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chemistry ch 17 test bank

Chapter 17 - Solubility and Complex-Ion Equilibria
1. Cation C and anion A form an ionic compound for which Ksp = s2, where s is the molar
solubility of the ionic compound. Which of Figures I–III represent(s) possible results of the
mixing of an aqueous solution containing cation C with an aqueous solution containing
anion A?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

only I
only III
both I and III
both I and II
only II

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:

MSC:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

2. Cation C and anion A form an ionic compound for which Ksp = 4s3, where s is the molar
solubility of the ionic compound. Which of Figures I–III represent(s) possible results of the
mixing of an aqueous solution containing cation C with an aqueous solution containing
anion A?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

only III
only II
both I and II
only I
both I and III

ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
OBJ: Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)

REF: 17.1


TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
MSC: general chemistry

KEY: solubility product constant



3. Which of the following particulate views is/are consistent with a heterogeneous
equilibrium?

I
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

II

III

I only
II only
III only
II and III
I, II, and III

ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
OBJ: Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria

REF: 17.1

4. What is the solubility product expression for Al(OH)3?
A) Ksp = [Al3+][3OH–]
B) Ksp = 3[Al3+][OH–]3
C) Ksp = [Al3+][OH–]3
D) Ksp = [Al3+][3OH–]3
E) Ksp = [Al3+][OH–]
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

5. What is the solubility product expression for Th(IO3)4?
A) Ksp = [Th4+][4IO3–]4
B) Ksp = [Th4+][IO3–]
C) Ksp = [Th][IO3]4
D) Ksp = [Th4+][IO3–]4
E) Ksp = [Th4+][IO3–]
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

6. What is the solubility product expression for Zn3(PO4)2?
A) Ksp = [Zn32+][(PO43–)2]


B)
C)
D)
E)

Ksp = [3Zn2+]3[2PO43–]2
Ksp = [Zn2+][2PO43–]
Ksp = [Zn3+]2[PO42–]3
Ksp = [Zn2+]3[PO43–]2

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

7. What is the solubility product expression for mercury(I) iodide, Hg2I2?
A) Ksp = [Hg22+][2I–]2
B) Ksp = [Hg22+][I–]2
C) Ksp = [Hg22+][2I– ]
D) Ksp = [Hg2][I2]
E) Ksp = [Hg+]2[I–]2
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

B
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

8. What is the solubility product expression for La2(CO3)3?
A) Ksp = [2La3+]2[3CO32–]3
B) Ksp = [La2+]2[CO32–]3
C) Ksp = [2La3+]2[CO32–]3
D) Ksp = [2La3+][3CO32–]
E) Ksp = [La3+]2[CO32–]3
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

9. What is the solubility product expression for Pb3(PO4)4?
A) Ksp = [Pb3+]4[PO44–]3
B) Ksp = [3Pb3+][4PO43–]
C) Ksp = [3Pb3+]3[4PO43–]4
D) Ksp = [Pb2+]3[PO43–]2
E) Ksp = [Pb4+]3[PO43–]4
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

10. What is the solubility product expression for Sn(IO3)2?
A) Ksp = [Sn2+][IO3–]2
B) Ksp = [Sn4+][2IO32–]2
C) Ksp = [Sn2+][2IO3–]
D) Ksp = [Sn4+][IO32–]2


E) Ksp = [Sn2+][2IO3–]2
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Write solubility product expressions. (Example 17.1)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

11. Figures I–IV represent ionic compounds formed upon the mixing of an aqueous solution
containing cation C with an aqueous solution containing anion A. Identify the figure(s) that
represent(s) products for which Ksp = s2, where s is the molar solubility of the ionic
compound.

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

only I
only II
only IV
only III
both I and II

ANS: D
PTS: 1
OBJ: Define molar solubility.
KEY: solubility product constant

DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
MSC: general chemistry

12. Figures I–IV represent ionic compounds formed upon the mixing of an aqueous solution
containing cation C with an aqueous solution containing anion A. Identify the figure(s) that
represent(s) products for which Ksp = 4s3, where s is the molar solubility of the ionic
compound.

