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abnormal psychology test bank fuhr


Test Bank
for
Nietzel • Speltz
McCauley • Bernstein

Abnormal Psychology

Prepared by

Susan K. Fuhr
Weber State University

Allyn and Bacon
Boston • London • Toronto • Sydney • Tokyo • Singapore


Copyright © 1998 by Allyn & Bacon
A Viacom Company
160 Gould Street
Needham Heights, MA 02194

Internet: www.abacon.com
America Online: keyword: College Online
All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced for use with Abnormal
Psychology by Michael T. Nietzel, Matthew L. Speltz, Elizabeth A. McCauley, and Douglas A.
Bernstein, provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any
form for any other purpose without written permission from the copyright owner.
ISBN 0-205-26283-X
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

02 01 00 99 98 97


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface
Chapter 1

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR: PAST AND PRESENT PERSPECTIVES

1

Chapter 2

ASSESSMENT AND DIAGNOSIS

33

Chapter 3

DISORDERS OF INFANCY, CHILDHOOD, and ADOLESCENCE

58

Chapter 4

DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS AND LEARNING DISABILITIES

85

Chapter 5



STRESS, SLEEP, AND ADJUSTMENT DISORDERS

110

Chapter 6

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND HEALTH

134

Chapter 7

ANXIETY DISORDERS

155

Chapter 8

DISSOCIATIVE AND SOMATOFORM DISORDERS

181

Chapter 9

MOOD DISORDERS AND SUICIDE

205

Chapter 10

SCHIZOPHRENIA

238

Chapter 11

COGNITIVE DISORDERS

263

Chapter 12

PERSONALITY DISORDERS

281

Chapter 13

SUBSTANCE-RELATED DISORDERS

309

Chapter 14

SEXUAL AND GENDER IDENTITY DISORDERS

339

Chapter 15

BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF MENTAL DISORDERS

365

Chapter 16

PSYCHOTHERAPY

385

Chapter 17

ALTERNATIVES TO INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOTHERAPY

410

Chapter 18

LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN MENTAL DISORDERS

431


Preface
Given the popularity of the undergraduate course in abnormal psychology as well as the
exigencies imposed by large class sizes in most colleges and universities, many
instructors employ multiple choice exams as a primary means of evaluating student
learning. I have tried to produce a diverse array of such questions, along with a few
short answer/essay items at the end of each chapter. I hope you find them useful as you
create exams for your course.
Each item is presented with several descriptive qualifiers, listed just below the item
number. For instance, here is an item from Chapter 7:
7.

Ans. C
App
p. 217
E
*

7. 6
Ans. C
App
p. 217
E
*

6

>
>
>
>
>

Dr. Seshachari is treating a client who is diagnosed with one of the most common
anxiety disorders. Which of the following would this be?
a. generalized anxiety
b. panic disorder
c. social phobia
d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
chapter number. item number
correct answer
type of item: APPLIED (App), CONCEPTUAL (Con), FACTUAL (Fac)
page reference for answer
item difficulty: EASY (E), MODERATE (M), CHALLENGING (C)1
indicates item is found in the student Practice Tests (20 per chapter)

Each chapter has at least 65% Applied items and roughly 15% Conceptual and 15%
Factual. I would very much appreciate your feedback and suggestions as you use these
items. Please contact me by email: sfuhr@weber. edu.
I would like to express my thanks to the several individuals without whose aid and
support this project would not have come to fruition. To Doug Bernstein, thank you for
recommending me and providing all-important social support via the electronic highway.
And hearty thanks to Sue Gleason, my stalwart, always reassuring editor who's been a
pleasure to work with. About 250 items in this bank were written, and my own writing
reviewed, by some of Weber State University's brightest and best students: Danny May,
Bryce Warren, Shayne Palmer, Angie Wehr, and Todd Woodward. And Amanda
Allman, of Illinois, was a saving grace toward the end of the project, writing several
items for the last three chapters. Thanks Amanda. And now that I've written, rewritten,
and edited the last item, I can tell my long-neglected spouse that I'll soon be back to
normal (whatever that is!).
Susan K. Fuhr, Ph. D.
Weber State University
Ogden, Utah 84408-1202
I encourage you to bear in mind that because this is a new testbank for a new text, these difficulty levels
are rationally based and await empirical item analysis. Your own choices for class coverage and
emphases will affect the accuracy of these recommended levels.


Chapter 1
ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR: PAST AND PRESENT PERSPECTIVES
1.
1
Ans. D
Fac
p. 4
E

Which facet of your text's definition of "abnormal behavior" is universally
accepted?
a. individual disturbance of behavior or physical functioning
b. psychological distress or impaired functioning
c. a kind of disturbance that is unexpected in the culture
d. None of the above apply.

