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PHƯƠNG PHÁP học từ VỰNG IELTS


Unit 1: Key nouns – Những danh từ thường xuất hiện trong IELTS
Unit 2: Key verbs - Dạng động từ hay xuất hiện trong đề thi IELTS
Unit 3: Key adjectives - Cụm tính từ hay xuất hiện trong bài thi IELTS
Unit 4: Key adverbs – những trạng từ quan trọng trong bài thi IELTS
Unit 5: Phrasal verbs – cụm động từ thường gặp trong IELTS
Unit 6: Quantifying expressions
Unit 7: words with several meanings
Unit 8: Metaphor and idioms (Phương pháp Ẩn dụ và cụm thành ngữ)
Unit 9: Nouns and the words they combine – Danh từ và nh ững t ừ đi kèm
với nó
Unit 10: Adj + Noun combination – Cụm tính t ừ
Unit 11: Verbs and the words they combine with (Cụm động từ)
Unit 12: Prepositional phrases – cụm giới từ
Unit 13: Verb + Pre - Các động từ đi kèm giới t ừ thông d ụng
Unit 14: Noun + pre - Một số danh từ đi kèm giới từ thông dụng trong
IELTS
Unit 15: Fix expression - Cụm từ cố định trong luy ện thi IELTS
Unit 16: Applications and application forms



Unit 1: Key nouns – Những danh từ thường xuất hiện trong IELTS
Danh từ là chủ điểm cực kì quan trọng trong trong quá trình luyện thi
IELTS .
Hôm nay chúng ta sẽ tìm hiểu một số danh từ trong IELTS có tần suất xu ất
hiện rất thường xuyên trong IELTS nhé!
1. Danh từ chỉ ý tưởng (Ideas)
Nouns
She

wrote

Definition

Meaning

an articleThing which is being discussed,Chủ

on the subject of class

considered or studied

đề

thảo

luận, nghiên cứu

The theme of the poem
Main subject of a talk, book, etc Đề tài chính
is emigration
The students were givingUsed to refer to what one is
a list of essay topics

studying or writing about

Chủ đề

There was a lively debate
on


theissue ofSubject/problem which people

globalization

in

theare thinking/talking about

Vấn đề

seminar yesterday
People theory is
popular

a

undergraduate

subject.
The model of

Statement of the rules on which
a subject of study is based or,
more generally, an opinion or

Học thuyết

explanation
climateA representation of somethingKiểu

change presented in theas a simple description whichhình
Stern Review seems to be

mẫu/mô


becoming a reality

might be used in calculations

Human behavior is basedBasic idea or rule that explains
on theprinciple of leasthow something happens orQuy tắc
effort

works

2. Danh từ liên quan đến ý tưởng và hiện tượng (Nouns connected
with ideas and phenomena)
Nouns
Repetition

Definition

is

important aspect

an
ofspeech

development in children

One individual part of a Khía cạnh (của 1
situation, problem...

Automatic backup is a featureA
of the new software

typical

quality

vấn đề)
ofTính

something

The political motives for theRange
government’s

Meaning

actions

arecovered

of
by

năng,

đặc

điểm
a

subject
a

book, Phạm vi

beyond thescope of this essay discussion, class
The study revealed a pattern
ofresults

which

could

be Show

a

regularly Hình mẫu, khuôn

interpreted in either of two repeated arrangement mẫu
ways
During

2005,

the number

of violent attacks increased to Amount or level

Con số, số lượng

an alarming degree

Unit 2: Key verbs - Dạng động từ hay xuất hiện trong đề thi IELTS


1. Verbs for structuring academic assignments
Các bạn đọc đoạn văn sau và lưu ý những động từ được in đậm nhé!

Discuss some of the problems involved in investigating attitudes to diet and hea
critical review of an investigation you have read about or describe an investigation
could conduct.Consider the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

Starting from rest, an aircraft accelerates to its take-off speed of 60 m s-1 in a dist

metres.Illustrate this with a velocity-time graph. Assuming constant acceleration, fin
the cake-off runlasts. Hence calculate the acceleration..

'The fact that nations agree to follow international law demonstrates that we can id
that are trans-national and trans-cultural.' How far is this statement true! Critically
recent event whichsupports or challenges the statement.