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

both I and II
only II
only IV
only I
only III


ANS: A
PTS: 1
OBJ: Define molar solubility.
KEY: solubility product constant

DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
MSC: general chemistry

13. Figures I–IV represent ionic compounds formed upon the mixing of an aqueous solution
containing cation C with an aqueous solution containing anion A. Identify the figure(s) that
represent(s) products for which Ksp = 108s5, where s is the molar solubility of the ionic
compound.

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

only II
both I and II
only IV
only III
only I

ANS: C
PTS: 1
OBJ: Define molar solubility.
KEY: solubility product constant

DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
MSC: general chemistry

14. What is the relationship between molar solubility (s) and Ksp for calcium fluoride?
A)

B)
C)

D)
E)

ANS: A
PTS: 1
OBJ: Define molar solubility.
KEY: solubility product constant

DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
MSC: general chemistry


15. What is the correct mathematical expression for finding the molar solubility (s) of Sn(OH)2?
A) 2s3 = Ksp
B) 4s3 = Ksp
C) 108s5 = Ksp
D) 2s2 = Ksp
E) 8s3 = Ksp
ANS: B
PTS: 1
OBJ: Define molar solubility.
KEY: solubility product constant

DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
MSC: general chemistry

16. The concentration of calcium carbonate in a saturated aqueous solution of the salt at 25°C is
6.71  10 5 M. What is the Ksp of this sparingly soluble salt?
A) 4.50  10 9
B) 1.21  10 12
C) 5.47  10 16
D) 8.19  10 3
E) 4.06  10 2
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
OBJ: Calculate Ksp from the solubility (simple example). (Example 17.2)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
17. The solubility of strontium carbonate in water at 25°C is 4.50  10
this sparingly soluble salt?
A) 9.30  10 10
B) 1.13  10 13
C) 2.34  10 17
D) 5.52  10 3
E) 3.12  10 2

3

g/L. What is the Ksp of

ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
OBJ: Calculate Ksp from the solubility (simple example). (Example 17.2)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
18. After mixing an excess PbCl2 with a fixed amount of water, it is found that the equilibrium
concentration of Pb2+ is 1.6  10–2 M. What is Ksp for PbCl2?
A) 4.0  10–6
B) 1.6  10–5
C) 2.5  10–4
D) 4.8  10–2
E) 1.0  10–6
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

B
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Calculate Ksp from the solubility (more complicated example).(Example 17.3)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry


19. The solubility of lead(II) sulfate is 4.0  10–2 g/L. What is the solubility product constant
for lead(II) sulfate?
A) 1.7  10–8
B) 1.3  10–4
C) 1.6  10–3
D) 4.6  10–15
E) 8.9  10–12
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Calculate Ksp from the solubility (more complicated example).(Example 17.3)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

20. The solubility of silver(I) carbonate is 3.6  10–2 g/L. What is the solubility product
constant for silver(I) carbonate?
A) 4.4  10–15
B) 8.9  10 12
C) 1.7  10–8
D) 1.3  10–4
E) 1.3  10–3
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

B
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Calculate Ksp from the solubility (more complicated example).(Example 17.3)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

21. The hydroxide ion concentration of a saturated solution of Fe(OH)2 is 1.16  10
is the solubility product constant for Fe(OH)2?
A) 7.80  10 16
B) 6.24  10 15
C) 1.56  10 15
D) 3.41  10 3
E) 2.26  10 2

5

M. What

ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
OBJ: Calculate Ksp from the solubility (more complicated example).(Example 17.3)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
NOT: REVISED
22. The silver-ion concentration in a saturated solution of silver(I) chromate is 1.3  10–4 M.
What is Ksp for silver(I) chromate?
A) 2.9  10–16
B) 4.2  10–9
C) 8.8  10–12
D) 1.1  10 12
E) 1.7  10–8
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: difficult
REF: 17.1
OBJ: Calculate Ksp from the solubility (more complicated example).(Example 17.3)


TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
MSC: general chemistry

KEY: solubility product constant

23. Which of the following salts has the highest molar solubility in water?
A) SrCO3 (Ksp = 9.3  10–10)
B) BaSO4 (Ksp = 1.1  10–10 )
C) PbS (Ksp = 2.5  10–27)
D) BaCrO4 (Ksp = 1.2  10–10)
E) AgCl (Ksp = 1.8  10–10 )
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

