Tải bản đầy đủ

Chế định thu hồi đất và vấn đề đảm bảo quyền tài sản của người sử dụng đất

LUAT THUO^NG MAI, LUAT DAT BAI

CHE DEVH THU HOI DAT VA VAN DE DAM BAO
QUYEN TAI SAN CUA NGUOI SLT DUNG DAT
LUU QU6C THAI1. Khai quat quy dinh phap luat ve thu
hoi dat
Hogt dgng tiiu hdi dat Ian dau tign duge quy
djnh trong Quyll djnh 201/CP ngay 01/7/1980
cua Hgi ddng chinh phii ve thong nhit qudn
ly mgng dat va tdng cudng quan ly rugng dil
ttong cd nude (diem 2 Myc I). Day la mgt
frong nhflng ngi dung quan trgng quan ly nhd
nudc ve dat dai quan trgng. Hogt ddng ndy the
hign quyen sd hiru ciia chii thg thu hdi dit Nhd nudc - mac dii liie nay chua cd mgt van
ban phdp lugt nao ghi nhan dieu ndy eho den
khi Hien phap 1980 dugc thdng qua vao ngay
18/12/1980. Thu hdi dit sau dd tiip ti^c duge
quy djnh trong cdc Lugt Dat dai 1987 (khoan 4
Dilu 9), Lugt Dit dai 1993 (khodn 4 Dilu 13)
sau khi che do sd hiru toan dan vl dit dai da
dugc ehinh thiie xae lgp.

Tuy vgy, mai dgn khi Lugt Dit dai 2003 ra
ddi thi thu hdi dat mdi cd mdt dinh nghTa chinh
thirc. Theo dd, "Thu hdi ddt Id viec Nhd nu&c
ra quyet djnh hdnh chinh de thu Igi quyen sir
dung ddt (QSDD) hogc thu Igi ddt dd giao
cho td chirc, Uy ban nhdn ddn xd, phudng,
Ihi trdn qudn ly theo quy djnh cua phdp ludf
(khoan 5 Dilu 4 Lugt Dit dai 2003). Nhu vgy,
theo quy dinh nay, doi hrgng ma Nha nudc dp
dung bign phap thu hdi dat hign nay la ngudi
Sli dung ddt (SDB) va mgt sd chu the duoc
Nha nudc giao ddt de quan ly. Cd thg ndi, thu
hoi dat vira la mgt edng cy hd trg, vua la mgt
cong dogn quan trgng cua qua trinh digu phoi
dat dai, ddc bigt la viec dieu chinh vige SDD
tiieo quy hoach, kl hogch SDD ciia Nhd nudc,
Uoc tinh ttong giai dogn 2011-2020, ca nudc
can thu hdi khoang 3,78 trieu ha dat; trong dd,
khoang 60% la dign tich dit ndng nghigp, 20
-2^''/n la HISn tiot. ^3t A ('trr.nn z+rv han ctkrn /t3t

eho lai djnh eu Id 945 nghin ha)'. Nhflng con
so nay da phdn dnh tdc dg, nhu cau thu hdi dit
mgnh me hon bao gid hit vd cho tiiay day la
hogt dgng rii thudng xuyen eiia Nhd nudc doi
vdi mgt nen kinh tl dang phdt triln.
Ddi vdi ngudi SDD, thu hdi ddt vl co bdn la
vige Nha nudc "hrdc QSDD" cua hg bdng mgt
quyit djnh hdnh chinh. Hgu qua phap ly diu
tien vd tryc tiep la viec ngudi bj thu hdi dit
"mat dat". Cdc thiet hgi vgt chat tiip theo cd
the de nhgn thay la thigt hgi ve tai san tten dat;
sy mat dn djnh ve ddi sdng va sdn xuit; giam
silt thu nhap trong cae hogt dgng san xuat kinh
doanh ..
Ddi vdi Nha nudc, thu hdi dat la hogt dgng
(mdt edng ey) mang tinh "cudng che" dugc
ddt ra dya trgn ea sd quygn sd huu dat dai va
quyen lye cdng cua Nlia nude. "Hai tu edeh
trong mgt" nay giiip Nha nude cd the phdn


phdi dat dai hodc lay Igi dat da chuyen giao
cho eac chu the khae mgt edeh thugn Igi, Day
la phuang tign huu higu giiip Nha nudc de
dang thyc hign cdc hogt dgng dieu phdi ddt
dai, eung nhu bdo ve quyen sd hiiu dat dai
ciia minh ttong Irudng hgp can phai "cdch ly"
ngudi SDD cd hdnh vi gay nguy hgi doi vdi tai
sdn thugc sd huu eiia Nhd nude.
Bai vigt ndy ehi de cgp den nhflng van de
phap ly lien quan vigc thu hdi dat ciia ngudi
SDD hgp phdp de tiiye hign quy hogch SDD
eua Nha nudc- mdt van d l mang tinh tiidi sy
* TS Lugt hpc, Gidng vien Tnicmg Dgi hpc Lugt Tp.
Ho Chi Minli.
' Hgi quy hogch do tlij va phat trien Vigt Nam (
03/08 2009), "Quy dit * - thyc trgng va gidi phdp pMt
trien" http://mag.ashui.coin/indcx.php/chuyemnuc/
batdongsan/69-batdongsan/1372-quy-dat-o-thuctrang-va-giai-pliap-pliat-tnen.html.