1.
2
Ans. C
App
p. 5
E

If you were a citizen of ancient Egypt, what would you be most likely to cite
as the cause of Nelson McGrath's behavior?
a. weakness of character
b. bodily illness
c. evil
d. irrational thoughts & perceptions

1.
3
Ans. D
Fac
p. 5
E

Evidence from cultures around 3500 to 3000 B. C. suggests that a
model would have been used to explain abnormal behavior.
a. medical
b. humanistic
c. rationalistic
d. demonological

1.
4
Ans. C
App
p. 5
M

How might an early Mesopotamian individual be treated if she or he
demonstrated bizarre actions, strange speech, and extremely unusual beliefs?
a. bloodletting with leeches
b. confinement to an asylum
c. trephining
d. a special diet to restore bodily imbalances

1.
5
Ans. B
Fac
p. 5
M

Ancient Chinese and Hebrew civilizations employed several methods in the
treatment of abnormal individuals. Which approach, however, was NOT
common?
a. exercise and special diet
b. special care in asylums
c. faith healing
d. concoctions to poison spirits and demons

1.
6
Ans. A
App
p. 5
E

The movie "An American Werewolf in London" reflects a belief in which of
the following?
a. lycanthropy
b. hysteria
c. tarantism
d. stigmata diaboli

1


1.
7
Ans. D
App
p. 5
E

In your historical review of early approaches to understanding abnormality, to
whom would you credit the birth of the medical tradition?
a. Roman philosophers
b. Islamic scholars
c. Egyptian healers
d. Greek physicians

1.
8
Ans. C
Con
p. 5
M
*

If you assert that humans are primarily rational beings who gain knowledge
through reasoning and recollection to discover universal truths, to whom do
you clearly owe an intellectual debt?
a. Hippocrates
b. Avicenna
c. Plato
d. Descartes

1.
9
Ans. C
Con
p. 5
M

Marc considers himself an empirical scientist of psychology, gathering and
evaluating information from perceptual experiences. Which Greek philosopher
set forth the intellectual foundation for Marc's perspective?
a. Plato
b. Hippocrates
c. Aristotle
d. Galen

1.
10
Ans. B
Fac
p. 5
E

Which humorous Greek is considered the father of medicine?
a. Galen
b. Hippocrates
c. Epictetus
d. Aristotle

1.
11
Ans. A
App
p. 5
E

An ancient Greek was diagnosed as suffering from melancholia. This
individual was probably given a special diet as well as purgatives in order to
treat an imbalance of
a. black bile.
b. phlegm.
c. yellow bile.
d. blood.
Which of the following descriptive terms would best reflect Hippocrates'
approach to abnormality?
a. madness
b. evil
c. illness
d. sinfulness

1.
12
Ans. C
Con
p. 5
E
1.
13
Ans. D
App
p. 6
M

You are Galen's medical assistant. What aspect of human psychology would
you be studying?
a. rational thinking processes
b. social behavior
c. intelligence
d. temperament
2


1.
14
Ans. A
Fac
p. 6
E

What sort of intervention would Epictetus most likely recommend for a
disordered individual?
a. a talking cure
b. laxatives and purgatives
c. prayer and faith healing
d. commitment to a restful asylum

1.
15
Ans. B
Con
p. 6
M

"It's not what your boyfriend said to you that's upset you; it's the way you
interpreted his comments that is bothering you. " Which of the following
philosophers would most heartily agree?
a. Aristotle
b. Epictetus
c. Avicenna
d. St. Vitus

1. 16
Ans. D
App
p. 6
M

Stacy is a graduate student in clinical psychology and is learning the tools and
techniques of psychotherapy. Her belief that these verbally-based methods will
help her future clients is most similar to the
view of the treatment
of disorders.
a. European Middle Ages'
b. ancient Hebrews'
c. ancient Egyptians'
d. classical Greek and Romans'
Aaron lives in a feudal society, marked by frequent wars and economic crises.
He also believes that abnormality is the work of the Devil. What is the most
likely year that Aaron is alive in Western Europe?
a. 120 B. C.
b. 410A. D.
c. 755A. D.
d. 1480 A. D.

1.
17
Ans. C
App
p. 6
C

1.
18
Ans. C
App
p. 6
M

A magical potion made up of eye of newt, heart of a cat, and the ovary of a
goat killed on a Saturday midnight would probably be offered to a psychotic
person during what historical age?
a. Renaissance
b. classical Greco-Roman
c. early European Middle Ages
d. late Islamic Middle Ages

1. 19
Ans. A
Con
p. 6
M

The text The Canon of Medicine provided a bridge between the philosophy of
and the
of the Renaissance.
a. Aristotle; science
*
b. Plato; rationalistic theology
c. Socrates; medical practices
d. Hippocrates; science

3


1.
20
Ans. D
Fac
p. 6
E

Although the rationalistic, naturalistic philosophy of the Greeks was lost during
the Dark Ages of Europe, where were their works preserved?
a. China
b. Spain
c. Indonesia
d. Islam

1.
21
Ans. B
Con
p. 6
C

What commonality exists between the work of Greek physicians, Islamic
physicians, and the monasteries of Europe?
a. They emphasized a supernatural approach to understanding causes of
abnormality.
b. They provided sanctuaries for disordered individuals.
c. They pioneered psychological treatment methods that spurred the
development of Renaissance asylums.
d. They combined magic, common sense, and herbal remedies to treat
disordered individuals.

