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Fluid mechanics for chemical engineers 2nd


Fluid Mechanics for
Chemical Engineers
Second Edition
with Microfluidics and CFD


Prentice Hall International Series in the
Physical and Chemical Engineering Sciences

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FLUID MECHANICS FOR
CHEMICAL ENGINEERS
Second Edition
with Microfluidics and CFD

JAMES O. WILKES
Department of Chemical Engineering
The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

with contributions by
STACY G. BIRMINGHAM: Non-Newtonian Flow
Mechanical Engineering Department
Grove City College, PA

BRIAN J. KIRBY: Microfluidics
Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

COMSOL (FEMLAB): Multiphysics Modeling
COMSOL, Inc., Burlington, MA

CHI-YANG CHENG: Computational Fluid Dynamics and FlowLab
Fluent, Inc., Lebanon, NH

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Wilkes, James O.
Fluid mechanics for chemical engineers, 2nd ed., with microfluidics
and CFD/James O. Wilkes.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0–13–148212–2 (alk. paper)
1. Chemical processes. 2. Fluid dynamics. I. Title.
TP155.7.W55 2006
660’.29–dc22
2005017816
Copyright c 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is protected
by copyright, and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited
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ISBN 0-13-148212-2
Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at Courier Westford in Westford, Massachusetts
8th Printing

October 2012
.


Dedicated to the memory of
Terence Robert Corelli Fox
Shell Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Cambridge, 1946–1959


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CONTENTS

PREFACE

xv

PART I—MACROSCOPIC FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER 1—INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5

1.6

1.7

Fluid Mechanics in Chemical Engineering
General Concepts of a Fluid
Stresses, Pressure, Velocity, and the Basic Laws
Physical Properties—Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension
Units and Systems of Units
Example 1.1—Units Conversion
Example 1.2—Mass of Air in a Room
Hydrostatics
Example 1.3—Pressure in an Oil Storage Tank
Example 1.4—Multiple Fluid Hydrostatics
Example 1.5—Pressure Variations in a Gas
Example 1.6—Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface
Example 1.7—Application of Archimedes’ Law
Pressure Change Caused by Rotation
Example 1.8—Overflow from a Spinning Container
Problems for Chapter 1

3
3
5
10
21
24
25
26
29
30
31
35
37
39
40
42

CHAPTER 2—MASS, ENERGY, AND MOMENTUM BALANCES
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

General Conservation Laws
Mass Balances
Example 2.1—Mass Balance for Tank Evacuation
Energy Balances
Example 2.2—Pumping n-Pentane
Bernoulli’s Equation
Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation
Example 2.3—Tank Filling
Momentum Balances
Example 2.4—Impinging Jet of Water
Example 2.5—Velocity of Wave on Water
Example 2.6—Flow Measurement by a Rotameter
vii

55
57
58
61
65
67
70
76
78
83
84
89


Contents

viii
2.7

Pressure, Velocity, and Flow Rate Measurement
Problems for Chapter 2

92
96

CHAPTER 3—FLUID FRICTION IN PIPES
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8

Introduction
Laminar Flow
Example 3.1—Polymer Flow in a Pipeline
Models for Shear Stress
Piping and Pumping Problems
Example 3.2—Unloading Oil from a Tanker
Specified Flow Rate and Diameter
Example 3.3—Unloading Oil from a Tanker
Specified Diameter and Pressure Drop
Example 3.4—Unloading Oil from a Tanker
Specified Flow Rate and Pressure Drop
Example 3.5—Unloading Oil from a Tanker
Miscellaneous Additional Calculations
Flow in Noncircular Ducts
Example 3.6—Flow in an Irrigation Ditch
Compressible Gas Flow in Pipelines
Compressible Flow in Nozzles
Complex Piping Systems
Example 3.7—Solution of a Piping/Pumping Problem
Problems for Chapter 3

120
123
128
129
133
142
144
147
147
150
152
156
159
163
165
168

CHAPTER 4—FLOW IN CHEMICAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10

Introduction
Pumps and Compressors
Example 4.1—Pumps in Series and Parallel
Drag Force on Solid Particles in Fluids
Example 4.2—Manufacture of Lead Shot
Flow Through Packed Beds
Example 4.3—Pressure Drop in a Packed-Bed Reactor
Filtration
Fluidization
Dynamics of a Bubble-Cap Distillation Column
Cyclone Separators
Sedimentation
Dimensional Analysis
Example 4.4—Thickness of the Laminar Sublayer
Problems for Chapter 4