58

T^ P CHi KHOA HQC PHAP L Y Sd 3/2012

va nhgy cam. Vige thu hoi dit doi vdi eae ehii
the duge Nha nude giao dit qudn Iy se khdng
duge ban den bdi nd chi la cdng vige mang
tinh ngi bg cua Nha nudc
Theo Dieu 38 Lugt Dat dai 2003, cd 12
(mudi hai) trudng hgp Ihu hdi dat dugc dp
dyng doi vdi ngudi SDD, Cac trudng hgp ndy,
neu cdn cir vao ban ehat ciia chimg, ta cd the
phan chia thanh 4 nhdm
(i) Thu hdi dil de ihyc hign quy hogch, kl
hogch SDD (khoan 1 Dieu 38 Lugl Dit dai
2003): Nhd nude SDD vdo mye dieh quoe
phdng, an ninh, Igi ich quoc gia, Igi ich cdng
cgng, phat Irien kinh le,
(ii) Thu hoi dat khi ngudi SDD khdng cd
nhu cau, khdng cd khd ndng tiep tyc SDD
(khoan 2, 7, 8 Dieu 38 Luat Dit dai 2003),
gdnv _
- Td chirc dugc Nhd nude giao dat khdng
thu tien SDD, dugc Nha nudc giao dat cd thu
tign SDD ma tien SDD cd ngudn goc tir ngan
sach nha nude hoge eho thug dat thu tien thue
dat hang nam bi giai the, pha san, ehuyen di
nai khae, giam hodc khdng cdn nhu cau SDD,
- Ca nhan SDD chet ma khdng cd ngudl
thira ke;
- Ngudi SDD ttr nguyen fra lai dat;
(iii) Thu hdi dit khi hit thdi hgn SDD
ma khdng dugc gia hgn (khodn 10 Dieu 38
Ludl Ddt dai 2003);
(iv) Thu hdi dat khi cd vi phgm phdp
luat dil dai (khodn 3, 4, 5,6, 9, 11, 12 Dilu 38
Lugt Ddt dai 2003) ttong cdc trudng hgp:
- SDD khdng dimg muc dich, SDD khdng
cd higu qud;
- Ngirdi SDD cd y hiiy hogi dit;
- Dit duge giao khdng diing ddi tugng hogc
khdng diing thim quyln;
- Dat bj lan, chigm ttong cae trudng hgp sau
day:
+ Dat chua sii dyng bi lin, chiem;
+ Dat khdng duoc chuygn QSDD theo quy
dinh ciia Lugt Dat dai ma ngudi SDD do thilu
trdch nhiem de bi lin, chiem;
- Ngudi SDD cd y khdng thyc hign nghTa vy
ddi vdi Nhd nude;
- Dat trdng cay hang nam khdng dugc su

dyng trong thdi hgn mudi hai thang lien; dat
trong eay lau nam khdng dugc su dyng ttong
thdi hgn mudi tam thang lien; dat trong ning
khdng duge sir dyng trong thdi hgn hai mud
b6n Ihdng lien;
- Dat dugc Nhd nude giao, cho thug dl thyc
hign dy an diu hi ma khdng duge sir dyng
trong thdi hgn mudi hai thang lien hodc tiln
dg SDD cham hon hai muai bon thdng so vm
tiln &Q ghi trong dy an dau hi, ke tii khi nhgn
ban giao dit tren thye dja ma khdng dugc ca
quan nhd nudc ed tham quyen quyet dinh giao
dat, cho thug ddt do cho phep
Do nghien cim ndy chi ban vl nhung quan
hg gifla Nhd nudc vd ngucn SDD ma ttong do
QSDD ciia ngudi SDD duge thira nhgn la hpp
phap (vigc tiiu hgi dat khdng do ldi ctia ngucri
SDD) nen tae gia s6 khdng ban dgn nhdm cac
trudng hgp thu hdi dat do ngudi SDD vi phgm
phdp lugt dat dai. Nhu vgy, bai viet nay chi tap
tmng phdn tieh ede trudng hgp Uiu hoi dat quy
dinh tgi khodn 1 Dilu 38 Lugt Dit dai 2003, do
la tiudng hgp Nha nudc thu hdi dat de sii dyng
vdo "myc dich qudc phdng, an ninh, Igi ich
quoe gia, Igi ieh cdng cgng, phat trien kinh tl".
2. Cff sd cua quy dinh ve (hu hoi dat
Nhu da trinh bdy d frgn, vigc thu hoi dat
theo khodn 1 Dilu 38 Lugt Dit dai 2003 la dl
"Nhd nude SDD vao muc dich quoc phdng, an
ninh, Igl ich qude gia, Igi ich cdng cgng, phat
triln kinh te". Ngodi co sd quyen lyc nha nudc
vd quygn ciia ehu sd huu dit dai thi cdc trucrng
hgp thu hdi dit nay dugc ddt ra vdi ly do phyc
vy "Igi ich chung ciia x3 hgi" {public interest). Ly do nay dugc cdc phan Idn quoc gia sir
dyng dl liy dat ciia nhung ngudi dang sii dgng
(ho$c ciia ehii sd huu trong dieu kign tu huu
dit dai dugc phep tdn tgi) phyc vy chg muc
dieh edng c g n ^ . Lugt dat dai Vigt Nam qua
cae giai dogn dgu ed quy djnh v l vin de nay,
Theo khoan 8 Dilu 14LugtDitdai 1987,Nha
nudc thu hoi ddt khi "cin SDD eho nhu clu
cua Nha nudc hoac ciia xa hgi". Theo Dieu

^Dieu 10 Hien phdp Tmng Quoc 1982 c6 quy dinh:
"The Slate may. m the public interest, requisition Im^
for its use in accordance with the law.", http://eng&li
sUtution.hhnl.