24. Which of the following salts has the lowest molar solubility?
A) SrCO3 (Ksp = 9.3  10–10)
B) MnS (Ksp = 2.5  10–10)
C) BaF2 (Ksp = 1.0  10–6)
D) BaSO4 (Ksp = 1.1  10–10)
E) AgCl (Ksp = 1.8  10–10)
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

25. Rank the following salts in order of increasing molar solubility.
Salt
BaSO4
AgCl
BaCO3
CdS
PbSO4
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Ksp
1.1  10–10
1.8  10–10
9.1  10–9
8  10–27
1.8  10–8

CdS < AgCl < BaSO4 < BaCO3 < PbSO4
CdS < AgCl < BaCO3 < BaSO4 < PbSO4
CdS < BaSO4 < AgCl < BaCO3 < PbSO4
PbSO4 < BaCO3 < AgCl < BaSO4 < CdS
PbSO4 < BaCO3 < BaSO4 < AgCl < CdS

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

26. A saturated solution of which of the following salts will have the lowest molar concentration
of chromate ion?


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

BaCrO4 (Ksp = 2.1  10-10)
CuCrO4 (Ksp = 3.6  10-6)
Ag2CrO4 (Ksp = 1.2  10-12)
Hg2CrO4 (Ksp = 2.0  10-9)
Tl2CrO4 (Ksp = 9.8  10-13)

ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
OBJ: Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria

REF: 17.1

27. A saturated solution of which of the following salts will have the greatest molar
concentration of silver ion?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Ag2S (Ksp = 8  10-51)
AgCl (Ksp = 1.8  10-10)
Ag2CrO4 (Ksp = 1.2  10-12)
Ag2CO3 (Ksp = 8.1  10-12)
Ag4Fe(CN)6 (Ksp = 8.5  10-45)

ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
OBJ: Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria

REF: 17.1

28. What is the solubility (in g/L) of aluminum hydroxide at 25°C? The solubility product
constant for aluminum hydroxide is 4.6  10–33 at 25°C.
A) 3.6  10–31 g/L
B) 8.2  10–10 g/L
C) 2.8  10–7 g/L
D) 5.3  10–15 g/L
E) 1.8  10–31 g/L
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

29. What is the solubility (in g/L) of silver(I) bromide at 25°C? The solubility product constant
for silver(I) bromide is 5.0  10–13 at 25°C.
A) 9.4  10–3 g/L
B) 9.4  10–11 g/L
C) 1.3  10–4 g/L
D) 4.7  10–11 g/L
E) 7.9  10–2 g/L
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry


30. Rank the following metal sulfides in order of increasing molar solubility in water.
Salt
CoS
CuS
FeS
HgS
MnS
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Ksp
4  10–21
6  10–36
6  10–18
1.6  10–52
2.5  10–10

MnS < FeS < CoS < CuS < HgS
FeS < HgS < CoS < CuS < MnS
HgS < CuS < CoS < FeS < MnS
CuS < CoS < FeS < MnS < HgS
CoS < CuS < FeS < HgS < MnS

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

31. What is the molar solubility of silver(I) bromide at 25°C? The solubility product constant
for silver(I) bromide is 5.0  10–13 at 25°C.
A) 7.1  10–7 M
B) 2.5  10–13 M
C) 4.2  10–4 M
D) 5.0  10–5 M
E) 5.0  10–13 M
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

32. What is the molar solubility of calcium sulfate at 25°C? The solubility product constant for
calcium sulfate is 2.4  10–5 at 25°C.
A) 2.4  10–5 M
B) 3.5  10–2 M
C) 1.2  10–5 M
D) 1.8  10–2 M
E) 4.9  10–3 M
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry


33. What is the molar solubility of barium fluoride at 25°C? The solubility product constant for
barium fluoride is 1.0  10–6 at 25°C.
A) 6.3  10–3 M
B) 1.0  10–6 M
C) 5.0  10–7 M
D) 1.0  10–3 M
E) 1.6  10–2 M
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

34. What is the molar solubility of aluminum hydroxide at 25°C? The solubility product
constant for aluminum hydroxide is 4.6  10–33 at 25°C.
A) 2.3  10–33 M
B) 6.8  10–17 M
C) 4.6  10–33 M
D) 3.6  10–9 M
E) 1.0  10–11 M
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