185
188
193
194
202
204
208
210
215
216
219
222
224
229
230


Contents

ix

PART II—MICROSCOPIC FLUID MECHANICS
CHAPTER 5—DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FLUID MECHANICS
5.1
5.2

5.3
5.4
5.5

5.6
5.7

Introduction to Vector Analysis
Vector Operations
Example 5.1—The Gradient of a Scalar
Example 5.2—The Divergence of a Vector
Example 5.3—An Alternative to the Differential
Element
Example 5.4—The Curl of a Vector
Example 5.5—The Laplacian of a Scalar
Other Coordinate Systems
The Convective Derivative
Differential Mass Balance
Example 5.6—Physical Interpretation of the Net Rate
of Mass Outflow
Example 5.7—Alternative Derivation of the Continuity
Equation
Differential Momentum Balances
Newtonian Stress Components in Cartesian Coordinates
Example 5.8—Constant-Viscosity Momentum Balances
in Terms of Velocity Gradients
Example 5.9—Vector Form of Variable-Viscosity
Momentum Balance
Problems for Chapter 5

249
250
253
257
257
262
262
263
266
267
269
270
271
274
280
284
285

CHAPTER 6—SOLUTION OF VISCOUS-FLOW PROBLEMS
6.1
6.2

6.3

6.4

Introduction
Solution of the Equations of Motion in Rectangular
Coordinates
Example 6.1—Flow Between Parallel Plates
Alternative Solution Using a Shell Balance
Example 6.2—Shell Balance for Flow Between Parallel
Plates
Example 6.3—Film Flow on a Moving Substrate
Example 6.4—Transient Viscous Diffusion of
Momentum (COMSOL)
Poiseuille and Couette Flows in Polymer Processing
Example 6.5—The Single-Screw Extruder
Example 6.6—Flow Patterns in a Screw Extruder
(COMSOL)

292
294
294
301
301
303
307
312
313
318


x

Contents
6.5

6.6

Solution of the Equations of Motion in Cylindrical
Coordinates
Example 6.7—Flow Through an Annular Die
Example 6.8—Spinning a Polymeric Fiber
Solution of the Equations of Motion in Spherical
Coordinates
Example 6.9—Analysis of a Cone-and-Plate Rheometer
Problems for Chapter 6

322
322
325
327
328
333

CHAPTER 7—LAPLACE’S EQUATION, IRROTATIONAL AND
POROUS-MEDIA FLOWS
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11

Introduction
Rotational and Irrotational Flows
Example 7.1—Forced and Free Vortices
Steady Two-Dimensional Irrotational Flow
Physical Interpretation of the Stream Function
Examples of Planar Irrotational Flow
Example 7.2—Stagnation Flow
Example 7.3—Combination of a Uniform Stream and
a Line Sink (C)
Example 7.4—Flow Patterns in a Lake (COMSOL)
Axially Symmetric Irrotational Flow
Uniform Streams and Point Sources
Doublets and Flow Past a Sphere
Single-Phase Flow in a Porous Medium
Example 7.5—Underground Flow of Water
Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media
Wave Motion in Deep Water
Problems for Chapter 7

354
356
359
361
364
366
369
371
373
378
380
384
387
388
390
396
400

CHAPTER 8—BOUNDARY-LAYER AND OTHER NEARLY
UNIDIRECTIONAL FLOWS
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5

8.6

Introduction
Simplified Treatment of Laminar Flow Past a Flat Plate
Example 8.1—Flow in an Air Intake (C)
Simplification of the Equations of Motion
Blasius Solution for Boundary-Layer Flow
Turbulent Boundary Layers
Example 8.2—Laminar and Turbulent Boundary
Layers Compared
Dimensional Analysis of the Boundary-Layer Problem

