CHAPTER 1

A Brief History of Risk and Return

I. DEFINITIONS

TOTAL RETURN

1. The total dollar return on an equity investment is defined as the:

a. increase in value of a share of stock over a period of time.

b. income received divided by the initial value of the security.

c. capital gain or loss plus any dividend income.

d. realized capital gain or loss.

e. dividend income received.

DIVIDEND YIELD

2. The annual dividend at time t + 1 divided by the stock price at time t is called the:

a. annualized rate of return.

b. capital gain.

c. total annual rate of return.

d. total dollar return.

e. dividend yield.

CAPITAL GAINS YIELD

3. The capital gains yield is equal to:

a. (Pt – Pt + 1 + Dt + 1) / Pt + 1.

b. (Pt + 1 − Pt + Dt) / Pt.

c. Dt + 1 / Pt.

d. (Pt + 1 – Pt) / Pt.

e. (Pt + 1 – Pt) / Pt + 1.

RISK PREMIUM

4. The risk premium is defined as the rate of return on:

a. a risky asset minus the risk-free rate.

b. the overall market.

c. a U.S. Treasury bill.

d. a risky asset minus the rate of inflation.

e. a riskless investment.

STANDARD DEVIATION

5. The standard deviation is a measure of:

a. total return.

b. dividend income.

c. capital gains and losses.

d. a frequency distribution.

e. volatility.

VARIANCE

6. The variance measures the:

a. total difference between the actual returns and the average return.

b. average squared difference between the actual returns and the average return.

c. total difference between the average squared returns and the risk-free return.

d. average squared difference between the actual returns and the risk-free return.

e. average difference between the actual squared returns and the risk-free return.

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

7. The frequency distribution, which is completely defined by its average and standard

deviation,

is referred to as a(n):

a. normal distribution.

b. variance distribution.

c. expected rate of return.

d. average geometric return.

e. average arithmetic return.

RISK-FREE RATE

8. The rate of return earned on a U.S. Treasury bill is referred to as the:

a. risk premium.

b. deflated rate of return.

c. risk-free rate.

d. expected rate of return.

e. market rate of return.

ARITHMETIC AVERAGE RETURN

9. The arithmetic average return is the:

a. summation of the returns for a number of years divided by the number of years minus

one.

b. compound total return for a period of years divided by the number of years in the

period.

c. average compound return earned per year over a multiyear period.

d. average squared return earned in a single year.

e. return earned in an average year over a multiyear period.

GEOMETRIC AVERAGE RETURN

10. The geometric average return is the:

a. summation of the returns for a number of years divided by the n th root where n equals

the

number of years.

b. compound total return for a period of years divided by the number of years in the

period.

c. average compound return earned per year over a multiyear period.

d. average squared return earned in a single year.

e. return earned in an average year over a multiyear period.

CAPITAL GAIN

11. The value which is equal to the ending price of a security minus the beginning price is

called

the:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

dividend yield.

capital gain or loss.

arithmetic dollar return.

geometric dollar return.

total dollar return.

RISK PREMIUM

12. The reward for bearing risk is called the:

a. risk premium.

b. average return.

c. total return.

d. geometric return.

e. real return.

TIME VALUE OF MONEY

13. The risk-free rate which is paid as compensation for waiting is referred to as the:

a. real rate of return.

b. average real return.

c. financial reward.

d. time value of money.

e. total dollar return.

RISK-RETURN TRADE-OFF

14. The fact that higher returns are associated with higher standard deviations is known as

the:

a. real return factor.

b. geometric relationship.

c. risk-return tradeoff.

d. market capitalization.

e. market variance.

STANDARD DEVIATION

15. The square root of the variance is called the:

a. geometric return.

b. standard deviation.

c. normal distribution.

d. frequency distribution.

e. dispersion.

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

16. Another name for a normal distribution is the:

a. risk-return trade-off.

b. bell curve.

c. geometric dispersion.

d. average tendency.

e.

time value continuum.

II. CONCEPTS

TOTAL PERCENTAGE RETURN

17. Jeff purchased a stock for $21 and later sold it for $27. He also received a dividend of

$1.40.

The total percentage return on his investment is computed as:

a. $27 − $21.

b. $27 − $21 + $1.40.

c. ($27 − $21) / $27.

d. ($27 − $21 + $1.40) / $21.

e. ($27 − $21 + $1.40) / $27.