1.
22
Ans. B
Fac
p. 6
E

When and to whom would you credit the first use of hospitals for the
specialized treatment of mental disorders?
a. 4th century Roman physicians
b. 8th century Islamic physicians
c. 12th century European monks
d. 16th century Renaissance physicians

1.
23
Ans. A
App
p. 7
E

Whether caused by naturalistic or demonic forces, if you joined a group of
people jumping and dancing, tearing off clothing, and frolicking in the streets,
what form of madness would you be displaying?
a. tarantism
b. Dance de Diaboli
c. folie en masse
d. lycanthropy

1.
24
Ans. B
App
p. 7
E

If you consulted the Malleus Maleficarum in the late 1400's, what was your
goal?
a. reconciliation of the teachings of the church and the values of humanism
b. the detection, exposure, and purging of witches
c. potions and incantations for the treatment of disordered individuals in
asylums
d. an understanding of the physical, mechanical workings of the human body

1.
25
Ans. D
Fac
p. 7
E

Which of the following represents a strong backlash to the increasing influence
of the secular world in the early years of the Renaissance?
a. The Canon of Faith
b. Paracelsus' study of abnormal behavior
c. greater value placed on humanism
d. Malleus Maleficarum

4


1.
26
Ans. A
Con
p. 7
C

Which item does not belong with the other three?
a. moral treatment
b. advent of humanism
c. advent of the printing press
d. Copernicus' cosmology

1.
27
Ans. D
App
p. 7
M
*

You live in a time in which books are becoming more readily available,
heretics are saying that the sun is the center of the universe, and humankind is
becoming a topic of study worthy in its own right. With whom are you living?
a. Plato and Hippocrates
b. Avicenna and Galen
c. Tuke and Pinel
d. Copernicus and Paracelsus
Which of the following represents the correct order of predominant themes
from the Greeks to the Middle Ages to the Renaissance?
a. theological > psychological > rational
b. psychological > rational > theological
c. rational > theological > psychological
d. supernatural > theological > psychological

1.
28
Ans. C
Con
p. 5-7
M
1.
29
Ans. A
Con
p. 7
M

"I think, therefore I am. " The author of this phrase asserted that human mental
activity could be thought of in mechanical, physical terms. Who was he?
a. Descartes
b. Epictetus
c. Copernicus
d. Chiarugi

1.
30
Ans. D
App
p. 7
M

You are a modem student in a field of study whose first member risked the
wrath of the church by condemning the practices in the Malleus Maleficarum.
In what field are you studying?
a. clinical psychology
b. family medicine
c. philosophy
d. psychiatry

1.
31
Ans. A
App
p. 7
M

If you were a mentally disordered person in the 16th century, to whom would
you mm for humane help?
a. Weyer
b. Tuke
c. Sprenger
d. Pinel

1.
32
Ans. B
Fac
p. 7
E

The word "bedlam" derives its meaning from
a. the strange "magical" treatments carried out in early monastery asylums.
b. the deplorable conditions found in prison-like Renaissance hospitals for the
insane
c. the name of the city in which the first mental hospital was founded.
d. the early bedrest treatment used for acutely disturbed patients in asylums.

5


1.
33
Ans. A
Con
p. 8
E

Which member of the moral treatment era and his country are mismatched?
a. Chiarugi: Spain
b. Rush: U. S.
c. Pinel: France
d. Tuke: England

1.
34
Ans. C
Con
p. 8
M
*

In your report on the background and outcomes of the moral treatment era,
which statement should you omit?
a. Bicetre Hospital in France was the site of the first unchaining of inmates in
1793.
b. The transformation of asylums into U. S. state hospitals resulted in
understaffing and eventual custodial care conditions.
c. Conditions in asylums of the early 1700's, while less than optimal, were
notably better than the conditions of such institutions in the Middle Ages.
d. The treatment approaches taken by the reformers shared the naturalistic
assumptions endorsed in the Enlightenment era.

1.
35
Ans. A
App
p. 8
E

Candide is one of Pinel's early patients. Which treatment would he be most
UNLIKELY to receive?
a. bloodletting or purgatives
b. a release from his chains
c. an expectation that he would find employment
d. exposure to fresh air, sunshine, and kindness

1.
36
Ans. B
Con
p. 9
M

A synopsis of the U. S. mental hygiene movement should include each of the
following statements EXCEPT
a. the movement was led by a former mental patient who helped form the
National Committee for Mental Hygiene.
b. it began an era of humane treatment in the U. S., lasting until the 1950's
and the discovery of drags.
c. as a result of Dorothea Dix's efforts, several large state hospitals were
constructed.
d. its underlying assumptions regarding abnormality were essentially those
held by Pinel, Tuke, and Rush.

1.
37
Ans. B
Con
p. 9
M

In your critique of the mental hygiene movement in the U. S., you would cite
each of the following factors for its decline EXCEPT
a. the increasing reliance on biological vs social approaches to understanding
abnormality.
b. the discovery of drags effective for treating mental disorders.
c. the shortage of staffing and resultant custodial care.
d. the ineffectiveness of moral treatment for severely disturbed patients.