LUAT T H U O N G MAI. LUAT BAT BAI
27 Luat Dat dai 1993, "Irong tru&ng hgp that ciia ngudi SDD khd dugc dam bao. Theo quan
cdn thiet, Nhd nu&c Ihu hdi ddt dang sir dung diem ciia tae gia, Nha nude ehi nen ihu hdi ddt
cm ngu&i SDB de sudung vdo muc dich qudc doi vdi nhflng trudng hop QSDD da trao eho
phdng, an ninh. Igi ich qudc gia. Igi ich cong ngudi klidng phai la hang hda vd khdng phdi
cdng Ihi ngu&i bi Ihu hdi ddt dugc din bii thtel la tai sdn rigng ciia ngudi SDD (chdng hgn cac
hgi"
to chuc ciia Nha nudc dugc giao dat khdng
So vdi cdc quy dinh cua cdc Luat Dit dai thu tien SDD de sii dung vdo cac hoai dgng do
tmdc day, Luat Ddt dai 2003 da quy dinh cy Nhd nudc giao nhiem vy thyc hign). Nhflng
the va cd phdn md rdng hon trudng hgp thu trudng hgp cdn Igi, cho dii cin dat phyc vy cho
hdi dat vi "loi ieh ehung" ciia xa hgi Cu thi, Igi ieh chung cua xa hdi thi eung phai ap dyng
trudng hgp thu hdi ddt sir dyng cho "myc phuong Ihirc thieh hgp hon, nhu: trung mua,
dich phdt Irien kinh tg" cung duoc "ghep" vao ttirng dyng hoac thue lai QSDD ciia ngudi
nhom ede trudng hgp thu hdi dat vi Igi ich SDD mgt each sdng phang va binh ddng.
chung eiia xa hgi nhu cac trudng hgp vi "Igi
(ii) Viic thu hot ddt cho mtic dich phdt Irien
ich qudc phdng, an ninh, Igi ich quoe gia, Igi kinh te
ich cdng cgng". Lign quan dgn van de nay, cd
Hign nay chua cd mgt dinh nghTa chinh thirc
hai vdn de sau can xem xet:
ve viec thu hdi ddt sir dung cho myc dieh phat
(i) Casd thuc hien viec thu hdi ddt ciia Nhd trien kinh te. Cae trudng hgp thu hdi dat dl sii
nuac
dyng eho mye dich nay dugc ligt ke tgi khoan
Nhu da ndi, Nha nude dat ra quy djnh vl 2 Dieu 36 Nghi djnh 181/2004/ND-CP (tnr
thu hdi ddt dya tten co sd quyln lye edng vd digm b da bj hiiy bd) va Dieu 34 Nghj djnh
quyen sd hflu dat dai eua minh Quyen lue 84/2007/ND-CP, bao gdm:
cdng la cdng cy hd ttg dg Nha nude thuc hien
* Cdc tru&ng hgp Igi khodn 2 Biiu 36 Nghi
quyen cua ehii sd him dat dai. Vg nguyen tic, dinh 181/2004/NB-CP, gdm:
dat dai thugc sd him ciia Nha nudc thi sau khi
- SDD de dau tu xay dung khu cdng nghiep
chuygn giao cho ngudi SE>D, Nhd nudc eung quy djnh tai Dieu 90 eua Lugt Dit dai 2003,
cd the ed quyen "lay lai" Tuy nhien, van dg khu cdng nghg cao quy dinh tai Digu 91 ciia
dat ra la, ligu Nhd nude cd quyen thu hdi dat Ludt Dat dai 2003, khu kinh te quy dinh tai
da ttao cho ngudi SDD nhu mgt loai hang hda Dilu 92 eua Luat Ddt dai 2003,
va da nhdn tign eiia ngudi SDD? NghTa Id vige
- SDD de thue hign eac dy an dau tu cd
Nhd nude diing mdt quyet dinh hanh chinh de ngudn von hd trg phdt trien chinh tiiiie (CDA);
lay Igi mdt "mdn hang" ma Nha nudc da "ban"
- SDD de thuc hign du an ed mgt tram phan
cho ngudi SDD cd hgp ly hay khdng? Xet mgt tram (100%) vdn dau tu nude ngoai da duge
each cdng bdng, trugng hgp nay, Nha nudc CO quan nhd nudc cd thdm quyen xet duygt
khdng dugc phep diing quygn lye edng dg thu hodc cho phep dau tiJ md dy an dd khdng thg
hdi dat, bdi quyen sd hiiu dat dai tuy thudc ve ddu tu ttong khu edng nghigp, khu cdng nghe
Nha nudc nhung "quyln sd huu QSDD" da cao, khu kinh te.
timpc ve ngudi SDD, Dg dd, neu thuc su can
* Cdc trudng hgp tgi Bieu 34 Nghi dinh
dat su dyng vi Igi ich cdng edng, Nha nude 84/2007/NB-CP; Thdng tu 06/2007/JT-BTNphai thuang lugng dg "mua" lai QSDD tir MTngdy 15/6/2007 gom:
ngudi SDD mgt each sdng phing. Viee diing
- Nha nude thu hdi dat de thye hign cac
quyen lue cdng dl "tudc doat^' QSDD eiia du an phat triln kinh tg quan trgng ttong cac
ngudi kliac rdi mdi tinh den vigc bdi tiiudng trudng hgp sau day:
(hay din bii) la vigc lam thieu thda dang va
+ Dy an quan trgng qude gia do Qude hgi
khd chip nhan. Cach lam khdng thuyit phuc quyit djnh chii tiuong diu tit (the hign trong
nay nhieu kha nang khiin eho quan hg mang nghi quyet eiia Qudc hdi);
+ Dy dn quan ttgng do Thti hidng Chinh