414
415
420
422
425
428
429
430


Contents
8.7

8.8
8.9

8.10

Boundary-Layer Separation
Example 8.3—Boundary-Layer Flow Between Parallel
Plates (COMSOL Library)
Example 8.4—Entrance Region for Laminar Flow
Between Flat Plates
The Lubrication Approximation
Example 8.5—Flow in a Lubricated Bearing (COMSOL)
Polymer Processing by Calendering
Example 8.6—Pressure Distribution in a Calendered
Sheet
Thin Films and Surface Tension
Problems for Chapter 8

xi
433
435
440
442
448
450
454
456
459

CHAPTER 9—TURBULENT FLOW
9.1

9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5

9.6
9.7

9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12

9.13

9.14

Introduction
Example 9.1—Numerical Illustration of a Reynolds
Stress Term
Physical Interpretation of the Reynolds Stresses
Mixing-Length Theory
Determination of Eddy Kinematic Viscosity and
Mixing Length
Velocity Profiles Based on Mixing-Length Theory
Example 9.2—Investigation of the von K´
arm´an
Hypothesis
The Universal Velocity Profile for Smooth Pipes
Friction Factor in Terms of Reynolds Number for Smooth
Pipes
Example 9.3—Expression for the Mean Velocity
Thickness of the Laminar Sublayer
Velocity Profiles and Friction Factor for Rough Pipe
Blasius-Type Law and the Power-Law Velocity Profile
A Correlation for the Reynolds Stresses
Computation of Turbulence by the k/ε Method
Example 9.4—Flow Through an Orifice Plate (COMSOL)
Example 9.5—Turbulent Jet Flow (COMSOL)
Analogies Between Momentum and Heat Transfer
Example 9.6—Evaluation of the Momentum/HeatTransfer Analogies
Turbulent Jets
Problems for Chapter 9

473
479
480
481
484
486
487
488
490
491
492
494
495
496
499
501
505
509
511
513
521


xii

Contents

CHAPTER 10—BUBBLE MOTION, TWO-PHASE FLOW, AND
FLUIDIZATION
10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4

10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8

Introduction
Rise of Bubbles in Unconfined Liquids
Example 10.1—Rise Velocity of Single Bubbles
Pressure Drop and Void Fraction in Horizontal Pipes
Example 10.2—Two-Phase Flow in a Horizontal Pipe
Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Pipes
Example 10.3—Limits of Bubble Flow
Example 10.4—Performance of a Gas-Lift Pump
Example 10.5—Two-Phase Flow in a Vertical Pipe
Flooding
Introduction to Fluidization
Bubble Mechanics
Bubbles in Aggregatively Fluidized Beds
Example 10.6—Fluidized Bed with Reaction (C)
Problems for Chapter 10

531
531
536
536
541
543
546
550
553
555
559
561
566
572
575

CHAPTER 11—NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
11.1
11.2
11.3

11.4
11.5
11.6

Introduction
Classification of Non-Newtonian Fluids
Constitutive Equations for Inelastic Viscous Fluids
Example 11.1—Pipe Flow of a Power-Law Fluid
Example 11.2—Pipe Flow of a Bingham Plastic
Example 11.3—Non-Newtonian Flow in a Die
(COMSOL Library)
Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Fluids
Response to Oscillatory Shear
Characterization of the Rheological Properties of Fluids
Example 11.4—Proof of the Rabinowitsch Equation
Example 11.5—Working Equation for a CoaxialCylinder Rheometer: Newtonian Fluid
Problems for Chapter 11

591
592
595
600
604
606
613
620
623
624
628
630

CHAPTER 12—MICROFLUIDICS AND ELECTROKINETIC
FLOW EFFECTS
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4

Introduction
Physics of Microscale Fluid Mechanics
Pressure-Driven Flow Through Microscale Tubes
Example 12.1—Calculation of Reynolds Numbers
Mixing, Transport, and Dispersion

639
640
641
641
642


Contents
12.5
12.6

12.7

12.8
12.9

Species, Energy, and Charge Transport
The Electrical Double Layer and Electrokinetic Phenomena
Example 12.2—Relative Magnitudes of Electroosmotic
and Pressure-Driven Flows
Example 12.3—Electroosmotic Flow Around a Particle
Example 12.4—Electroosmosis in a Microchannel
(COMSOL)
Example 12.5—Electroosmotic Switching in a
Branched Microchannel (COMSOL)
Measuring the Zeta Potential
Example 12.6—Magnitude of Typical Streaming
Potentials
Electroviscosity
Particle and Macromolecule Motion in Microfluidic Channels
Example 12.7—Gravitational and Magnetic Settling
of Assay Beads
Problems for Chapter 12

xiii
644
647
648
653
653
657
659
660
661
661
662
666

CHAPTER 13—AN INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL
FLUID DYNAMICS AND FLOWLAB
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4