1.
38
Ans. A
App
p. 9
M

Gregory is working for Dr. Emil Kraepelin in the late 1800's. What is likely
to be the focus of Gregory's efforts?
a. assisting with the development of a classification system for disorders
b. contributing to the discovery of the biological cause of general paresis
c. conducting studies of hypnosis for the cure of hysteria
d. treating patients with bloodletting and tranquilizing chairs

6


1.
39
Ans. B
Con
p. 9
M

Hypnosis has a history stretching back to the Enlightenment. Which of the
following reflects a correctly matched portion of that history?
a. Esdaile & magnetism
b. Breuer & the talking cure
c. Mesmer & hypnotic anesthesia
d. Charcot & treatments for anxiety

1.
40
Ans. D
Con
p. 9
M

Hysteria is to general paresis as
a. naturalistic; supernatural
b. biological; psychological
c. supernatural; medical
d. psychological; biological

1.
41
Ans. B
Fac
p. 9
E

After the successful discovery of the cause of general paresis, some physicians
were seeking the biological treatments for other mental disorders while Freud
was developing the first modern psychological approach, known as
a. hypnotherapy.
b. psychoanalysis.
c. psychical conflict therapy.
d. psychiatry.

1.
42
Ans. C
App
p. 10
E

Dr. Ramirez works in a local community mental health center, conducting
assessment of intelligence, personality, and other characteristics, and she also
provides psychotherapy. What type of professional is she?
a. psychiatrist
b. clinical social worker
c. clinical psychologist
d. psychiatric nurse

1.
43
Ans. D
App
p. 10
M

Dr. Dmg is a physician who has spent several years in a residency in which he
worked with individuals with mental disorders. What is his professional title?
a. clinical physician
b. clinical psychologist
c. psychiatric social worker
d. psychiatrist

1.
44
Ans. C
App
p. 11
E

Casandra was informed by her mental health professional that her anxiety
symptoms were caused by a disrupted pattern of neurochemical messages that
resulted in excessive motor activity, hyperalertness, and a sense of
apprehension. What is this health professional's model of abnormality?
a. psychoanalytic
b. cognitive
c. biological
d. mentalistic

is to

7

.


1.
45
Ans. D
App
p. 11
E

Hypervigilance, emotional numbing, flashbacks, and other characteristics go
together under the label "post traumatic stress disorder". Patterns of
characteristics such as this are also referred to as a(n)
a. symptom constellation.
b. etiology.
c. prognosis
d. syndrome.

1.
46
Ans. B
App
p. 11
E

Viktor is in a graduate program which involves several different disciplines
devoted to studying the structure, function, and chemistry of the nervous
system. What is the term for this area of study?
a. biocognitive psychology
b. neuroscience
c. biochemistry
d. neuroanatomy

1.
47
Ans. D
App
p. 11
E

Your peripheral nervous system (NS) contains each of the following branches
EXCEPT the
a. autonomic NS.
b. somatic NS.
c. sympathetic NS.
d. central NS.

1.
48
Ans. B
App
p. 11
E

Which specific portion of your nervous system is controlling the movements of
your hand as you write your answers to mis exam?
a. autonomic
b. somatic
c. sympathetic
d. peripheral

1.
49
Ans. C
App
p. 12
E

You are studying quietly in the library when your best friend sneaks up and
surprises you from behind. You let out an embarrassing shriek, your heart is
racing, and your adrenaline is pumping. What specific portion of your nervous
system is active at this point?
a. autonomic
b. somatic
c. sympathetic
d. parasympathetic

1.
50
Ans. C
App
p. 12
E

What portion of your brain automatically regulates breathing, heart rate, and
blood pressure so that the rest of your brain can concentrate on other things, like
this exam?
a. thalamus
b. reticular formation
c. medulla
d. midbrain

8


1.
51
Ans. A
App
p. 12
M
*

Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder in which an individual falls asleep without
warning, sometimes during emotionally arousing situations. Which brain
structure might be involved in such a disorder?
a. reticular formation
b. thalamus
c. cerebrum
d. occipital lobe

1.
52
Ans. C
App
p. 12
M

Kitar suffered damage to his cerebellum as a result of an automobile accident.
Which of Kitar's abilities is likely to be impaired?
a. ability to form and retrieve memories
b. responsiveness to rewarding environmental stimuli
c. his playing of the violin
d. maintenance of arousal and attention

1.
53
Ans. B
App
p. 12
E

It is true that you have "eyes in the back of your head". To which part of the
brain does this refer?
a. temporal lobe
b. occipital lobe.
c. parietal lobe,
d. central lobe.

1.
54
Ans. D
App
p. 13
M

The Four F's of motivation (fighting, fleeing, feeding, and mating) are
primarily controlled by the
a. cerebellum,
b. parietal lobe.
c. hindbrain.
d. hypothalamus

1.
55
Ans. B
App
p. 13
M

If information that was intended to be relayed to the visual cortex was
accidentally misrouted to the auditory cortex by this brain stmcture, you might
"see" noise. What structure would this be?
a. medulla
b. thalamus
c. midbrain
d. hypothalamus

1.
56
Ans. B
App
p. 13
E
*

Your best friend insists that she has a "sweet tooth" and often craves sugary
snacks. Which portion of her endocrine system is most directly involved in
the control of such substances?
a. adrenal cortex
b. pancreas
c. thyroid
d! adrenal medulla