TAPCHIKHOA HQCPHAPLYS6

3/2012

phii chip thugn ehii iruong dau hr (Dieu 37 nghigp quy djnh tgi Dilu 90 eiia Lugt Dat dai,
Nghi dinh 108/2006/ND-CP ngdy 22/9/2006). khu cdng nghg cao quy djnh tgi Dieu 91 ciia
- Nhd nudc ihu hoi dit de thyc hicn eac dy Lugt Dit dai, khu kinh te quy dinh tgi Dieu
an kliu dan eu (bao gdm dy an hg Uing khu 92 cua Lugl Dit dai (diem a khoan 2 Dilu
dan cu va dy dn nha d), ining tain thuong mgi, 36 Nghi dinh 181/2004/ND-CP) hodc dyan
khdch sgn cao cap (hi 3 sao trd len) Irong cdc quan trgng quoc gia do Quoe hgi quyit djnh
chu truong diu hr (diem a khoan I Dieu 34
Irudng hgp sau day:
+ Cdc dy dn trong khu dd thj hign cd dugc Ngh; djnh 84/2007/ND-CP)). Nhflng ttudng
the hien trong quy hogch SDD hodc quy hogchhgp cdn Igi (chdng hgn nhu vigc thu hoi dit dl
chi Hit xdy dtmg do tlu da duge eo quan nha thye hign dy an khu nha d, trung tam thuong
nude cd tham quyen phg duygt va dugc Chu mgi, khach sgn cao cip,... theo khoan 2 Dieu
tich Uy ban Nhdn ddn cdp Tinh phe duy^l chii34 Nghi djnh 84/2007/ND-CP), Igi ich kinh tl
mang lai chii yeu la cho doanh nghigp, Igi ich
truang ddu lu doi v&i limg du dn;
+ Cae dy an trong khu vyc md rgng khu chung ciia xa hgi gin nhu mangtinh"suy dien
dd thi hign cd hodc khu dd thi mdi dugc the va dp ddt"'*. Dien bien thyc te ve thu hoi dit de
hien trong quy hogch SDD hodc quy hogch ehuyen giao cho nha diu tu thyc hign eac dy
chung xdy dtmg do thi hodc quy hogch chi tiit dn thuong mgi gin day cho thay, Igi ich cua
xdy dung do thj dd duge eg quan nha nude cd ngudi dang SDD (phin ldn Id hg ^a dinh, ca
nhan ndng dan) dang bj xem nhe,ttongkhi Igi
thdm quygn phg duygt;
+ Cac dy an trong khu dan cu ndng thdn ieh ciia nha diu tu Igi duge hgu thuan rat ldn tir
hign cd. khu dan cu ndng thdn md rgng hgde phia ehinh sach vd bg may cudng che ciia Nha
khu dan cu ndng thdn xay dyng mdi dugc the nudc^. "Hi^n tugng nguai ndng ddn mdt dd
hien trong quy hogch SDB hodc quy hogch rat vdo tinh trgng bdn citng dang Id mdl th
xdy dung diem ddn cir ndng thdn da dugc eo te dau long hiin nay & nu&c la "^ Do dd, Nh
nudc ngn xem xet igi mgt each nghiem tuc
quan nhd nude cd tham quyen phe duygt,
Dya vao nhung trudng hgp thu hdi dat "cdch thirc" lay dit sii dyng cho myc dich phat
trien
kinh te. Thu hoi dit khdng phai va khong
nay chiing ta cd thg kgt lugn, SDD cho phat trign
kinh te la vigc SDD thyc hign cdc dy an ddu thg la bign phap thich hgp de hai hda cac Igi
tu sdn xuat kinh doanh ciia cdc doanh nghigp iehttongxd hgi, khi md cac tac dgng kinh tl hi
hode SDD thye hign eae du an hd trg cho hogt nha ddu tu cd the khien cho sy quan tam den
ddng kinh tl chung eiia dit nude'. Doi vdi cac Igi ich ciia ngudi dang SDD khdng cdn dimg
trudng hgp ndy, Nhd nudc diu cd thi ap dyng miic. Hon nfla, nhu da ndi d phdnfrgn,vigc sit
bign phdp thu hoi dit dl chuygn giao cho nhd dyng bign phdp thu hdi dat Id khdng thi ch^
ddutiJneu dap irng eac dieu kign do phap lugt nhgn dugc mgt khi QSDD da la tai sdn ciia
quy djnh. Tuy nhien, ttong so nhung trudng ngudi dang SDD. Do do, thuong lugng song
hgp SDD cho phat trien kinh tl dugc phap lugt phdng dl "mua" QSDD eiia ngudi dang SDD
quy dinh cd the dp dyng bign phdp thu hoi dit Id each thirc phii hgp nhit.
3. Ve cdch thirc giai quyet quyen Igi hop
ndi trgn thi chi cd mgt sg trudng hgp thi hign
rg Igi ieh quoc gia, cdng cgng (nhu thu hdi dat
* Xem Uiem Phgm Vdn WQ,Chi dd phdp l;('visd
dg thye hign dy an dau tu xdy dyng khu cdng
^ Chdng hgn dy dn dau lu xdy dyng khu cong nghigp
quy dinh tgi Dieu 90 ci^ Lugt Dat dai, khu cong nghg cao
quy dinh tgi Dieu 91 ciia Ludt Dat dai, khu kinh te qiQ*
djnli tgi Dilu 92 ciia Lugt Dat dai (diim a khodn 2 Dilu
36 Nghi djnh 181/2004/ND-CP) lioilc Dy dn quan trpng
quoc gia do Quoc hgi quyit dinh chii tniong d^u hi (diim
a khodn 1 Dieu 34 Nglu djnh 84/2007/ND-CP).