Introduction and Motivation
Numerical Methods
Learning CFD by Using FlowLab
Practical CFD Examples
Example 13.1—Developing Flow in a Pipe
Entrance Region (FlowLab)
Example 13.2—Pipe Flow Through a Sudden
Expansion (FlowLab)
Example 13.3—A Two-Dimensional Mixing Junction
(FlowLab)
Example 13.4—Flow Over a Cylinder (FlowLab)
References for Chapter 13

671
673
682
686
687
690
692
696
702

CHAPTER 14—COMSOL (FEMLAB) MULTIPHYSICS FOR
SOLVING FLUID MECHANICS PROBLEMS
14.1
14.2

14.3
14.4

Introduction to COMSOL
How to Run COMSOL
Example 14.1—Flow in a Porous Medium with an
Obstruction (COMSOL)
Draw Mode
Solution and Related Modes

703
705
705
719
724


Contents

xiv
14.5

Fluid Mechanics Problems Solvable by COMSOL
Problems for Chapter 14

725
730

APPENDIX A:

USEFUL MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS

731

APPENDIX B:

ANSWERS TO THE TRUE/FALSE ASSERTIONS

737

APPENDIX C:

SOME VECTOR AND TENSOR OPERATIONS

740

INDEX

743

THE AUTHORS

753


PREFACE

T

HIS text has evolved from a need for a single volume that embraces a wide
range of topics in fluid mechanics. The material consists of two parts—four
chapters on macroscopic or relatively large-scale phenomena, followed by ten chapters on microscopic or relatively small-scale phenomena. Throughout, I have tried
to keep in mind topics of industrial importance to the chemical engineer. The
scheme is summarized in the following list of chapters.
Part I—Macroscopic Fluid Mechanics
1. Introduction to Fluid Mechanics
2. Mass, Energy, and Momentum
Balances

3. Fluid Friction in Pipes
4. Flow in Chemical
Engineering Equipment

Part II—Microscopic Fluid Mechanics
5. Differential Equations of Fluid
Mechanics
6. Solution of Viscous-Flow Problems
7. Laplace’s Equation, Irrotational
and Porous-Media Flows
8. Boundary-Layer and Other
Nearly Unidirectional Flows
9. Turbulent Flow
10. Bubble Motion, Two-Phase Flow,
and Fluidization

11. Non-Newtonian Fluids
12. Microfluidics and
Electrokinetic Flow Effects
13. An Introduction to
Computational Fluid
Dynamics and FlowLab
14. COMSOL (FEMLAB) Multiphysics for Solving Fluid
Mechanics Problems

In our experience, an undergraduate fluid mechanics course can be based on
Part I plus selected parts of Part II, and a graduate course can be based on
much of Part II, supplemented perhaps by additional material on topics such as
approximate methods and stability.
Second edition. I have attempted to bring the book up to date by the major addition of Chapters 12, 13, and 14—one on microfluidics and two on CFD
(computational fluid dynamics). The choice of software for the CFD presented
a difficulty; for various reasons, I selected FlowLab and COMSOL Multiphysics,
but there was no intention of “promoting” these in favor of other excellent CFD
programs.1 The use of CFD examples in the classroom really makes the subject
1

The software name “FEMLAB” was changed to “COMSOL Multiphysics” in September 2005, the first
release under the new name being COMSOL 3.2.