1.
57
Ans. A
App
p. 13
E

Atypically short or tall people can probably attribute the distinctiveness of their
height to their
a. pituitary,
b. thyroid.
c. cerebellum.
d. adrenal medulla.
9


1.
58
Ans. B
App
p. 13
M

When you get home from your first day in abnormal psychology class and talk
to your roommate about "this really cool psych class I'm taking", what
distinctive part of your brain makes this conversation possible?
a. cerebellum
b. cerebrum
c. limbic system
d. midbrain

1.
59
For you to read this question, tens of thousands of neurons must fire in several
Ans. B
patterns. To create this, their chemical messages are carried via
App
from
one neuron to another.
p. 14
a. synapses
E
b. neurotransmitters
c. axons
d. dendrites
1.
60
Your study notes from your text reading should include only ONE of the
Ans. A
following statements about neuron structure and function. Which should it be?
Con
a. The binding of a neurotransmitter on a receptor makes the receiving neuron
p. 14
either more or less likely to fire.
M
b. Neurotransmitters are stored in dendrites and are released into the synaptic
cleft when the neuron fires.
c. Neurons are located only in the central nervous system, where bundles of
their axons form information pathways.
d. Little is known about the specific behavioral or cognitive effects of
identified neurotransmitters.
1.
61
Ans. A
App
p. 14
C

Imagine you were a neurotransmitter molecule. What is the correct order of
structures and events you would encounter during the firing of your neuron?
a. axon > synapse > receptor > dendrite's electrical change
b. synapse > receptor > dendrite > axon's electrical change
c. axon > receptor > synapse > dendrite's electrical change
d. dendrite > synapse > axon > receptor's electrical change

1.
62
Ans. C
App
p. 14
M

Some pesticides are extremely toxic to the human nervous system, causing
uncontrollable muscular tremors and convulsions. Which neurotransmitter is
involved in this reaction?
a. norepinephrine
b. GABA
c. acetylcholine
d, dopamine

1.
63
Ans. D
App
p. 14
M
*

Yvette was given an experimental drug that made it difficult for her to
concentrate and disrupted her sleep and arousal patterns. What
neurotransmitter was affected?
a. acetylcholine
b. dopamine
c. GABA
d. norepinephrine

10


164
Ans. D
Fac
p. 15
M

How are proteins, which form and direct the structure of cells, formed?
a. Nucleotides direct the production of DNA which assembles nitrogen bases
and proteins.
b. Heterozygous chromosomes produce amino acids which assemble the
proteins.
c. Amino acids direct the production of nitrogen bases which determine which
proteins are assembled.
d. DNA nucleotides direct the process in which amino acids are assembled
into proteins.

1.
65
Ans. C
App
p. 16
M

Blue eye color is a recessive genetic trait. This means that a blue-eyed
person's relevant alleles are
a. different,
b. polygenic.
c. alike.
d. monogenic.

1.
66
Ans. D
Fac
p. 16
E

Most human psychological characteristics are
a. genetically predetermined.
b. concordant,
c. recessive.
d. polygenic.

1.
67
Ans. D
Con
p. 16
C

A classmate has asked you to review her report on genetic influences on
behavior. Which statement would you recommend that she omit from that
paper?
a. "Genes have an indirect effect on behavior through the production of
proteins that give rise to various cells' development. "
b. "If an allele is dominant, it must also be a homozygous gene from the
mother and the father in order to be expressed. "
c. "Both internal and external events affect the expression of genes, and some
genes may never be expressed. "
d. "Genetic and environmental factors determine physical and behavioral
characteristics, both independently contributing to the phenotype. "

1.
68
Ans. D
App
p. 16
E

Diet sodas have a warning that states, "Attention phenylketonurics: Contains
phenylalanine". Which of the following is NOT true of this disorder?
a. It results in the failure to break down an amino acid found in many foods,
b. It is caused by a single dysfunctional gene.
c. It causes progressive mental deterioration.
d. It is a disorder that occurs in approximately one percent of the population.

1.
69
Ans. A
App
p. 16
E

Suppose that Dr. Palmer discovered that the impulse to bungee jump was related
to a single dominant gene (even though this is an unlikely scenario!). Which
family members would be most similar in this characteristic?
a. monozygotic twins
b. a parent and child
c. dizygotic twins
d. non-fraternal siblings

11


1.
70
Ans. A
Con
p. 17
E

Which of the following correctly reflects the progression from larger to smaller
elements of our genetics?
a. chromosome > DNA > gene > nucleotide
b. DNA > gene > chromosome > nucleotide
c. nucleotide > gene > chromosome > DNA
d. chromosome > nucleotide > DNA > gene

1.
71
Ans. A
Con
p. 17
M

Which of the following does not belong with the other three?
a. kum
b. PKU
c. Huntington's
d. children's temperament

1.
72
Dr. Wehr is investigating the role of genetic factors in schizophrenia. Which
Ans. A
research
approach would provide the most compelling evidence for that role?
Con
a. a study of individuals with the disorder who had been adopted, comparing
p. 18
them to both their biological and adoptive parents.
M
b. a study of monozygotic twins reared together, both of whom have the
*
disorder.
c. a study of the prevalence of schizophrenia in the immediate vs. distant
biological relatives of schizophrenic persons.
d. Any of the above approaches would be equally compelling.
1.
73
Ans. A
App
p. 18
C

Suppose researchers discovered the specific "comedy" gene that influences the
ability to tell jokes successfully. If Javier is an extremely successful stand-up
comedian, what can you conclude about his genetic make-up?
a. You cannot be certain whether his talent is due to genes or to the
environment.
b. If the comedy gene is a dominant allele, you can reasonably conclude his
ability is genetically determined.
c. If the comedy gene is a recessive allele, you cannot determine whether genes
and/or environment determined his ability.
d. Because behavior is affected by both nature and nurture, his ability is
necessarily determined by both factors equally.