hitu vd quyin tdi sdn ddi vdi ddt dai, NXB. Lao Dgn
2009,tt.187.
* Vy cuOng chi thu hoi dat Igi Vdn Giang - Hung
Yen Id mgt dien hinh Xem bai "Tii vy thu hoi dat Vii
Giang (Hung YSn): Lgi ich nguai dan=lpi ich nh^ dau
tu?", Bdo Phap ludt TP.HCM online ngdy 10/5/2012,
http://phapIuattp.vn/20I2050911575602pOcI015/loiich-iiguoi-dan"loi-ich-nha-dau-tu.htm.


LUAT T H i r O N G MAI, LUAT B A T BAI
phap ciia ngu-di bi thu hoi dat
Theo quy dinh tgi Dilu 106 Lugt Ddt dai
2003, ngudi SDD cd quyen duge bdi thudng
khi Nha nude thu hdi dit. Theo khodn 6 Dilu
4 Luat Dit dai 2003, "bdi thirang khi Nhd
nu&c thu hdi ddt la viec Nhd nu&c Ird Igi gid
tri QSBB ddi v&i dien tich ddt bi thu hdi cho
ngu&i bi thu hdi ddt." Quy dinh nay kha phien
(tign, khdng bao qudt dugc tdt ea ede khodn
tiiigt hgi md ngudi bj thu hdi dat phai gdnh
chju do vigc thu hdi dat eua Nhd nudc gay
ra. Ro rang, "gid tri QSDD" chi la mgt trong
nhflng khodn thigt hgi xdy ra vdi ngudi bi thu
hdi ddt ben cgnh cac thiet hai hiiu hinh (tdi sdn
tren dit) va thigt hgi vd hinh khdc (thu nhgp bi
mat, bi gidm siit do phai di chuyen dia diem
san xudt kinh doanh.. ). Tuy nhien, ngay ca
gia tri QSDD duge bdi thudng da la mgt van
de ldn ddi vdi ngudi cd dit bj thu hoi khi ma
phan ldn cde trudng hgp bj thu hdi ddt ttgn
thyc te deu khdng dugc bii dap tiida dang. Da
CO khdng it trudng hgp gia ddt tinh tign bdi
tiiudng khdng phu hgp, lam cho ngudi cd dat
bi thu hdi ldm vao tinh ttgng khd khan hon
ttong eugc sdng^. Gia ddt bdi thudng qua thap
dugc coi la nguyen nhdn chinh lam cho Igi ich
chinh dang cua ngudi cd dat bi thu hdi khdng
dugc ddm bdo tdt, nhung sdu xa hon chinh
la do ban chat quan hg thu hdi dat vi Igi ich
chung (cdng cdng) chua dugc Nha nude nhin
nhan mdt each dimg dan.
Im nguoc vdi quan he giao, eho thue ddt
(QSDD duge ehuyin hi Nhd nude sang cho
ngirdi SDD), QSDD ttong quan hg thu hdi dit
dugc dich chuygn theo hudng ngugc Igi. Tuy
nhign, hai trudng hgp ndy cd diim giong nhau
rit co bdn: QSDD dich chuyin dii theg hudng
nao thi nd van la quygn tai san. Vi vgy, van dg
quan ttgng cdn lai ndm d chd, neu vigc chuyen