DIVIDEND AND CAPITAL GAIN YIELDS

18. The dividend yield on a stock will be _____ and the capital gains yield will be _____.

a. positive; either positive or zero

b. positive; positive

c. positive; negative, positive, or zero

d. positive or zero; positive or zero

e. positive or zero; negative, positive, or zero

CAPITAL GAINS

19. Capital gains are included in the return on an investment:

a. on an annual basis.

b. whenever the investment is sold and the capital gain is realized.

c. whenever dividends are paid.

d. whenever they occur, whether or not the investment is sold.

e. only if the investment incurs a loss in value or is sold.

MARKET CAPITALIZATION

20. If you multiply the number of shares of outstanding stock for a firm by the price per

share, you

are computing the firm’s:

a. equity ratio.

b. total book value.

c. market share.

d. market capitalization.

e. time value.

HISTORICAL RISK

21. Which one of the following had the narrowest bell curve for the period 1926-2005?

a. large-company stocks

b. long-term corporate bonds

c. long-term government bonds

d. small-company stocks

e. U. S. Treasury bills

HISTORICAL RISK

22. Which one of the following had the greatest volatility for the period 1926-2005?

a. large-company stocks

b. U.S. Treasury bills

c. long-term government bonds

d. small-company stocks

e. long-term corporate bonds

HISTORICAL RISK

23. Which one of the following had the lowest standard deviation of returns for the period

19262005?

a. large-company stocks

b. U.S. Treasury bills

c. long-term government bonds

d. intermediate-term government bonds

e. long-term corporate bonds

HISTORICAL RETURNS

24. Which one of the following had the highest average return for the period 1926-2005?

a. large-company stocks

b. U.S. Treasury bills

c. long-term government bonds

d. small-company stocks

e. long-term corporate bonds

HISTORICAL RETURNS

25. Which one of the following has historically produced a return which is closest to the

inflation

rate?

a. large-company stocks

b. long-term corporate bonds

c. long-term government bonds

d. U.S. Treasury bills

e. intermediate-term government bonds

HISTORICAL RETURNS

26. Inflation, as measured by the Consumer Price Index, was highest during the period:

a. 1935-1938.

b. 1947-1950.

c. 1978-1981.

d. 1986-1989.

e. 1996-1999.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

27. Large-company stocks produced the highest rates of return during the period:

a. 1946-1949.

b. 1966-1969.

c. 1984-1987.

d. 1990-1993.

e. 1995-1998.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

28. Which category(ies) of investments had an annual rate of return that exceeded 100

percent for

at least one year during the period 1926-2005?

a. only large-company stocks

b. both large-company and small-company stocks

c. only small-company stocks

d.

e.

corporate bonds, large-company stocks, and small-company stocks

No category earned an annual return in excess of 100 percent.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

29. For the period 1801-2001, gold:

a. outperformed stocks, bonds, and inflation.

b. outperformed inflation and U.S. Treasury bills.

c. outperformed bonds and underperformed stocks.

d. outperformed U.S. Treasury bills and underperformed bonds.

e. underperformed stocks, bonds, and U.S. Treasury bills.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

30. The greatest one-day percentage decline in the Dow-Jones Industrial Average occurred

on:

a. October 19, 1987.

b. October 28, 1929.

c. October 18, 1937.

d. December 12, 1914.

e. December 18, 1899.

RISK PREMIUM

31. Which one of the following had the highest risk premium for the period 1926-2005?

a. U.S. Treasury bills

b. long-term government bonds

c. large-company stocks

d. small-company stocks

e. intermediate-term government bonds

RISK PREMIUM

32. Historically, the higher the risk premium, the ______ the average return, and the _____

the

standard deviation of the returns.

a. higher; higher

b. higher; lower

c. lower; higher

d. lower; lower

e. There is no relationship between the risk premium and the average return.

PROBABILITY RANGES

33. The 95 percent probability range of a normal distribution is defined as the mean plus or

minus

_____ standard deviation(s).

a. one

b. two

c. three

d. four

e. five

PROBABILITY RANGES

34. The mean plus or minus one standard deviation defines the _____ percent probability

range of a

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

normal distribution.

50

68

82

90

95

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

35. The mean return on large-company stocks for a ten-year period is equal to:

a. the arithmetic average return for the period.

b. the geometric average return for the period.

c. the total return for the period divided by N − 1.

d. zero.

e. one.R

ISK AND RETURN

36. If you want to increase the potential annual return on your investments, you will need

to:

a. increase your investment in bonds and lower your investment in stocks.

b. increase your investment in U.S. Treasury bills and lower your investment in corporate

bonds.

c. increase your portfolio’s level of risk.

d. reduce the expected variability of your returns.

e. reduce the standard deviation of your returns.