1.
74
Ans. D
Fac
p. 18
E

Unconscious determinants of both normal and abnormal behaviors are the central
concern of
a. ego analysts,
b. behavioral theories.
c. cognitive theories,
d. psychoanalysis.

1.
75
Ans. B
App
p. 18
E

Who would see the misstatement "I loathe you" in place of "I love you" as an
indication of unconscious conflict?
a. Watson
b. Freud
c. Ellis
d. Rogers

12


.
76
Ans. D
Con
p. 19
E

Instinct is to
a. ego; id
b. id; ego
c. superego; ego
d. id; superego

1.
77
Ans. B
App
p. 19
E

While sitting through a dry lecture in class, your thoughts are far away on a
fabulous yacht, where you are surrounded by a bevy of attractive servants who
obey your every whim. What fuels your daydream?
a. ego introjection
b. libido
c. repression
d. the fantasy principle

1.
78
Ans. D
Fac
p. 19
M

Parents begin to shape appropriate personal and social behavior in the first three
years of a child's life. What is the fundamental effect of this influence on
her/his personality?
a. the superego's moral principle develops
b. primary defense mechanisms are developed
c. aggressive instincts develop
d. the ego begins to develop

*

as morality is to

.

1.
79
Ans. A
App
p. 19
E

You are debating whether to study for your upcoming psychology exam or go
out and gorge on pizza and beer with your friends. You decide to study for an
hour and then get a pizza delivered for you & your roommate. What portion of
your personality made this decision?
a. ego
b. superego
c. id
d. pleasure principle

1.
80
Ans. D
App
p. 19
M

Captain Janeway's
would love to spend hours frolicking with her new
bridge officer, Lt. Yalta. Her
instills guilt for thinking about anything
other than her official duties. In the end, Janeway's
decides to review
critical systems' maintenance plans with Lt. Yalta, followed by dinner in 10
Forward.
a. ego; superego; id
b. id; ego; superego
c. ego; id; superego
d. id; superego; ego

1.
81
Ans. A
App
p. 19
E

Any decent human being would attempt to find the owner of lost money. You
found a nickel near your desk in class. Which portion of your personality
insists you return it to its rightful owner?
a. superego
b. id
c. ego
d. ego ideal

13


1.
82
Ans. C
App
p. 19
M

Watching her dad take cookies out of the oven, two-year-old Andrea's id says,
"
", while her superego says "
".
a. "Gim'me, lots, now!!": "Could I please have a cookie?"
b. "Do I get some, Daddy? I'll share with you. ": "I'm a good girl & don't
need cookies. "
c. "All m i n e ! " : nothing - It has not formed yet.
d. Nothing - it has not formed y e t : "Sugar's not good for your teeth, Daddy. "

1.
83
Ans. D
App
p. 19
E

The childish mannerisms and simplistic language exhibited by some psychotic
adults represents
according to Freud.
a. repression
b. an inferiority complex
c. an id defense mechanism
d. regression

1.
84
Ans. A
Con
p. 20
M

In regard to Freud's conceptualization of disruptions in psychosexual
development, which statement is incorrect!
a. He abandoned the sexual "fantasy" theory to propose that adult disorders
were connected to experiences of molestation as a child.
b. He proposed that symptoms of mental disorders in adults are indirect
expressions of longterm sexual fantasies and conflicts.
c. The particular stage at which conflicts with parents and the larger social
world occur shapes the kinds of symptoms an adult displays.
d. Males and females have similar challenges in the first two stages of
development but then diverge in the third stage, seen as the core of all
neuroses.

1.
85
Ans. C
App
p. 20
E

Your best friend borrows your pens & pencils, and when you get them back the
tops look like they've substituted for chewing gum! According to the
psychoanalytic theory, how would you 'diagnose' your friend?
a. anal-retentive
b. unsuccessful in resolving the Oedipal conflict
c. orally fixated
d. unsuccessful in introjecting parental discipline

1.
86
Ans. B
App
p. 20
M

Danton drinks excessively when he is under pressure from his boss. Which of
the following descriptors does NOT apply to him?
a. oral fixation
b. absence of defense mechanisms
c. regression
d. unresolved Oedipal complex

1.
87
Ans. D
App
p. 20
E

On the television show Saturday Night Live, a chef character is known for his
obsessive cleanliness, orderliness, and perfectionism in the kitchen. In what
stage did this character become fixated?
a. phallic
b. oral
c. genital
d. anal

14


1.
88
Ans. B
App
p. 20
M

Marco is four years old and enjoys mimicking his Dad around the house when
he's working. Marco also wants to be "just like my Dad" when he grows up.
He is in which psychosexual stage?
a. anal
b. phallic
c. oral
d. latency