Examine how industrial growth has affected any two developing countries. Provi
evidence where necessary and include a discussion of likely future trends.

Cụ thể:
Word
Involed
Conduct
Illustrate

Assuming

Definition

Meaning

Which are part/included
in
Organize and do

Thực hiện, tổ chức

Draw something in order
to explain something
Accepting something to be
true

Find

Discover by calculating

Calculate

Judge

the

number

Bao gồm; liên quan

Minh họa

Giả sử
Tìm ra

orTính toán


amount of something and
adding,

multiplying,

subtracting

or

dividing

number
Demonstrate

Show, make clear
Recognize

Identify

Thể hiện ra

someone

or

something and say or
prove who or what they

Nhận ra

are
challenge

Examine
Provide

Question whether it is
true
Look

at

or

consider

carefully and in detail
Give

Kiểm trả

Kiểm soát
Cung cấp

2. Verbs which combine with noun forms of key verb (C ụm t ừ bao g ồm
Động từ +Noun)
Verb

Verb+ Noun

Example
The model provides an

Explain

Give/offer

anexplanation for

explanation of/for

the

differences between the
two sets of data

Explore

Emphasize

Carry out an exploration
of

Kumar carried

out an

exploration

music

of

genius

Place/put emphasis on The hospital puts a lot


of emphasis on training
nurses

Describe

Give/provide

a

description of

The

book

description

gives a
ofmodern

Europe.

Unit 3: Key adjectives - Cụm tính từ hay xuất hiện trong bài thi IELTS
1. Adj+Preposition (Tính từ + Giới từ)
Words

Example

Meaning

Language development
Relative to

is conceived as relative
to

one’s

own

past

Tương tự

performance.
How
Relevant to

can

science

we

make

relevant

to Liên quan tới,

environmental policy?
Poor

communication

between scientists and
Characteristic of

politicians

isĐặc trưng

characteristic

of

the

situation today
We
Appropriate to

need

to

plan

technologies which are
appropriate

to

the

Phù hợp với

needs of small farmers.
Typical of

It was typical of theĐiển hình của


farmers in the study
that they had a negative
attitude to technology

2. Adjectives and their opposites (Tính từ và từ trái nghĩa)
Adjective

Opposite

Example

Meaning
Abstract: Trừu

Abstract

Concrete

Abstract/concrete

tượng

problem

Concrete:

cụ

thể/ dễ hiểu
Quantitative :
Quantitative

Qualitative

Quantitative/qualitati Định lượng
ve research

Qualitative:
Định tính
Significant:

Significant

Insignificant

Significant/insignifica đáng kể
nt amount of fear

Insignificant:
Không đáng kể
Rough:

Rough

Precise

ước

Rough/precise

chừng

estimate

Precise: chính
xác

3. Adjective combinations (cụm tính từ)
Có một số cụm tính từ (adj+noun) thường xuyên xuất hiện nh ư sau:


There was an apparent discrepancy between the two sets of results.
(tồn tại)


We noted a potential problem with the experimental design which



we had to deal with first. (Vấn đề tiềm ẩn)
The principal cause of the failure was a sudden temperature change.



(Nguyên do đầu tiên)
The research used a rigorous methodology which had been tested



on many occasions. (biện pháp nghiêm ngặt)
Unit 4: Key adverbs – những trạng từ quan trọng trong bài thi IELTS
1. Trạng từ thể hiện tính so sánh
Adverb

Definition

Example

Meaning

In
Comparatively/relative
ly

comparison

Our

sample

was

with

relatively/comparative Tương đối là

something

ly small

else

Especially/particularly

More
usual
More

Specially

than

The process was not
especially/particularly Đặc biệt là
difficult

thanThe

exam

usual (spokenspecially
English)

(opposite:

considerably)

hard

thisĐặc biệt là

year.
When

Somewhat

was

we

(Slightly

younger

formal):

aobtained

tested

boys,

we
Hơi/ khá là

little; slightly somewhat/considerab
ly different results.