RISK AND RETURN

37. Which one of the following statements is correct?

a. U.S. Treasury bills have a risk premium equal to one percent.

b. Large-company stocks have historically been more risky than small-company stocks.

c. The mean is a measure of volatility.

d. A risky asset will always earn a greater annual rate of return than a riskless asset.

e. There is a direct relationship between risk and return.

RISK AND RETURN

38. The wider the distribution of an investment’s returns over time, the _____ the expected

rate of

return and the ______ the standard deviation of returns.

a. higher; higher

b. higher; lower

c. lower; higher

d. lower; lower

e. The distribution of returns does not affect the expected rate of return.

RATES OF RETURN

39. Which one of the following represents the best method of measuring the return on an

investment?

a. nominal dollar return

b. real dollar return

c. absolute dollar return

d. percentage return

e. variance return

GEOMETRIC VERSUS ARITHMETIC AVERAGE

40. A stock has varying annual rates of return over a 10-year period and a positive

geometric

average return for the period. Given this, you know the arithmetic average return will

be:

a. positive but less than the geometric average return.

b. less than the geometric return and could be negative, zero, or positive.

c. equal to the geometric average return.

d. either equal to or greater than the geometric average return.

e. greater than the geometric average return.

GEOMETRIC VERSUS ARITHMETIC RETURNS

41. The geometric return on an asset is approximately equal to the arithmetic return:

a. plus one-half the standard deviation.

b. plus one-half the variance.

c. minus one-half the standard deviation.

d. minus one-half the variance.

e. times one-half.

BLUME’S FORMULA

42. The purpose of Blume’s formula is to:

a. predict future rates of return.

b. convert an arithmetic rate of return into a geometric rate of return.

c. convert a geometric average rate of return into an arithmetic average rate of return.

d. measure past performance in a consistent manner.

e. compute the historical mean return over a multi-year period of time.

STOCK QUOTE

43. A stock is quoted at 26.32, up .20. The current stock price is _____ and the prior day’s

trading

price was _____.

a. $26.12; $26.32

b. $26.52; $26.32

c. $26.32; $26.12

d. $26.32; $26.32

e. $26.32; $26.52

A Brief History of Risk and Return

I. DEFINITIONS

TOTAL RETURN

1. The total dollar return on an equity investment is defined as the:

a. increase in value of a share of stock over a period of time.

b. income received divided by the initial value of the security.

c. capital gain or loss plus any dividend income.

d. realized capital gain or loss.

e. dividend income received.

DIVIDEND YIELD

2. The annual dividend at time t + 1 divided by the stock price at time t is called the:

a. annualized rate of return.

b. capital gain.

c. total annual rate of return.

d. total dollar return.

e. dividend yield.

CAPITAL GAINS YIELD

3. The capital gains yield is equal to:

a. (Pt – Pt + 1 + Dt + 1) / Pt + 1.

b. (Pt + 1 − Pt + Dt) / Pt.

c. Dt + 1 / Pt.

d. (Pt + 1 – Pt) / Pt.

e. (Pt + 1 – Pt) / Pt + 1.

RISK PREMIUM

4. The risk premium is defined as the rate of return on:

a. a risky asset minus the risk-free rate.

b. the overall market.

c. a U.S. Treasury bill.

d. a risky asset minus the rate of inflation.

e. a riskless investment.

STANDARD DEVIATION

5. The standard deviation is a measure of:

a. total return.

b. dividend income.

c. capital gains and losses.

d. a frequency distribution.

e. volatility.

VARIANCE

6. The variance measures the:

a. total difference between the actual returns and the average return.

b. average squared difference between the actual returns and the average return.

c. total difference between the average squared returns and the risk-free return.

d. average squared difference between the actual returns and the risk-free return.

e. average difference between the actual squared returns and the risk-free return.

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

7. The frequency distribution, which is completely defined by its average and standard

deviation,

is referred to as a(n):

a. normal distribution.

b. variance distribution.

c. expected rate of return.

d. average geometric return.

e. average arithmetic return.

RISK-FREE RATE

8. The rate of return earned on a U.S. Treasury bill is referred to as the:

a. risk premium.

b. deflated rate of return.

c. risk-free rate.

d. expected rate of return.

e. market rate of return.

ARITHMETIC AVERAGE RETURN

9. The arithmetic average return is the:

a. summation of the returns for a number of years divided by the number of years minus

one.

b. compound total return for a period of years divided by the number of years in the

period.

c. average compound return earned per year over a multiyear period.

d. average squared return earned in a single year.

e. return earned in an average year over a multiyear period.