1.
89
Ans. A
Con
p. 20
C

Given that psychosexual stages affect adult behavior, which stage and "fixated"
adult occupation or activity are incorrectly matched?
a. genital: construction worker
b. oral: gossip columnist
c. anal: plumber
d. phallic: surrogate mother

1.
90
Two young children are changing into their swimsuits and the young male says
Ans. B to the young female, "No, you can't touch it; you already broke yours off. " This
App
Freudian-inspired joke implicitly refers to the young male's fear, known as
p. 20
a. the Electa complex.
E
b. castration anxiety.
*
c. penis fixation.
d. introjection.
1.
91
Ans. C
App
p. 20
M

According to Freud, young females feel inferior to and envious of males. How,
then, will young Tamara most fully resolve her Electa complex?
a. by identifying with her father
b. by identifying with her mother
c. by having a child
d. by marrying a virile, dominant male

1.
92
Ans. D
Fac
p. 20
E

What is the correct order of psychosexual development?
a. oral > anal > phallic > genital > latency
b. anal > oral > genital > latency > sexual
c. anal > phallic > latency > puberty > genital
d. oral > anal > phallic > latency > genital

1.
93
Ans. A
Con
p. 20
M

Contemporary psychoanalytic theorists have substantially disagreed with Freud
on each of the following issues EXCEPT
a. the importance of childhood experiences in shaping adult behaviors,
b. instincts as the primary motivation for behavior.
c. the centrality of unconscious processes.
d. an emphasis on internal vs social influences on behavior

1.
94
Ans. B
Con
p. 21
E

Which of the following concepts does not belong with the other three?
a. superiority strivings
b. psychosocial crisis
c. style of life
b. adaptive social interest

15


1.
95
Ans. C
App
p. 21
M
*

Than was bullied by several schoolmates when he was in elementary school. As
an adult, he has devoted a great deal of time to 'cutthroat' business tactics,
planning and instigating the downfall of his competitors. Which theory would
most clearly explain the origins of this lifestyle?
a. Jung's
b. Erikson's
c. Adler's
d. Mahler's

1.
96
Ans. D
App
p. 21
M

If you were to try to understand a client's difficulties by comparing her
experiences to the theory proposed by Erikson, which question might you ask?
a. "What sense of inferiority does she harbor from her childhood?"
b. "At what stage of psychosexual development did a possible fixation occur?"
c. "Does she have a healthy balance of connection and autonomy in her
relationships?"
d. "Did she develop a sense of trust in her earliest stage of social crisis?"

1.
97
Ans. A
Fac
p. 21
E

According to
theorists, adult psychopathology can be traced to
early disruptions in attachment to caregivers or a failure to achieve secure
independence.
a. object relations
b. social modeling
c. learning
d. cognitive

1.
98
Ans. B
App
p. 21
E

Dr. Eve, a psychoanalyst, would employ several techniques in her work, but
is not one of them.
a. interpreting dreams
b. challenging irrational beliefs
c. encouraging free association
d. exploring transference

1.
99
Ans. C
App
p. 21
M

Last week you had to cancel an appointment with your client. Today, the client
accuses you of not caring about her and abandoning her. You are aware that
these same feelings were often experienced in her interactions with her parents,
What is the term for your client's reaction?
a. introjection
b. projective identification
c. transference
d. fixated association

1. 100
Ans. D
Fac
p. 21
E

The therapeutic goal of "re-parenting" in order to help a client form healthy,
secure adult relationships is the primary focus of
therapy.
a. cognitive
b. ego analytic
c. behavioral
d. object relations

16


1.
101
The law of effect is most similar to which Freudian concept?
Ans. A
a. pleasure principle
Con
b. libido
p. 22, 19 c. reality principle
C
d. fixation
*

1.
102
Ans. B
App
p. 22
E

If you learn an abnormal behavior (e. g., helplessness) by associating your
actions with their environmental consequences (e. g., others take care of your
needs for you), what process accounts for this learning?
a. respondent
b. operant
c. classical
d. modeling

1.
103
Ans. C
Con
p. 22
M

The ABC's (antecedent, behavior, consequence) of learning are most clearly
outlined in the work of
a. Pavlov,
b. Watson.
c. Skinner.
d. Thorndike.

1.
104
Ans. D
Fac
p. 22
M

Positive reinforcement makes a behavior
likely to reoccur, and negative
reinforcement makes a behavior
likely to reoccur.
a. less; less
b. less; more
c. more; less
d. more; more

1.
105
Ans. A
App
p. 22
M

When you take out the kitchen trash in order to stop your spouse's angry glare,
what operant process is occurring for your behavior?
a. negative reinforcement
b. punishment
c. positive reinforcement
d. extinction

1.
106
Ans. D
App
p. 22
M
*

Martine was laid off from his job, was having a great deal of conflict in his
marriage, and his family was frequently trying to give him advice. When he
drank alcohol, he found he didn't think about these problems and his wife and
family left him alone, not wanting to be around him when he was intoxicated.
What learning process accounts for Martine's developing alcohol abuse?
a. classical conditioning
b. punishment
c. social modeling
d. negative reinforcement