Primarily

Mainly

Amir

is

primarilyChủ yếu


interested

in

bio-

research

was

physics.
Almost
Mostly/largely

completely
(but
totally so)

not

The

largely/mostly

Chủ yếu

successful

Without
Directly

anything elseThe illness is directly
being

linked to poor housing.

Trực tiếp

involved

2. Adverbs related to numbers or time (Trạng từ chỉ thời gian/ con
số)
There are approximately 20 varieties of bird in this species (roughly, about
= khoảng chừng)
There are precisely 48 different managerial posts in the company (exactly
= chính xác)
Interviewees frequently misunderstood one of the questions (often =
thường xuyên)
We eventually obtained the results we were hoping for (in the end, after
some time = cuối cùng thì)
Ultimately, we plan to repeat the experiment (finally, after other things
have been completed = cuối cùng)

3. Adverbs that restrict or limit (Trạng từ thể hiện mức độ, gi ới hạn)
The medication will merely make the symptoms bearable; it will not cure
the disease (exactly, nothing more = chỉ)


To put it simply, the risks of this approach would seem to outweigh its
advantages. (plainly = đơn giản)
The tribe has hardly ever had contact with the outside world. (almost
never=hầu như ko bao giờ)
Unit 5: Phrasal verbs – cụm động từ thường gặp trong IELTS

Phrasal verb

Synmonym

Example
In

her

Meaning
latest

article
Put

forward

(an

Kaufmann puts

idea/view/opinion/the Present

forward a theory

ory)

which is likely
to

Đưa ra (ý kiến/
ý tưởng)

prove

controversial
Carry

out

(an

experiment/research)

I intend to carryThực
Conduct

hiện

out a series of(khảo
experiments
Grenne
out

that

sát/nghiên cứu)

points
the

increase in life
Point out

Observe

expectancy hasChỉ ra rằng
led

to

some

economic
problems
Point up

Hightlight

The study pointsChỉ ra, nói ra
up

the


weaknesses
the

in

current

school system
Set

out

(to

something)

Set out

do

In
Aim

his

article

Losanove

setsCó mục đích

out to prove that

Describe

The

document

sets

out

the

of

the

terms

Miêu tả

treaty
In
Go into

Discuss

this

book

Sergeant

goes

into the causes
of the Civil War

Thảo luận, đi
sâu

in some depth
Please
Go/look back over

Revise, review

go/look

back over thisRà soát lại
term’s notes
Go through your

Go through

Check

calculations
carefully

Kiểm soát/Kiểm
tra

Unit 6: Quantifying expressions
Dưới đây là một số các từ định lượng mà ta thường xuyên gặp không chỉ
trong văn viết IELTS writing mà cả trong giao tiếp thông thường.
1. Some


Đây là một trong số các đại từ định lượng vô cùng quen thuộc v ới nghĩa :
một vài, một ít và được sử dụng trong câu khẳng định. Nó có th ể đi cùng
với cả danh từ đếm được và không đếm được:
Noun (đếm được số nhiều)
Some +
Noun (không đếm được)
Ex: I need some pens.
There’s some cheese in the kitchen.
2. Any
“Any” dịch sang tiếng Việt có ý nghĩa na ná “nào” và nó đ ược s ử d ụng hoàn
toàn ngược với “some” trong câu, tức là nó được sử dụng trong câu phủ
định, hơn thế nữa nó còn được dung trong câu nghi vấn.
Noun (đếm được số nhiều)
Any +
Noun (không đếm được)
Ex: There aren’t any chairs in the room.
Have you got any butter?
* Tuy nhiên “Any” đôi lúc vẫn được sử dụng trong câu kh ẳng đ ịnh khi nó
mang nghĩa “ bất cứ”
Ex: I am free now, so I can go out any time I want.
3. Much, many, a lot of, …
Tại sao lại có dấu “…” ? tại vì nhiều quá khó mà liệt kê đ ược. Trong nh ững
từ định lượng này, có một số từ sẽ đi được với danh từ đếm được số nhiều


và có những từ đi được với danh từ số ít hoặc th ậm chí là đi đ ược v ới c ả
hai. Cùng theo dõi bảng sau nhé!
Với danh từ đếm được số nhiều