35. What is the solubility (in g/L) of barium chromate at 25°C? The solubility product constant
for barium chromate is 1.2  10–10 at 25°C.
A) 0.42 g/L
B) 3.0  10–8 g/L
C) 1.5  10–8 g/L
D) 0.079 g/L
E) 0.0028 g/L
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

36. What is the solubility (in g/L) of calcium fluoride at 25°C? The solubility product constant
for calcium fluoride is 3.4  10–11 at 25°C.
A) 0.00046 g/L
B) 2.7  10–9 g/L
C) 0.016 g/L
D) 1.3  10–9 g/L
E) 0.094 g/L
ANS: C

PTS:

1

DIF:

easy

REF: 17.1


OBJ: Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
MSC: general chemistry
37. Pure water is saturated with slightly soluble calcium fluoride, CaF2. Which of the following
is true concerning the equilibrium concentration of Ca2+?
A)
B) [Ca2+] = [F–]
C)
D)
E) [Ca2+] = Ksp
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

38. Which of the following salts has the lowest molar solubility in water?
A) Ni(OH)2 (Ksp = 2.0  10–15)
B) Fe(OH)2 (Ksp = 8  10–16)
C) PbI2 (Ksp = 6.5  10–9)
D) SrCO3 (Ksp = 9.3  10–10)
E) AgBr (Ksp = 5.0  10–13)
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

39. Which of the following salts has the highest molar solubility in water?
A) CaCO3 (Ksp = 3.8  10–9)
B) Ni(OH)2 (Ksp = 2.0  10–15)
C) Fe(OH)2 (Ksp = 8  10–16)
D) AgBr (Ksp = 5.0  10–13)
E) PbI2 (Ksp = 6.5  10–9)
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations
general chemistry

40. Which salt has the highest molar solubility in pure water?
Salt
Cd(OH)2

Ksp
5.3  10–15


Fe(OH)2
PbCrO4
CdCO3
Mn(OH)2
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

8.0  10–16
1.8  10–14
6.2  10–12
2.0  10–13

CdCO3
Cd(OH)2
Mn(OH)2
PbCrO4
Fe(OH)2

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

41. Which salt has the lowest molar solubility in pure water?
Salt
Cd(OH)2
Fe(OH)2
PbCrO4
CdCO3
Mn(OH)2
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Ksp
5.3  10–15
8.0  10–16
1.8  10–14
6.2  10–12
2.0  10–13

PbCrO4
Fe(OH)2
CdCO3
Cd(OH)2
Mn(OH)2

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

42. What is the hydroxide-ion concentration of a saturated solution of Ni(OH)2? For Ni(OH)2,
Ksp = 2.0  10–15.
A) 2.8  10–3 M
B) 7.9  10–6 M
C) 1.0  10–7 M
D) 2.7  10–2 M
E) 1.6  10–5 M
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry


43. What is the pH of a saturated solution of Ni(OH)2? For Ni(OH)2, Ksp = 2.0  10–15.
A) 4.80
B) 8.90
C) 5.10
D) 9.20
E) 7.00
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.1
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility product constant
general chemistry

44. Rank the following salts in order of increasing molar solubility.
Salt
AgSCN
Ag2CrO4
Ag3PO4
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Ksp
1.0  10–12
1.1  10–12
1.0  10–16

AgSCN < Ag2CrO4 < Ag3PO4
AgSCN < Ag3PO4 < Ag2CrO4
Ag3PO4 < Ag2CrO4 < AgSCN
Ag3PO4 < AgSCN < Ag2CrO4
Ag2CrO4 < AgSCN < Ag3PO4

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

B
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

45. The insoluble salts AV, B2W, C2X3, DY2, and EZ3, which were formed from the metal ions
A+, B+, C3+, D2+, and E3+ and the nonmetals V1–, W2–, X2–, Y1–, and Z1–, all have the same Ksp
value. Which salt has the highest molar solubility?
A) AV
B) EZ3
C) DY2
D) B2W
E) C2X3
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: difficult
Calculate the solubility from Ksp. (Example 17.4)
solubility | solubility equilibria
solubility product constant | relative solubilities

REF: 17.1
MSC: general chemistry

46. In which of the following solutions would silver(I) phosphate, Ag3PO4, be least soluble?
A) 0.10 M Na3PO4
B) 0.10 M AgNO3
C) 0.10 M Na2HPO4
D) 0.10 M HNO3
E) 0.10 M NaH2PO4


ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Explain how the solubility of a salt is affected by another salt that has the same
cation or anion (common ion).
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
47. In which of these solutions would silver(I) carbonate have the lowest molar solubility? For
silver(I) carbonate, Ksp = 8.5  10–12.
A) 0.03 M H2CO3
B) 0.1 M AgNO3
C) 0.01 M AgNO3
D) 0.1 M Na2CO3
E) pure water
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Explain how the solubility of a salt is affected by another salt that has the same
cation or anion (common ion).
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
48. The figure below represents the result of adding which of the following aqueous solutions to
a filtered, saturated solution of AgCl?

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

only NaCl(aq)
only HNO3(aq)
HCl(aq) or NaCl(aq)
only HCl(aq)
HCl(aq) or HNO3(aq)

ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Explain how the solubility of a salt is affected by another salt that has the same
cation or anion (common ion).
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
49. What is the concentration of silver(I) ion in a saturated solution of silver(I) carbonate
containing 0.0030 M Na2CO3? For Ag2CO3, Ksp = 8.6  10–12.
A) 6.0  10–4 M
B) 2.0  10–9 M
C) 8.0  10–9 M
D) 5.4  10–5 M


E) 8.0  10–4 M
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion.
(Example 17.5)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
50. What is the molar solubility of MgF2 in a 0.40 M Mg(NO3)2 solution? For MgF2,
Ksp = 8.4  10–8.
A) 8.0  10–8 M
B) 2.3  10–4 M
C) 2.0  10–-8 M
D) 4.6  10–4 M
E) 3.2  10–3 M
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion.
(Example 17.5)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
51. What is the molar solubility of MgF2 in a 0.45 M NaF solution? For MgF2, Ksp = 8.4  10–8.
A) 1.0  10–7 M
B) 1.4  10–4 M
C) 1.9  10–7 M
D) 7.1  10–4 M
E) 4.1  10–7 M
ANS: E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion.
(Example 17.5)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
52. Ksp for PbF2 is 4.0 10–8. If a 0.034 M NaF solution is saturated with PbF2, what is [Pb2+] in
solution?
A) 4.6  10–11 M
B) 1.4  10–9 M
C) 1.2  10–6 M
D) 1.0  10–3 M
E) 3.5  10–5 M
ANS: E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion.
(Example 17.5)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry


53. The solubility of La(IO3)3 in a 0.62 M KIO3 solution is 1.0 10–7 mol/L. Calculate Ksp for
La(IO3)3.
A) 6.2  10–8
B) 2.4  10–22
C) 2.4  10–1
D) 2.4  10–8
E) none of these
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion.
(Example 17.5)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
54. Which of the following, when added to a saturated solution of AgCl, will cause a decrease in
the molar concentration of Ag+ relative to the original solution?
1.
2.
3.
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

HCl(g)
AgCl(s)
MgCl2(s)

1 only
2 only
3 only
1 and 3
1, 2, and 3

ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion.
(Example 17.5)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
55. How many moles of CaF2 will dissolve in 3.0 L of 0.051 M NaF solution? (Ksp for
CaF2 = 4.0  10–11)
A) 2.6  10–10
B) 1.5  10–8
C) 4.6  10–8
D) 5.1  10–9
E) none of these
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.2
OBJ: Calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt in a solution of a common ion.
(Example 17.5)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: solubility and the common-ion effect
MSC: general chemistry
56. Which of Figures I–IV represent(s) the result of mixing aqueous solutions of Na2S and NiCl2
in which the ion product Qc > Ksp for the insoluble product? (C = cation, A = anion)


A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

both I and II
only I
only II
only III
only IV

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
State the criterion for precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations
general chemistry

57. Which Figures I–IV represent(s) the result of mixing aqueous solutions of NaOH and CuCl2
in which the ion product Qc > Ksp for the insoluble product? (C = cation, A = anion)

A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

only II
both I and II
only IV
only I
only III

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
MSC:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
State the criterion for precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations
general chemistry

58. For which of the following will precipitation be expected?
A) Qc < Ksp
B) Qc = 1
C) Qc = Ksp
D) Qc > Ksp
E) Ksp = 1


ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
State the criterion for precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation

REF: 17.3
MSC: general chemistry

59. Which of the following will apply to a saturated solution of an ionic compound?
A) Qc < Ksp
B) Qc > Ksp
C) Qc = Ksp
D) Ksp = 1
E) Qc = 1
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
State the criterion for precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation

REF: 17.3
MSC: general chemistry

60. Suppose 50.00 mL of 2.0  10–6 M Fe(NO3)3 is added to 50.00 mL of 2.0 10–4 M KIO3.
Which of the following statements is true? For Fe(IO3)3, Ksp = 1.0  10–14.
A) A precipitate forms because Qc > Ksp.
B) A precipitate forms because Qc < Ksp.
C) No precipitate forms because Qc < Ksp.
D) No precipitate forms because Qc = Ksp.
E) No precipitate forms because Qc > Ksp.
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
Predict whether precipitation will occur (given ion concentrations). (Example 17.6)
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

61. To 1.0 L of water, 3.0  10–6 mol of Pb(NO3)2, 4.0  10–6 mol of K2CrO4, and 1.0 mol of
NaCl are added. What will happen?
Salt
PbCrO4
PbCl2
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Ksp
1.8  10–14
1.6  10–5

A precipitate of KCl will form.
A precipitate of PbCrO4 will form.
A precipitate of PbCl2 will form.
No precipitate will form.
Both a precipitate of PbCl2 and a precipitate of PbCrO4 will form.

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

B
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
Predict whether precipitation will occur (given ion concentrations). (Example 17.6)
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry


5

62. What is the maximum Sr2+ concentration possible in a solution that has a 6.3  10 M
sulfide-ion concentration without precipitating strontium sulfate? For SrSO4, Ksp = 2.5  10–
7
.
A) 1.6  10 10 M
B) 1.6  10 11 M
C) 4.0  10 3 M
D) 6.3  10 5 M
E) 2.5  10 2 M
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
Predict whether precipitation will occur (given ion concentrations). (Example 17.6)
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

63. What will happen if 0.1 mol of solid silver(I) nitrate is added to 1.0 L of a saturated solution
of silver(I) chromate? For Ag2CrO4, Ksp = 2.4  10–12.
A) The AgNO3 will settle to the bottom without dissolving.
B) The concentration of CrO42– will increase.
C) Some Ag2CrO4 will precipitate.
D) Nothing will happen.
E) The concentration of Ag+ in solution will not change.
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
Predict whether precipitation will occur (given ion concentrations). (Example 17.6)
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

64. A 4.0  10–4 M solution of MnSO4 is gradually made more basic by adding NaOH. At what
pH will manganese(II) hydroxide begin to precipitate? For Mn(OH)2, Ksp = 2.0  10–13.
A) 4.70
B) 9.57
C) 4.65
D) 9.35
E) 9.30
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
Predict whether precipitation will occur (given ion concentrations). (Example 17.6)
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

65. What is the minimum concentration of Cu2+ required to begin precipitating Cu(OH)2(s) in a
solution of pH 10.77? For Cu(OH)2, Ksp = 2.6  10–19.
A) 2.9  10–4 M
B) 1.5  10–8 M
C) 4.4  10–16 M
D) 7.5  10–13 M
E) 2.2  10–21 M


ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
Predict whether precipitation will occur (given ion concentrations). (Example 17.6)
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

66. What is the maximum hydroxide-ion concentration that a 0.027 M MgCl2 solution could
have without causing the precipitation of Mg(OH)2? For Mg(OH)2, Ksp = 1.8  10–11.
A) 4.2  10–6
B) 1.7  10–4
C) 1.2  10–8
D) 6.7  10–9
E) 2.6  10–5
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
Predict whether precipitation will occur (given ion concentrations). (Example 17.6)
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