61

giao dat tii Nha nude din ngudi SDD la mgt
"giao dich" Uii vigc thu hoi dit (logi trir tnrdng
hgp Nha nudc thu hdi dat do ngudi SDD vi
phgm phap lugt) cung phdi dugc coi Id "giao
dieh" hrong ty. Doi vdi trudng hgp Nhd nude
giao ddt, cho thue ddt, vigc chuyin giao QSDD
xual phdt tii nhu cau ciia ngudi SDD; cdn d
trudng hgp Nhd nude thu hoi dit, vigc dich
chuyin QSDD Igi xuit phdt hi nhu cau ciia Nhd
nudc, Vi thi, cho dii la trudng hgp ndo, dl dam
bao tinh tiii trudng, sy cdng bdng ttong quan hg
dat dai, quyen vd Igi ich ciia hai phia cin phdi
dugc dam bdo mgt each thda dang.
Hign nay, yeu cau ndi tten van ehua dugc
phdp lugt dat dai ddp irng, bdi vdn edn tdn
tgi nhgn thire chua thgt diing din ve tiJ cdch
cda Nhd nudc ttong moi quan hg vdi ngudi
SDD, Can thdy rang, trong trudng hgp Nha
nude thu hdi dat de phyc vy nhu eau ciia minh
thi quan he nay cung phai dugc coi nhu quan
hg chuygn QSDD. NghTa la, eac Igi ich vat
chat hop phdp ciia ngudi SDD doi vdi dit bi
thu hdi va tai sdn gan lien vdi dat (neu ed) bj
thiet hai phdi duoc bii ddp tuong xiing theo
CO ehg thi trudng. Diem khdc bigt gifla vigc
"chuygn QSDD" khi Nha nude tiiu hoi ddt
va vige ehuyin QSDD giua ngudi SDD vdi
nhau cd ehang chi la tinh ty nguygn hay bat
budc, Neu nhu viec chuygn QSDD gifla ngudi
SDD vdi nhau mang tinh tiJ nguygn tiii vigc
"chuygn QSDD" khi Nhd nudc thu hdi dit
la "bit budc"", cho dii ngudi SDD cd mong
muon hay khdng. Tinh bat bugc ndy xudt phat
tir Igi ieh ehung cua xa hdi md Nha nudc la
ngudi dgi dign. Tuy nhien, sy edng bdng cho
ngudi SDD chi cd thi dgt duoc klii Nhd nudc
ehi dimg quyln lyc eiia minh bugc ngudi dang
SDD "chuyen QSDD" cho Nhd nude, chir
khdng phai diing quyen lye dg dp ddt tat ca ndi
dung cdn Igi cCia quan hg "chuyin QSDD" dge
' Vi dy vp thu hoi dat khu tai dmh cu Ben xe - Bp dgi bigt nay. Tren tiiyc tl, vin d l ndy ddi khi Igi
bien phoi^ is Bgc Lieu: nhieu tnrdng hgp bitiiuhoi 100% duoe hilu va gidi quyit theo hudng khdc. Da
di^ lich dat nhung so tien boi thuang chf dii c^t choi la de hing cd quan diim eho rdng, "thu hdi ddt vd
a Xem bai "Bgc Lieu: Can xem xet Igi gid dat den bii thu din bii thtel hgi vi ddt mangy nghia cua viec
lioi dit khu tai djnli cu' Ben xe - Bg dgi bien phong", hlQ),//
mnv.gdla.gov.vn/content/blogcategoiy/78/95/lang,vn/m' PGS_TS Ngo Diic Cat (2000), "Ly lugn dia to ciia
dcx,php9option=com_contenl&task=view&id=l 171&Ite Mac va vgn dimg ly luan do vao vigc dinh gia den bii
thigt ligi dat va tai s^", Bfa chinh, (3),tt.21-22,