17


1. 107
Ans. B
App
p. 22
E

Miranda's parents put gold stars on a chart on the refrigerator every time she
puts her toys neatly away. When she gets 10 stars, she gets to go to a movie.
What operant process is taking place?
a. law of consequence
b. positive reinforcement
c. negative punishment
d. negative reinforcement

1.
108
Ans. C
App
p. 22
C

A snack machine in the psychology building occasionally kept a professor's
money without dispensing any snack. After a while, she just went hungry.
What consequence occurred for her snack-buying behavior?
a. negative reinforcement
b. extinction
c. punishment
d. law of negative effect

1.
109
Ans. A
App
p. 22
M

A depressed client's negative statements (e. g., "I'm a hopeless case", "Nothing
will ever get better") are subjected to extinction by her therapist and family.
This means
a. her negative statements will be ignored and will tend to become less
frequent.
b. her irrational, negative statements will be challenged by her therapist and
family.
c. her therapist and family will positively reinforce optimistic statements and
punish the negative ones.
d. her classically conditioned responses will be modified by observing the
behaviors of her therapist and family.

1.
110
Ans. B
Fac
p. 22
E

In Pavlov's original studies of classical conditioning, what was the unconditioned
stimulus?
a. salivation
b. food
c. tone
d. alerting responses

1.
111
Ans. C
Con
p. 22
C

In classical conditioning, what is the crucial association upon which learning is
based?
a. the association of the unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response
b. the association between the neutral stimulus and the conditioned stimulus
c. the association between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned
stimulus
d. the association between the conditioned stimulus and the conditioned
response

18


1.
112
Ans. B
App
p. 22
M

Close your eyes and imagine that you are sitting in a dentist's chair, and the
cavity she's drilling is in an area that isn't completely numb. If you find
yourself with an unpleasant reaction to this imagined scene, how would you
label that discomfort?
a. conditioned stimulus
b. conditioned response
c. unconditioned stimulus
d. unconditioned response

1.
113
Ans. A
Con
p. 22
M

Which of the following is an unconditioned stimulus?
a. a strong puff of air to the eye
b. shivering in cold weather
c. salivation to the thought of biting into a sour lemon
d. a telephone ring

*

1.
114
Ans. D
App
p. 22
E

Suppose a five-year-old child has a phobia of horses. Freud might interpret
this as an unconscious fear of the child's father, a common reaction during this
Oedipal stage. However, the work of Watson and Rayner indicated that
children's fears can be caused not by unconscious conflict but by
a. operant conditioning.
b. social modeling.
c. irrational cognitions.
d. classical conditioning

1.
115
Ans. C
Fac
p. 23
E

Mary Cover Jones provided an early example of the effective use of
a. cognitive therapy.
b. object relations therapy,
c. behavior therapy.
d. family therapy.

1.
116
Ans. B
Con
p. 24
M

In S-O-R terminology, the Stimulus, 0=organism, and R=response. Which
element distinguishes cognitive theories from learning theories?
a. S
b. O
c. R
d. All three elements apply to both kinds of theories.

1.
117
Ans. A
Con
p. 19-24
E

Historically speaking, what is the chronological order of the following
psychological theories?
a. psychoanalytic > behavioral > cognitive
b. behavioral > psychoanalytic > cognitive
c. psychoanalytic > cognitive > behavioral
d. cognitive > psychoanalytic > behavioral

1.
118
Ans. B
Fac
p. 24
E

An emphasis on the active information processing of internal and environmental
information is the primary concern of the
theories.
a. sociocultural
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. biological
19


1.
119
Ans. C
Con
p. 24
M

Observational learning could also be thought of as
a. direct conditioning.
b. expectancy conditioning,
c. vicarious conditioning.
d. trial-and-error learning.

1.
120
Ans. D
App
p. 24
E

Shandra has watched her sister express a great deal of fear whenever large,
noisy dogs come close to their yard. What process accounts for Shandra's
developing fear of such dogs?
a. operant conditioning
b. classical conditioning
c. cognitive-behavioral learning
d. observational learning

1.
121
Ans. A
App
p. 24
M

According to Bandura, if Cesar does not approach an attractive person and ask
for a date because he believes he will make a poor first impression, which of
Cesar's expectancies is impaired?
a. self-efficacy
b. internal attribution
c. self-appraisal
d. catastrophic

1.
122
Ans. B
App
p. 25
M

"You look very nice today!" A person who hears this and thinks to her/himself,
"Yeah, I do look pretty awful most other days" and then feels very despondent
is exhibiting a dysfunctional
a. attribution.
b. appraisal.
c. conditioned response.
d. global expectancy.

1.
123
Ans. C
App
p. 25
M

Which pattern of attribution is evident in the statement, "I can't leam chemistry
because the instructor covers too much material too fast"?
a. internal, stable, global
b. internal, temporary, specific
c. external, temporary, global
d. external, stable, global

1.
124
Ans. B
Con
p. 25
M

If the S-O-R model is defined as S=stimulus(environment),
0=organism(cognition), and R=response(behavior), which element is most
important to Albert Ellis?
a. S
b. O
c. R
d. All are equally relevant in his theory.

20


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