Với danh từ không đếm được

Many

Much

A large number of

A large amount of

A great number of

A great deal of

Plenty of

Plenty of

A lot of

A lot of

Lots of

Lots of

- NOTE:
+/ Sử dụng many, much trong câu phủ định và câu hỏi;
+/ Sử dụng a lot of, lots of trong câu khẳng định
Ex: We didn’t drink much water, instead of that we drank a lot of wine in the
party.
4. Few / a few / liitle / a little
Đây là những từ định lượng khiến không ít người cảm th ấy rối r ắm à r ất
dễ lẫn lộn. Cùng tìm hiểu và phân biệt nhé
- Few + Noun (đếm được số nhiều): rất ít, không đủ để (negative
meaning)
- A few + Noun (đếm được số nhiều): (một) ít / vài, đ ủ đ ể
(positive meaning)
Ex: I am very happy because I have a few friends and we meet quite often
here.
I feel bored when living here because I have few friends.
Tương tự với “little” và “a little”


- Little + Noun (không đếm được): rất ít, không đủ để (negative
meaning)
- A little + Noun (không đếm được): một ít, đủ để (positive meaning)
Ex: Because we know little English, it was difficult for us to talk with
foreigners.
Would you like a little milk in your coffe?
Unit 7: words with several meanings
1. SET


Set the instruments to zero. = khởi động; bật



I would like to set some ground rules for the course (establish = đề
ra)



We must set a time for our next meeting (arrange = sắp xếp)



Concrete sets as it cools (becomes solid = bị đông cứng)



The students entered the room and immediately set to work (started
to work = bắt đầu làm việc)



The condition is associated with a particular set of symptoms (group
= nhóm)



We have a number of set books to study in our literature class (that
must be studied = cần nghiên cứu)

2. More academic meanings for familiar words (Nghĩa h ọc thu ật c ủa
những từ quen thuộc)
Sau đây là một vài từ vựng quen thuộc nhưng lại mang nghĩa h ọc thu ật ở
một số trường hợp.
Words
Accommodate

Academic

Vietnamese

meanings

meaning

Change to allowĐiều chỉnh

Example
He had to adapt his


theory
something to fit in

to accommodatene
w information

Contract (verb)

Shorten, becomeRút ngắn lại, thu As the metal cools
smaller

nhỏ lại

itcontracts
Some

Occur

Exist

Tồn tại

valuable

minerals

occur

naturally in these
rocks
You must provide a

Author or book
Reference

mentioned in a Nguồn dẫn
piece of writing

list ofreferences at
the end of your
assignment
Time is measured

Revolution (n)

Complete turn

Vòng tua

by therevolution of
the earth around
the sun

Way

in

which

parts of a system
Structure (n)

or

object

organized
arranged

are
or

The structure of this
element
particularly
complex

Unit 8: Metaphor and idioms (Phương pháp Ẩn dụ và cụm thành ngữ)

is


“The present experimental data may shed new light on the formation of
the planets. Views on depression have changed in the light of recent
studies of the brain. Novelists, poets and essayists often use history
toilluminate their understanding of human behavior. The book provides
an illuminating discussion of how languages change. Animal models can
be used elucidate basic principles of the developmental origins of adult
diseases.
The report shines a light on the questions surrounding child care and
provides crucial data. Substance abuse continues to destroy individuals and
communities, and researchers remain in the dark about what can ensure
successful recovery from addiction.
The book dealt with economic policy in the shadow of the Civil War of
1994-1999.
Word

Academic meaning

Vietnamese meaning

Provide an explanation
Shed the light on

for it which makes it Giải thích chi tiết
easier to understand

In the light of

Because of
Show

Illuminate

Bởi vì

more

something

clearly
that

isLàm sáng tỏ

difficult to understand
Elucidate

Explain or make clear Giải thích

shines a light on

Focus on

In the shadow of

In a situation whereTrong tình huống
something

Tập trung, nhấn mạnh
vào

bad

has


happened

Chủ đề tiếp theo: Thành ngữ ám chỉ “war-conflict”
Cùng tham khảo đoạn trích sau đây:
“Critics opposed to D.H. Lawrence attacked his novels on various grounds, both

important. But despite the apparent diversity of opinion, Lawrence’s critics were uni
they saw as several serious problems.”