T4P CHI KHOA HQC

PHAPLYS63/20n

Ihuc hien quyin ciio Nhd nu&c chir khdng phdiquan nay Igi chiu sy chi phoi bdi dja vi, quyln
dan thudn Id quan hii giao dich co linh chdt lyc Nha nudc trong quan hg dit dai. Xu hudng
ngang gid (thuang mgi) "'\ Klidng may cho pho biln Id cac co quan nha nude se dua ra
ngudi SDD, quan nigm nay Igi chi phoi qud mire "gid thj trudng" thap hon gid thj trudng
ldn eac hogt dpng quan ly dat dai vd vigc thyc thyc sy, Hdu qua la Igi ieh ciia ngudi bj thu hoi
hign quyen sd hflu ciia Nha nudc, Cd nghTa dit khd ma dugc ddm bdo sdng phang. Day
Id. trong quan hg thu hdi va boi thudng khi eung Id nguygn nhan dan den nhieu cdng trinh
Nha nudc thu h6i dat thi yeu lo quyen lyc ciia hg ting eiia Nha nudc khdng the thye hign
Nha nudc ludn duge sii dyng toi da, Nguge Igi diing tien dg do ngudi cd dat h\ thu hoi khdng
doi vdi ngudi cd dat bj thu hoi, nghTa vy "giao the chip nhgn dugc miic gia dit bdi tiiudng
tra dit" eiia hg thudng duge Nha nudc "quan ma Nha nude dua r^.
tam" nhieu ban la cac Igi ieh chinh dang ma
Vi vgy, de tranhtinhtrgng trentiepdien, viec
hg can phdi dugc bii ddp. Dilu nay the hign rd dua ra gia dit boi thudng khdng ngn dgc quyln
qua d nhflng ngi dung cd lign quan sau,
thugc vl Nha nudc nua. Gia dit nay phdi hiitii
tiianh tren co sd thuong lugng giua hai ben, co
(i) Vi gid ddt bdi thuang
Cung gdn gidng nhu trudng hgp Nha nudc sy tham khao thye tl vd gid dit dua ra cua cac
giao, eho ihue dit, theo Dieu 9 Nghi djnh to chirc djch vy ve hr van gja dat. Digu ndy hign
197/2004/ND-CP ngay 3/12/2004 vl bdi nay da cd the thyc hign duge vi eg chg phap ly
thudng, hd tro tai dinh cu khi Nhd nude thu cho cdc td chiie djnh gid dat hinh thanh vd hogt
hdi dat da duge siia ddi, bd sung tgi khoan dgng da duge quy dirtii cy the.
2 Dieu 4 Nghj djnh 17/2006/ND-CP ngay
(ii) Ve trdch nhiim boi thucmg
27/01/2006, gia dit tinh tiln boi thudng la gid
Theo quy dinh hien hanh, trdch nhigm hdi
dat do Nha nudc quy djnh (UBND cap tinh tiiudng thiet hai do vigc thu hoi dat vdn thugc
quy djnh trong bang gia) theo mye dieh sii vl Nha nudc (Dilu 3 Nghj dinh 197/2004/NDdung tai thdi diem cd quyet dinh thu hdi dat; CP). Tren thyc te, Nhd nude thudng "khong
trudng hgp gia nay ehua sat vdi gia thi trudng true tiep" thyc hign nghTa vy nay ma do cac
trong dieu kign binh thudng thi UBND cap chii the duge giao, eho thue dat (nha dau Ur)
tinh se quygt djnh gia dat cy thg eho phii hgp thyc hign. Khoan tien nay se "duge ngdn sach
(khoan 12 Dilu 1 Nghi dinh 123/2007/ND- nhd nude hodn tra bang hinh thire trir vdo tien
CP) Gia dat nay se khdng bj gidi han bdi quy SDD, tiln thue dit phai ngp" (Dilu 15 Nghi
djnh ve khung gia cac loai dat ciia Chinh phii dinh 69/2009/ND-CP). Dilu dang ndi la gia
(Dilu 11 Nghj dinh 69/2009/ND-CP),
ddt khdu tni ndi ttgn ma Nha nudc ap dyng se
Vdi quy dinh tren chiing la cd cam giac la Id gia ddt eua Nha nude, ttong khi gia dit nia
quyen va lal ich hgp phap ciia ngudi ed dat bi nha ddu tu thuong lugng vdi ngudi bitiiuhoi
thu hdi (va cua ca Nha nude) se duge dam bdo dat la "gia thyc te". Day ehinh la mgt trong
mdt each cdng bang Tuy nhien vdi quy dinh nhirng nguyen nhan dan den bit cdng, thieu
ndy, Igi ich ciia ca hai phia diu cd nguy co bj sdng phang lien quan dgn viec bdi thudng khi
dnh hudng, ddc bigt la eiia ngudi SDD. Kha Nha nude thu hdi dit. Nha diu tiJ de bdo toan
nang nay xuat phat tir y chi don phuong eiia Igi ich eiia minh setimeach "o ep" ngudi dang
Nha nudcttongvigc "quyet djnh Igi gia dit cy SDDttongvigc thuong lugng gia boi thudng,
thg eho phil hgp". Chdc chdn gid dit dugc dua
Tuy nhign, dd chua phai la tit cd. Sy thieu
ra theo quyet djnh nay se bi chi phdi bdi y chi sdng phdng ciia Nhd nudc cdn thi hien d cho:
chii quan cua (can bg) Nlid nude. Y chi chii thigt hai gay ra do ^^ec thu hdi dat ciia Nha
nudc cd trudng hgp Igi bi "ddy" sang cho
' TS Trin Du Ljcli (chii nhigm), Co chi di van hdnh
vd phdi tnen thi trudng bdt dgng sdn tgi Thanh phd ngudi cd dat bi thu hdi. Theo quy dinh tgi
Hd Chi Mmh, De tai ngliien cihi khoa hpc, Vign Kinli khoan 1 Dilu 65 Nghi dinh 181/2004/ND-CP
te TP. Ho chi minh, 2005, tt 45.


