4
14) The depth of a thermocline is directly influenced by all the following factors, except
A) wind speed.
B) wave action.
C) input of solar radiation.
D) influx of water.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.4
15) In comparison with the epilimnion of a lake, the water of the hypolimnion is
A) warmer.
B) less dense.
C) cooler.
D) more oxygenated.
Answer: C
Topic: Sections 3.4 and 3.6

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16) The purest form of water containing the fewest solutes occurs in
A) clouds.
B) surface water.
C) groundwater.
D) precipitation.
Answer: A
Topic: Section 3.5
17) Concentrations of solutes are greatest in
A) springs.
B) rivers.
C) lakes.
D) oceans.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.5
18) The primary ions that contribute to the salinity of ocean waters are
A) calcium and sodium.
B) sodium and chloride.
C) sodium and carbonate.
D) calcium and chloride.
Answer: B
Topic: Section 3.5
19) Molecules spontaneously move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower
concentration in a process known as
A) conduction.
B) solution.
C) evaporation.
D) diffusion.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.6
20) The primary sources of oxygen in a water body are the atmosphere and
A) decomposition.
B) evaporation.
C) photosynthesis.
D) respiration.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 3.6

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21) A solution with a pH of 3
A) is more alkaline than a solution with a pH of 2.
B) has a higher concentration of OH- than a solution with a pH of 4.
C) is neutral.
D) is more acidic than a solution with a pH of 3.5.
Answer: A
Topic: Section 3.7
22) Aquatic organisms are unable to tolerate low pH conditions mainly because acidic waters
contain high concentrations of toxic
A) sodium.
B) chlorine.
C) aluminum.
D) carbon dioxide.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 3.7
23) The density of seawater increases when
A) temperature and salinity decrease.
B) temperature and salinity increase.
C) temperature increases and salinity decreases.
D) temperature decreases and salinity increases.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.8
24) Tides are strongest when the
A) body of water is very large.
B) Sun is setting.
C) Earth, Moon, and Sun are in line.
D) Moon and Sun are at right angles to the Earth.
Answer: C
Topic: Section 3.9
25) A ________ tide occurs when the Moon and Sun are at right angles to the Earth.
A) low
B) high
C) spring
D) neap
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.9

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26) Daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature, salinity, and dissolved gases are most
extreme in
A) the intertidal zone.
B) sandy beaches.
C) the estuary.
D) the open ocean.
Answer: C
Topic: Sections 3.9 and 3.10
27) Salinity within an estuary is greatest in
A) surface water at high tide.
B) surface water at low tide.
C) deep water at high tide.
D) deep water at low tide.
Answer: D
Topic: Section 3.10
28) An aquifer refers to
A) an intermittent spring that flows during only part of the year.
B) a layer of water-bearing permeable rock, sand, or gravel.
C) any body of freshwater.
D) the cool, dense layer of water at the bottom of a body of water.
Answer: B
Topic: Ecological Issues: Groundwater Resources
3.3 True/False Questions
1) The rotation of Earth on its axis is the driving force behind the water cycle.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.1
2) The turnover rate of water is longer in the ocean than in the atmosphere.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.1
3) Individual atoms within water molecules are held together by covalent bonds.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.2
4) Temperature fluctuates more in aquatic habitats than in terrestrial habitats.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.2
5) The viscosity of water is less than the viscosity of air.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.2
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6) Of the visible light spectrum, blue wavelengths penetrate the deepest into water.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.3
7) The thermocline is permanent in tropical bodies of water and seasonal in temperate bodies of
water.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.4
8) In lakes and ponds of temperate latitudes, the upper and bottom layers of water usually turn
over as water warms up during spring.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.4
9) Saltwater has a higher concentration of solutes than freshwater.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.5
10) Cold water contains more oxygen than warm water.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.6
11) During summer, the amount of oxygen in the water is greatest at the bottom of ponds and
lakes.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.6
12) A high pH indicates a very acidic solution.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.7
13) Aluminum is toxic to many aquatic species.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.7
14) Upwelling occurs in the equatorial waters of the ocean.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.8
15) The Sun has a stronger effect than the Moon on tides.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.9
16) Tides are highest and lowest during a spring tide, when the Sun and Moon are aligned with
the Earth.
Answer: TRUE
Topic: Section 3.9
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17) Salinity is higher in an estuary than in the ocean.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Section 3.10
18) Aquifers, like the High Plains Ogallala aquifer, provide a limitless supply of water.
Answer: FALSE
Topic: Ecological Issues: Groundwater Resources
3.4 Essay Questions
1) Describe the water or hydrologic cycle and explain how water arrives at various reservoirs
where it is stored.
Topic: Section 3.1
2) Explain how differences in the viscosity of water and air affect the biology of plants and
animals living in aquatic and terrestrial environments.
Topic: Section 3.2
3) Describe several adaptations that organisms have developed in response to the minimal light
environments in deep water.
Topic: Section 3.3
4) Explain how temperature, density, and oxygen concentrations vary with depth in large bodies
of water.
Topic: Sections 3.4 and 3.6
5) Explain why water can dissolve more substances than any other liquid. Furthermore, explain
the importance of this property to life on Earth.
Topic: Section 3.5
6) Explain how the pH of an aquatic environment can influence the organisms that live in or
around the water body.
Topic: Section 3.7
7) Describe the causes of oceanic upwelling.
Topic: Section 3.8
8) Explain how tides form and why tidal heights vary over time.
Topic: Section 3.9
9) Define an estuary, and describe how gradients in salinity are maintained.
Topic: Section 3.10
10) Discuss the importance of the High Plains Ogallala aquifer to agriculture in the United
States.
Topic: Ecological Issues: Groundwater Resources
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