GEOMETRIC AVERAGE RETURN

10. The geometric average return is the:

a. summation of the returns for a number of years divided by the n th root where n equals

the

number of years.

b. compound total return for a period of years divided by the number of years in the

period.

c. average compound return earned per year over a multiyear period.

d. average squared return earned in a single year.

e. return earned in an average year over a multiyear period.

CAPITAL GAIN

11. The value which is equal to the ending price of a security minus the beginning price is

called

the:

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

dividend yield.

capital gain or loss.

arithmetic dollar return.

geometric dollar return.

total dollar return.

RISK PREMIUM

12. The reward for bearing risk is called the:

a. risk premium.

b. average return.

c. total return.

d. geometric return.

e. real return.

TIME VALUE OF MONEY

13. The risk-free rate which is paid as compensation for waiting is referred to as the:

a. real rate of return.

b. average real return.

c. financial reward.

d. time value of money.

e. total dollar return.

RISK-RETURN TRADE-OFF

14. The fact that higher returns are associated with higher standard deviations is known as

the:

a. real return factor.

b. geometric relationship.

c. risk-return tradeoff.

d. market capitalization.

e. market variance.

STANDARD DEVIATION

15. The square root of the variance is called the:

a. geometric return.

b. standard deviation.

c. normal distribution.

d. frequency distribution.

e. dispersion.

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

16. Another name for a normal distribution is the:

a. risk-return trade-off.

b. bell curve.

c. geometric dispersion.

d. average tendency.

e.

time value continuum.

II. CONCEPTS

TOTAL PERCENTAGE RETURN

17. Jeff purchased a stock for $21 and later sold it for $27. He also received a dividend of

$1.40.

The total percentage return on his investment is computed as:

a. $27 − $21.

b. $27 − $21 + $1.40.

c. ($27 − $21) / $27.

d. ($27 − $21 + $1.40) / $21.

e. ($27 − $21 + $1.40) / $27.

DIVIDEND AND CAPITAL GAIN YIELDS

18. The dividend yield on a stock will be _____ and the capital gains yield will be _____.

a. positive; either positive or zero

b. positive; positive

c. positive; negative, positive, or zero

d. positive or zero; positive or zero

e. positive or zero; negative, positive, or zero

CAPITAL GAINS

19. Capital gains are included in the return on an investment:

a. on an annual basis.

b. whenever the investment is sold and the capital gain is realized.

c. whenever dividends are paid.

d. whenever they occur, whether or not the investment is sold.

e. only if the investment incurs a loss in value or is sold.

MARKET CAPITALIZATION

20. If you multiply the number of shares of outstanding stock for a firm by the price per

share, you

are computing the firm’s:

a. equity ratio.

b. total book value.

c. market share.

d. market capitalization.

e. time value.

HISTORICAL RISK

21. Which one of the following had the narrowest bell curve for the period 1926-2005?

a. large-company stocks

b. long-term corporate bonds

c. long-term government bonds

d. small-company stocks

e. U. S. Treasury bills

HISTORICAL RISK

22. Which one of the following had the greatest volatility for the period 1926-2005?

a. large-company stocks

b. U.S. Treasury bills

c. long-term government bonds

d. small-company stocks

e. long-term corporate bonds

HISTORICAL RISK

23. Which one of the following had the lowest standard deviation of returns for the period

19262005?

a. large-company stocks

b. U.S. Treasury bills

c. long-term government bonds

d. intermediate-term government bonds

e. long-term corporate bonds

HISTORICAL RETURNS

24. Which one of the following had the highest average return for the period 1926-2005?

a. large-company stocks

b. U.S. Treasury bills

c. long-term government bonds

d. small-company stocks

e. long-term corporate bonds

HISTORICAL RETURNS

25. Which one of the following has historically produced a return which is closest to the

inflation

rate?

a. large-company stocks

b. long-term corporate bonds

c. long-term government bonds

d. U.S. Treasury bills

e. intermediate-term government bonds

HISTORICAL RETURNS

26. Inflation, as measured by the Consumer Price Index, was highest during the period:

a. 1935-1938.

b. 1947-1950.

c. 1978-1981.

d. 1986-1989.

e. 1996-1999.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

27. Large-company stocks produced the highest rates of return during the period:

a. 1946-1949.

b. 1966-1969.

c. 1984-1987.

d. 1990-1993.

e. 1995-1998.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

28. Which category(ies) of investments had an annual rate of return that exceeded 100

percent for

at least one year during the period 1926-2005?

a. only large-company stocks

b. both large-company and small-company stocks

c. only small-company stocks

d.

e.

corporate bonds, large-company stocks, and small-company stocks

No category earned an annual return in excess of 100 percent.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

29. For the period 1801-2001, gold:

a. outperformed stocks, bonds, and inflation.

b. outperformed inflation and U.S. Treasury bills.

c. outperformed bonds and underperformed stocks.

d. outperformed U.S. Treasury bills and underperformed bonds.

e. underperformed stocks, bonds, and U.S. Treasury bills.