xv


xvi

Preface

come “alive,” because the previous restrictive necessities of “nice” geometries and
constant physical properties, etc., can now be lifted. Chapter 9, on turbulence, has
also been extensively rewritten; here again, CFD allows us to venture beyond the
usual flow in a pipe or between parallel plates and to investigate further practical
situations such as turbulent mixing and recirculating flows.
Example problems. There is an average of about six completely worked examples in each chapter, including several involving COMSOL (dispersed throughout
Part II) and FlowLab (all in Chapter 13). The end of each example is marked by a
small, hollow square: . All the COMSOL examples have been run on a Macintosh
G4 computer using FEMLAB 3.1, but have also been checked on a PC; those using
a PC or other releases of COMSOL/FEMLAB may encounter slightly different windows than those reproduced here. The format for each COMSOL example is: (a)
problem statement, (b) details of COMSOL implementation, and (c) results and
discussion (however, item (b) can easily be skipped for those interested only in the
results).
The numerous end-of-chapter problems have been classified roughly as easy
(E), moderate (M), or difficult/lengthy (D). The University of Cambridge has given
permission—kindly endorsed by Professor J.F. Davidson, F.R.S.—for several of
their chemical engineering examination problems to be reproduced in original or
modified form, and these have been given the additional designation of “(C)”.
Acknowledgments.
I gratefully acknowledge the written contributions of
my former Michigan colleague Stacy Birmingham (non-Newtonian fluids), Brian
Kirby of Cornell University (microfluidics), and Chi-Yang Cheng of Fluent, Inc.
(FlowLab). Although I wrote most of the COMSOL examples, I have had great help
and cooperation from COMSOL Inc. and the following personnel in particular—
Philip Byrne, Bjorn Sjodin, Ed Fontes, Peter Georen, Olof Hernell, Johan Linde,
and R´emi Magnard. At Fluent, Inc., Shane Moeykens was instrumental in identifying Chi-Yang Cheng as the person best suited to write the FlowLab chapter.
Courtney Esposito and Jordan Schmidt of The MathWorks kindly helped me with
MATLAB, needed for the earlier 2.3 version of FEMLAB.
I appreciate the assistance of several other friends and colleagues, including
Nitin Anturkar, Stuart Churchill, John Ellis, Kevin Ellwood, Scott Fogler, Leenaporn Jongpaiboonkit, Lisa Keyser, Kartic Khilar, Ronald Larson, Susan Montgomery, Donald Nicklin, the late Margaret Sansom, Michael Solomon, Sandra
Swisher, Rasin Tek, Robert Ziff, and my wife Mary Ann Gibson Wilkes. Also very
helpful were Bernard Goodwin, Elizabeth Ryan, and Michelle Housley at Prentice Hall PTR, and my many students and friends at the University of Michigan
and Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok. Others are acknowledged in specific
literature citations.
Further information. The website http://www.engin.umich.edu/~fmche
is maintained as a “bulletin board” for giving additional information about the


Preface

xvii

book—hints for problem solutions, errata, how to contact the authors, etc.—as
proves desirable. My own Internet address is wilkes@umich.edu. The text was
composed on a Power Macintosh G4 computer using the TEXtures “typesetting”
program. Eleven-point type was used for the majority of the text. Most of the
figures were constructed using MacDraw Pro, Excel, and KaleidaGraph.
Professor Terence Fox , to whom this book is dedicated, was a Cambridge
engineering graduate who worked from 1933 to 1937 at Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., Billingham, Yorkshire. Returning to Cambridge, he taught engineering
from 1937 to 1946 before being selected to lead the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Cambridge during its formative years after the end
of World War II. As a scholar and a gentleman, Fox was a shy but exceptionally
brilliant person who had great insight into what was important and who quickly
brought the department to a preeminent position. He succeeded in combining an
industrial perspective with intellectual rigor. Fox relinquished the leadership of
the department in 1959, after he had secured a permanent new building for it
(carefully designed in part by himself).
Fox was instrumental in bringing Peter Danckwerts, Kenneth Denbigh, John Davidson, and others into the department. He also accepted me in 1956 as a junior faculty member, and I spent four good years in the Cambridge University Department of Chemical Engineering.
Danckwerts subsequently wrote an appreciation2 of Fox’s
talents, saying, with almost complete accuracy: “Fox instigated no research and published nothing.” How times
have changed—today, unless he were known personally,
his r´esum´e would probably be cast aside and he would
stand little chance of being hired, let alone of receiving tenure! However, his lectures, meticulously written handouts, enthusiasm, genius, and friendship were
T.R.C. Fox
a great inspiration to me, and I have much pleasure in
acknowledging his positive impact on my career.
James O. Wilkes
August 18, 2005

2

P.V. Danckwerts, “Chemical engineering comes to Cambridge,” The Cambridge Review , pp. 53–55, February 28, 1983.


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Some Greek Letters
α
β
γ, Γ
δ, Δ