67. If 500 mL of 1.4  10–6 M AgNO3 is mixed with 500 mL of 1.4  10–6 M NaBr, what will
occur? For AgBr, Ksp = 5  10–13.
A) Silver(I) bromide will precipitate.
B) The concentration of Ag+ will be 1.4  10–6 M.
C) 7.0  10–7 mol of AgBr will form.
D) No precipitation will occur.
E) Sodium bromide will precipitate.
ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Predict whether precipitation will occur (given solution volumes and
concentrations). (Example 17.7)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry
68. Suppose 50.00 mL of a 1  10–5 M solution of lead(II) nitrate is mixed with 50.00 mL of a
1  10–6 solution of sodium phosphate. Which of the following statements is true? For
lead(II) phosphate, Ksp = 1  10–44.
A) A precipitate forms because Qc < Ksp.
B) No precipitate forms because Qc > Ksp.
C) A precipitate forms because Qc > Ksp.
D) No precipitate forms because Qc = Ksp.
E) No precipitate forms because Qc < Ksp.
ANS: C
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Predict whether precipitation will occur (given solution volumes and
concentrations). (Example 17.7)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry
69. If 270 mL of 1  10–7 M AgNO3 is mixed with 270 mL of 1  10–8 M NaI, what will occur?
For AgI, Ksp = 8.3  10–17.
A) Sodium nitrate will precipitate.


B)
C)
D)
E)

Silver(I) nitrate will precipitate.
Sodium iodide will precipitate.
Silver(I) iodide will precipitate.
No precipitate will form.

ANS: D
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Predict whether precipitation will occur (given solution volumes and
concentrations). (Example 17.7)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry
70. If 315 mL of 1  10–4 M Ca(NO3)2 is mixed with 315 mL of 1  10–4 M NaF, what will
occur? For CaF2, Ksp = 3.4  10–11.
A) No precipitate will form.
B) Sodium nitrate will precipitate.
C) Calcium nitrate will precipitate.
D) Calcium fluoride will precipitate.
E) Sodium fluoride will precipitate.
ANS: A
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Predict whether precipitation will occur (given solution volumes and
concentrations). (Example 17.7)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry
71. If 270 mL of 1  10–8 M Al(NO3)3 is mixed with 270 mL of 1  10–8 M NaOH, what will
occur? For Al(OH)3, Ksp = 4.6  10–33.
A) Aluminum hydroxide will precipitate.
B) Sodium hydroxide will precipitate.
C) Aluminum nitrate will precipitate.
D) Sodium nitrate will precipitate.
E) No precipitate will form.
ANS: E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Predict whether precipitation will occur (given solution volumes and
concentrations). (Example 17.7)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry
72. What is the minimum mass of Na2CO3 that must be added to 24.6 mL of a 9.5  10–
4
M AgNO3 solution in order for precipitation to occur? For Ag2CO3, Ksp = 8.6  10–12 .
A) 2.5  10–3 g
B) 3.1  10–4 g
C) 1.2  10–3 g
D) 2.4  10–8 g
E) 2.5  10–5 g
ANS: E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Predict whether precipitation will occur (given solution volumes and
concentrations). (Example 17.7)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations | criterion for precipitation
MSC: general chemistry


73. What is the maximum volume of 4.9  10–5 M K2CrO4 that, added to 17.0 mL of a solution
that is 8.6  10–5 M Ba(NO3)2 and 5.4  10–6 M Pb(NO3)2, will precipitate PbCrO4 but not
BaCrO4? For PbCrO4, Ksp = 1.8  10–14, and for BaCrO4, Ksp = 1.2  10–10.
A) 17 mL
B) 0.51 mL
C) 0.48 mL
D) 0.0012 mL
E) 7.7 mL
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: difficult
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Predict whether precipitation will occur (given solution volumes and
concentrations). (Example 17.7)
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
KEY: precipitation calculations | fractional precipitation
MSC: general chemistry
74. A solution is 0.010 M in each of Pb(NO3)2, Mn(NO3)2, and Zn(NO3)2. Solid NaOH is added
until the pH of the solution is 8.50. Which of the following statements is true?
Salt
Pb(OH)2
Mn(OH)2
Zn(OH)2
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

Ksp
1.4  10–20
2.0  10–13
2.1  10–16

Only Mn(OH)2 will precipitate.
All three hydroxides will precipitate.
Only Pb(OH)2 will precipitate.
No precipitate will form.
Only Zn(OH)2 and Pb(OH)2 will precipitate.