LUAT THU^ONG MAI. LUAT B A T BAI
lanh, gdp vdn klii Nha nudc thu hoi dit), doi
vdi dat dang cho thug, the chip, gdp von (hgp
phap) md bj Nha nudc thu hdi dit dl thye hign
quy hogch (theo klioan 1 Dieu 38 LDD 2003)
thi cac giao dich nay chim diit. Thigt hai xdy
ra cho ben thue, bgn nhgn the chip, nhdn gdp
von se dugc ngu&i bi thu hdi ddi bdi thudng
tiieo phap lugt dan sy Day rd rdng la sy dp ddt
vd ly va khdng he mang tinh thi trudng. Se
cdng bdng hon neu nhflng thigt hai ndi Iren tiiy
tmdng hgp Nha nude phai gdnh chju, cy thi la
nlu vigc thu hdi dat nay ngudi SDD khdng thg
biet trudc dugc (vi dy nhu vin dl cdng khai
quy hogch, ke hogch SDD bj hgn ehl). Trong
khi dd, cdc quy djnh vg boi thudng khi Nha
nudc tiiu hdi dat hign hanh Igi khdng h i de
cap van de ndy Cach xii sy thilu sdng phing
nay ciia Nha nude se gay bat an khdng clii eho
ngudi SDD ma cd nhung chii dau hr tham gia
giao dieh vdi ngudi SDD, bdi quyen Igi hgp
phap ciia hg cung khd duoc dam bao klii ma
quyen Igl hgp phap ciia ngudi SDD tham gia
^ao dich vdi hg khdng duge dam bdo.
4. Ket luan va kien nghi
Viec Nhd nudc lay ddt eiia ngudi SDD di
phuc vy cho muc dich cdng cgng la viec lam
can tiiiet vd tit ygu. Tuy nhien, cdch thirc lay
dat va van dg bii ddp tdn that vgt ehat eho
nguoi bi lay dat can duge xem xet edn ttgng
de cd quy dinh phii hgp, tiayet doi khdng duoc
Igm dyng quyen luc de thu hdi tai sdn hgp
phap ciia ngudi SDD mgt each khdng sdng
phang. Ben egnh dd, khdi niem "Igi ich edng
cong" can dugc gidi hgn mdt each phii hgp,
khong dugc md rgng tiiy tign vi nhu vay boat
dgng tiiu hoi dit se rat d l bi Igm dyng. Theo
quan dllm ciia tdi, cd hai van de can phai dugc
dieu chinh nhu sau:
(i) vi viec dp dung biin phdp thu hdi ddt
Bien phap nay chi nen dp dyng ddi vdi
trudng hgp QSDD khdng phai la hang hda
(tiiuoc logi dugc phep giao dieh) va khdng phai
la tai sdn ciia ngudi SDD Trong trudng hgp
QSDD da la tai san ciia ngudi SDD va tiiugc
logi dygc phep giao djeh thi Nhd nude phai dp
(ip^ bign phap tnmg dung hogc tnmg mua
Q^r;
''•'•-

,-,--..,,-,
I •• • -

^£ - '

-•;•--,
•, -,
"r-—•—

••-.
••

'""

.-;
''

dich cdng cgng. Hien nay, theo Luat trung mua,
trung dung tai san thi "viec Irung mua, trung
dung Idi sdn chi dugc thiic hi?n trong truang
hgp that cdn thiet vi ly do qudc phdng, an nirih
vdvilgiichcpidcgia"(khoir\
1 Dilu4> Vi vay,
cin ed quy djnh bo sung vige tiung mua QSDD
vd tai sdn gin lien vdi dat eiia ngudi SDD de
phyc vy cho myc dich edng cgng vao Luat Dat
dai va Lugt tnmg mua, tiung dyng tai sdn. Quy
dinh nay vua tgo ra sy "danh chinh ngdn tiiugn"
eho Nhd nudc ttong vigc liy dit dang su dyng
phyc vy eho myc dich edng cgng, vira la eg sd
de ngudi SDD bdo vg quyln vd Igi ich chinh
ddng ciia minh.
(ii) Vi viic SDD cho phdt triin kinh ti
Trudng hgp can dat su dyng cho myc
dich phat triln kinh te thi phai phan djnh thdnh
hai tnrong hgp. Thu-nhdt, ngu dy an phdt tiiin
kinh tg mang tinh chat chign luge, quyit dinh
sy phdt trien kinh tg xa hgi eua mdt vimg, khu
vye hoge ca nudc (nhu cac trudng hgp quy dinh
tgi khodn 2 Dilu 36 Nghi djnh 181/2004/NDCP va khodn I Dilu 34 Nghj djnh 84/2007/NDCP) thi dp dyng cac bign phdp thu hdi dat hogc
trung mua QSDD nhu trudng hgp SDD vao
mue dieh cdng cdng. Thu hai, ngu dy an phdt
trign kinh te ehi don thuan thye hign tiieo quy
hogch va Igi ich mang Igi chu yeu cho nhd ddu
tu thi nha ddu tu phdi true tiep thuong lugng
dl "mua QSDD" ciia nhflng ngudi dang SDD.
Ben canh dd, de linh hogt hon, phap luat ddt dai
ngn cho phep ngudi dang SDD gdp von bdng
QSDD aia minh vdo du an sdn xuat kinh doanh de dugc phan chia Igi nhugn, dgc bigt la hg
gia dinh, ea nhan ndng dan SDD ndng nghigp,
Cd nhu vgy, Igi ieh ehinh ddng ciia hg se duge
ddm bao tdt hon. Day la tign de quan ttgng dg
cac dy an mang tinh thugng mgi cd thi trien
khai nhanh chdng do khdng bj anh hudng bdi
mgt van dl ldn hign nay la gial phdng mgt bang.
Ddng thdi, nhung bat dn ve chinh tri - xa hgi
lign quan din viec thu hdi dat de thye hiec quy
hogch eiia Nhd nudc nhu thdi gjan vira qua se
khdng cdn la van de thai sy nfla. •



Tài liệu bạn tìm kiếm đã sẵn sàng tải về

Tải bản đầy đủ ngay

×