ζ
η
θ, ϑ, Θ
ι
κ
λ, Λ
μ

alpha
beta
gamma
delta
epsilon
zeta
eta
theta
iota
kappa
lambda
mu

ν
ξ, Ξ
o
π, , Π
ρ,
σ, ς, Σ
τ
υ, Υ
φ, ϕ, Φ
χ
ψ, Ψ
ω, Ω

nu
xi
omicron
pi
rho
sigma
tau
upsilon
phi
chi
psi
omega


Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS

1.1 Fluid Mechanics in Chemical Engineering

A

knowledge of fluid mechanics is essential for the chemical engineer because
the majority of chemical-processing operations are conducted either partly or
totally in the fluid phase. Examples of such operations abound in the biochemical,
chemical, energy, fermentation, materials, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals,
polymer, and waste-processing industries.
There are two principal reasons for placing such an emphasis on fluids. First,
at typical operating conditions, an enormous number of materials normally exist
as gases or liquids, or can be transformed into such phases. Second, it is usually
more efficient and cost-effective to work with fluids in contrast to solids. Even
some operations with solids can be conducted in a quasi-fluidlike manner; examples are the fluidized-bed catalytic refining of hydrocarbons, and the long-distance
pipelining of coal particles using water as the agitating and transporting medium.
Although there is inevitably a significant amount of theoretical development,
almost all the material in this book has some application to chemical processing
and other important practical situations. Throughout, we shall endeavor to present
an understanding of the physical behavior involved; only then is it really possible
to comprehend the accompanying theory and equations.
1.2 General Concepts of a Fluid
We must begin by responding to the question, “What is a fluid?” Broadly
speaking, a fluid is a substance that will deform continuously when it is subjected
to a tangential or shear force, much as a similar type of force is exerted when
a water-skier skims over the surface of a lake or butter is spread on a slice of
bread. The rate at which the fluid deforms continuously depends not only on the
magnitude of the applied force but also on a property of the fluid called its viscosity
or resistance to deformation and flow. Solids will also deform when sheared, but
a position of equilibrium is soon reached in which elastic forces induced by the
deformation of the solid exactly counterbalance the applied shear force, and further
deformation ceases.
3


4

Chapter 1—Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

A simple apparatus for shearing a fluid is shown in Fig. 1.1. The fluid is
contained between two concentric cylinders; the outer cylinder is stationary, and
the inner one (of radius R) is rotated steadily with an angular velocity ω. This
shearing motion of a fluid can continue indefinitely, provided that a source of
energy—supplied by means of a torque here—is available for rotating the inner
cylinder. The diagram also shows the resulting velocity profile; note that the
velocity in the direction of rotation varies from the peripheral velocity Rω of the
inner cylinder down to zero at the outer stationary cylinder, these representing
typical no-slip conditions at both locations. However, if the intervening space
is filled with a solid—even one with obvious elasticity, such as rubber—only a
limited rotation will be possible before a position of equilibrium is reached, unless,
of course, the torque is so high that slip occurs between the rubber and the cylinder.

Fixed
cylinder

Rotating
cylinder

Rotating
cylinder
A

Velocity
profile

A
R

ω
Fluid
Fixed
cylinder

(a) Side elevation

Fluid



(b) Plan of section across A-A (not to scale)

Fig. 1.1 Shearing of a fluid.
There are various classes of fluids. Those that behave according to nice and obvious simple laws, such as water, oil, and air, are generally called Newtonian fluids.
These fluids exhibit constant viscosity but, under typical processing conditions,
virtually no elasticity. Fortunately, a very large number of fluids of interest to the
chemical engineer exhibit Newtonian behavior, which will be assumed throughout
the book, except in Chapter 11, which is devoted to the study of non-Newtonian
fluids.
A fluid whose viscosity is not constant (but depends, for example, on the
intensity to which it is being sheared), or which exhibits significant elasticity, is
termed non-Newtonian. For example, several polymeric materials subject to deformation can “remember” their recent molecular configurations, and in attempting
to recover their recent states, they will exhibit elasticity in addition to viscosity.
Other fluids, such as drilling mud and toothpaste, behave essentially as solids and


1.3—Stresses, Pressure, Velocity, and the Basic Laws

5

will not flow when subject to small shear forces, but will flow readily under the
influence of high shear forces.
Fluids can also be broadly classified into two main categories—liquids and
gases. Liquids are characterized by relatively high densities and viscosities, with
molecules close together; their volumes tend to remain constant, roughly independent of pressure, temperature, or the size of the vessels containing them. Gases,
on the other hand, have relatively low densities and viscosities, with molecules
far apart; generally, they will rapidly tend to fill the container in which they are
placed. However, these two states—liquid and gaseous—represent but the two
extreme ends of a continuous spectrum of possibilities.
P
Vaporpressure
curve