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | fractional precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

75. What is the maximum concentration of carbonate ions that will precipitate BaCO3 but not
3
MgCO3 from a solution that is 2.7  10 M each in Mg2+ and Ba2+? For MgCO3,
Ksp = 1.0  10–5 and for BaCO3, Ksp = 2.6  10–9.
A) 3.7  10 3 M
B) 9.6  10 7 M
C) 2.7  10 8 M
D) 7.0  10 12 M
E) 2.6  10–14 M
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | fractional precipitation
MSC: general chemistry


76. Which of the following solutions should be added to a solution containing both copper(II)
ions and silver(I) ions in order to precipitate only one of the ions?
A) HCl(aq)
B) H2S(aq)
C) HNO3(aq)
D) H2S(aq) + HCl(aq)
E) H2S(aq) + HNO3(aq)
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | fractional precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

77. For which pair of cations would the addition of dilute hydrobromic acid precipitate one but
not the other?
A) Ag+ and Ca2+
B) Hg22+ and Ag+
C) Ba2+ and Na+
D) Ca2+ and Ba2+
E) Pb2+ and Ag+
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.3
Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | fractional precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

78. Sodium chloride is added slowly to a solution that is 0.010 M in Cu+, Ag+, and Au+. The Ksp
values for the chloride salts are 1.9  10–7, 1.6  10–10, and 2.0  10–13, respectively. Which
compound will precipitate first?
A) AuCl(s)
B) All will precipitate at the same time.
C) It cannot be determined.
D) AgCl(s)
E) CuCl(s)
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

A
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | fractional precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

79. Solid KCN is added to a solution composed of 0.10 M Ag+ and 0.10 M Zn2+ just until a
precipitate forms. What is the composition of this initial precipitate? AgCN Ksp = 2.2  1016
and Zn(CN)2 Ksp = 3  10-16.
A) The precipitate is pure AgCN(s).
B) The precipitateis pure Zn(CN)2(s).
C) The precipitate is a mixture of AgCN(s) and Zn(CN)2(s).
D) The precipitate is a mixture of KCN(s) and AgCN(s).
E) The precipitate is a mixture of KCN(s) and Zn(CN)2(s).
ANS: A

PTS:

1

DIF:

moderate

REF: 17.3


OBJ: Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
80. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) is slowly added to a solution containing 0.100 M Br and 0.050 M
FeCN64 until a precipitate just forms. What is the molar concentration of Ag+ just as the
precipitate forms? AgBr Ksp = 5.0  10-13 and Ag4FeCN6 Ksp = 8.5  10-45.
A) 2.0  10-11 M Ag+
B) 5.0  10-12 M Ag+
C) 1.0  10-11 M Ag+
D) 3.3  10-12 M Ag+
E) 1.7  10-43 M Ag+
ANS: B
PTS: 1
DIF: moderate
REF: 17.3
OBJ: Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
TOP: solubility | solubility equilibria
81. A solution contains 0.018 mol each of I–, Br–, and Cl–. When the solution is mixed with
200 mL of 0.24 M AgNO3, how much AgCl(s) precipitates out?
Ksp
AgI = 1.5  10–16
Ksp
AgBr = 5.0  10–13
Ksp
AgCl = 1.6  10–10
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

5.0 g
3.3 g
2.6 g
0.0 g
1.7 g

ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

E
PTS: 1
DIF: difficult
REF: 17.3
Explain how two ions can be separated using fractional precipitation.
solubility | solubility equilibria
precipitation calculations | fractional precipitation
MSC: general chemistry

82. The best explanation for the dissolution of ZnS in dilute HCl is that
A) the zinc ion is amphoteric.
B) the sulfide ion concentration is decreased by the formation of H2S.
C) the solubility product of ZnCl2 is less than that of ZnS.
D) the zinc ion concentration is decreased by the formation of a chloro complex.
E) the sulfide ion concentration is decreased by oxidation to sulfur.
ANS:
OBJ:
TOP:
KEY:

B
PTS: 1
DIF: easy
REF: 17.4
Explain the qualitative effect of pH on solubility of a slightly soluble salt.
solubility | solubility equilibria
effect of pH on solubility | qualitative effect of pH
MSC: general chemistry

83. You have two salts, AgX and AgY, with very similar Ksp values. You know that Ka for HX is
much greater than Ka for HY. Which statement will be true?
A) AgX and AgY are less soluble in acidic solution than in pure water.
B) AgX is more soluble in acidic solution.


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