HISTORICAL RETURNS

30. The greatest one-day percentage decline in the Dow-Jones Industrial Average occurred

on:

a. October 19, 1987.

b. October 28, 1929.

c. October 18, 1937.

d. December 12, 1914.

e. December 18, 1899.

RISK PREMIUM

31. Which one of the following had the highest risk premium for the period 1926-2005?

a. U.S. Treasury bills

b. long-term government bonds

c. large-company stocks

d. small-company stocks

e. intermediate-term government bonds

RISK PREMIUM

32. Historically, the higher the risk premium, the ______ the average return, and the _____

the

standard deviation of the returns.

a. higher; higher

b. higher; lower

c. lower; higher

d. lower; lower

e. There is no relationship between the risk premium and the average return.

PROBABILITY RANGES

33. The 95 percent probability range of a normal distribution is defined as the mean plus or

minus

_____ standard deviation(s).

a. one

b. two

c. three

d. four

e. five

PROBABILITY RANGES

34. The mean plus or minus one standard deviation defines the _____ percent probability

range of a

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

normal distribution.

50

68

82

90

95

NORMAL DISTRIBUTION

35. The mean return on large-company stocks for a ten-year period is equal to:

a. the arithmetic average return for the period.

b. the geometric average return for the period.

c. the total return for the period divided by N − 1.

d. zero.

e. one.R

ISK AND RETURN

36. If you want to increase the potential annual return on your investments, you will need

to:

a. increase your investment in bonds and lower your investment in stocks.

b. increase your investment in U.S. Treasury bills and lower your investment in corporate

bonds.

c. increase your portfolio’s level of risk.

d. reduce the expected variability of your returns.

e. reduce the standard deviation of your returns.

RISK AND RETURN

37. Which one of the following statements is correct?

a. U.S. Treasury bills have a risk premium equal to one percent.

b. Large-company stocks have historically been more risky than small-company stocks.

c. The mean is a measure of volatility.

d. A risky asset will always earn a greater annual rate of return than a riskless asset.

e. There is a direct relationship between risk and return.

RISK AND RETURN

38. The wider the distribution of an investment’s returns over time, the _____ the expected

rate of

return and the ______ the standard deviation of returns.

a. higher; higher

b. higher; lower

c. lower; higher

d. lower; lower

e. The distribution of returns does not affect the expected rate of return.

RATES OF RETURN

39. Which one of the following represents the best method of measuring the return on an

investment?

a. nominal dollar return

b. real dollar return

c. absolute dollar return

d. percentage return

e. variance return

GEOMETRIC VERSUS ARITHMETIC AVERAGE

40. A stock has varying annual rates of return over a 10-year period and a positive

geometric

average return for the period. Given this, you know the arithmetic average return will

be:

a. positive but less than the geometric average return.

b. less than the geometric return and could be negative, zero, or positive.

c. equal to the geometric average return.

d. either equal to or greater than the geometric average return.

e. greater than the geometric average return.

GEOMETRIC VERSUS ARITHMETIC RETURNS

41. The geometric return on an asset is approximately equal to the arithmetic return:

a. plus one-half the standard deviation.

b. plus one-half the variance.

c. minus one-half the standard deviation.

d. minus one-half the variance.

e. times one-half.

BLUME’S FORMULA

42. The purpose of Blume’s formula is to:

a. predict future rates of return.

b. convert an arithmetic rate of return into a geometric rate of return.

c. convert a geometric average rate of return into an arithmetic average rate of return.

d. measure past performance in a consistent manner.

e. compute the historical mean return over a multi-year period of time.

STOCK QUOTE

43. A stock is quoted at 26.32, up .20. The current stock price is _____ and the prior day’s

trading

price was _____.

a. $26.12; $26.32

b. $26.52; $26.32

c. $26.32; $26.12

d. $26.32; $26.32

e. $26.32; $26.52

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 01 overview of financial management

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 02 financial statements, cash flows and taxes

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 03 analysis of financial statements

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 04 the financial environment markets, institutions, and interest rates

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 05 risk and risk of returns

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 06 time value of money

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 07 bonds and their valuation

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 08 stocks and their valuation

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 09 the cost of capital

## Test bank Finance Management chapter 10 the basics of capital budgeting

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