•C

L•
G•

T

Fig. 1.2 When does a liquid become a gas?
The situation is readily illustrated by considering a fluid that is initially a gas
at point G on the pressure/temperature diagram shown in Fig. 1.2. By increasing
the pressure, and perhaps lowering the temperature, the vapor-pressure curve is
soon reached and crossed, and the fluid condenses and apparently becomes a liquid
at point L. By continuously adjusting the pressure and temperature so that the
clockwise path is followed, and circumnavigating the critical point C in the process,
the fluid is returned to G, where it is presumably once more a gas. But where does
the transition from liquid at L to gas at G occur? The answer is at no single point,
but rather that the change is a continuous and gradual one, through a whole
spectrum of intermediate states.
1.3 Stresses, Pressure, Velocity, and the Basic Laws
Stresses. The concept of a force should be readily apparent. In fluid mechanics, a force per unit area, called a stress, is usually found to be a more convenient
and versatile quantity than the force itself. Further, when considering a specific
surface, there are two types of stresses that are particularly important.
1. The first type of stress, shown in Fig. 1.3(a), acts perpendicularly to the
surface and is therefore called a normal stress; it will be tensile or compressive,
depending on whether it tends to stretch or to compress the fluid on which it acts.
The normal stress equals F/A, where F is the normal force and A is the area of
the surface on which it acts. The dotted outlines show the volume changes caused


6

Chapter 1—Introduction to Fluid Mechanics

by deformation. In fluid mechanics, pressure is usually the most important type
of compressive stress, and will shortly be discussed in more detail.
2. The second type of stress, shown in Fig. 1.3(b), acts tangentially to the
surface; it is called a shear stress τ , and equals F/A, where F is the tangential
force and A is the area on which it acts. Shear stress is transmitted through a
fluid by interaction of the molecules with one another. A knowledge of the shear
stress is very important when studying the flow of viscous Newtonian fluids. For
a given rate of deformation, measured by the time derivative dγ/dt of the small
angle of deformation γ, the shear stress τ is directly proportional to the viscosity
of the fluid (see Fig. 1.3(b)).

F

F

Area A
F

F

Fig. 1.3(a) Tensile and compressive normal stresses F/A, acting on a cylinder, causing elongation and shrinkage, respectively.
F
Original
position

Deformed
position

γ

Area A

F

Fig. 1.3(b) Shear stress τ = F/A, acting on a rectangular
parallelepiped, shown in cross section, causing a deformation
measured by the angle γ (whose magnitude is exaggerated here).
Pressure. In virtually all hydrostatic situations—those involving fluids at
rest—the fluid molecules are in a state of compression. For example, for the
swimming pool whose cross section is depicted in Fig. 1.4, this compression at a
typical point P is caused by the downwards gravitational weight of the water above
point P. The degree of compression is measured by a scalar, p—the pressure.
A small inflated spherical balloon pulled down from the surface and tethered
at the bottom by a weight will still retain its spherical shape (apart from a small
distortion at the point of the tether), but will be diminished in size, as in Fig.
1.4(a). It is apparent that there must be forces acting normally inward on the


1.3—Stresses, Pressure, Velocity, and the Basic Laws

7

surface of the balloon, and that these must essentially be uniform for the shape to
remain spherical, as in Fig. 1.4(b).
Water

Balloon
Surface

Balloon

Water



P
(b)

(a)

Fig. 1.4 (a) Balloon submerged in a swimming pool; (b) enlarged
view of the compressed balloon, with pressure forces acting on it.
Although the pressure p is a scalar, it typically appears in tandem with an area
A (assumed small enough so that the pressure is uniform over it). By definition
of pressure, the surface experiences a normal compressive force F = pA. Thus,
pressure has units of a force per unit area—the same as a stress.
The value of the pressure at a point is independent of the orientation of any
area associated with it, as can be deduced with reference to a differentially small
wedge-shaped element of the fluid, shown in Fig. 1.5.
π −
θ
2

z

pA dA
dA
dC

θ

y

pC dC

dB

x
p B dB

Fig. 1.5 Equilibrium of a wedge of fluid.
Due to the pressure there are three forces, pA dA, pB dB, and pC dC, that act
on the three rectangular faces of areas dA, dB, and dC. Since the wedge is not
moving, equate the two forces acting on it in the horizontal or x direction, noting
that pA dA must be resolved through an angle (π/2 − θ) by multiplying it by
cos(π/2 − θ) = sin θ:
pA dA sin θ = pC dC.
(1.1)
The vertical force pB dB acting on the bottom surface is omitted from Eqn. (1.1)
because it has no component in the x direction. The horizontal pressure forces


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