“In the last two poems we see the poet becoming increasingly detached from t
world,retreating more into his own mind than before.”

Retreating: Going back – quay trở lại

“Parents and teachers need to maintain a united front on the question of bad conduct a

Maintain a united front: remain united in their opinions

“It’s useful at the present time to look Japan’s experience in the battle against air pollu
a battle no nation can afford to lose”

“Lawsuits can certainly affect the value of a company, and the firms need strategies to com
onslaught of lawsuits.”

Onslaught – a very powerful attack – cuộc tổng tấn công

“In the last ten years or so, children have been bombarded with increasing amounts o
the media.”

Bombarded with: forced to experience; subject to – phản đối


Unit 9: Nouns and the words they combine – Danh từ và nh ững t ừ đi kèm
với nó
1. Adj + Noun (Tính từ+Danh từ)
Nouns

Adjectives

that

combine with it
Useful,

Contact

often

valuable,I

made

some

useful

personal, constant, close,contacts

at

the

frequent
Debate

Element =factor

Example

conference

Considerable,

heated,After the lecture there

intense , public
Crucial,

was a heated debate
decisive,

fundamental

Timing
element

a

crucial

of

the

experiment
There

Elements = parts

is

are

conflicting

Conflicting, contrasting, elements in the artist’s
work

Energy

Excess,
nuclear
Common,

Phenomenon

natural,
uninversal

Results
Role

sufficient,

Wind

turbines

create

sufficient energy for the
town’s needs

isolated,
recent,

Such anti-social behavior
is a recent phenomenon

Conflicting, unforeseen,Our preliminary results
preliminary, encouraging were encouraging
Decisive,
conflicting,

challenging,Student activists played
influential,a decisive role in the riot


key
A representative sample
Sample

Random, representative of the population was
surveyed
Absolute, broad, relative,

In ...terms

general,

practical,

economic

People are better off in
economic terms.

Alternative, efficient, fair,It is important to treat
Way

practical,

convenient,your research subjects in

proper

a fair way

2. Noun + Verb
Hầu hết các danh từ trên bảng trên đều có thể ghép với một số động t ừ.
Các bạn tham khảo các ví dụ dưới đây nhé!
You can come into contact with someone or something or you
can establish, maintain, break off or lose contact.
Academics may engage in debate or contribute to a debate. You talk
about the debate surrounding an issue.
You can combine, differentiate or discern (recognize) the elements or a
chemical compound.
You consume, conserve, generate, save or waste energy.
Phenomena emerge or occur and students will try to observe,
investigate and then explain those phenomena.
Academics collect,

collate

(organize)

and publish their

results.

Sometimes results are questioned orinvalidated (shown to be wrong).
Occasionally, they are even falsified.


Roles may be defined or strengthened. People or factors can play a role
or take a role. You can take orprovide or analyze a sample.
You can discover, devise (think up), work out or develop a way to do
something.
Unit 10: Adj + Noun combination – Cụm tính từ
I. Tính từ chỉ tính quan trọng (Adjectives referring to importance)

Adjective

Some of the nouns it

Comment

frequently goes with
Aspect (khía cạnh),

Significant can conveyContribution(đóng góp);
Important

the same meaning and Difference(sự khác biệt);
both adjectives often goImplications (sự dính líu);
with these nouns

Point (quan điểm);
Question, reason

Major

The opposite, minor, also
goes with these nouns

Role, changes, problem,
factor,

issue,

concern,

contribution, point

Enormous can mean very Amount,

expansion,

large or very important,number, range, diversity,
Enormous/considerable

considerable means largedifference, extent, degree,
or

of

importance

noticeableimpact,

significance, interest
Interest,

Particular

Means special

influence,

significance,
concern

attention,
importance,


Các bạn lưu ý rằng trong văn phong viết Ielts, thay vì dùng: Michael’s
contribution is very significant; các bạn nên sử dụng cụm tù ‘adj+noun” đ ể
câu mang tính học thuật hơn. Câu trên có th ể viết lại thành: “Michael’s
contribution is of particular significance”.
II. Tính từ thể hiện tính tần suất (Adjective referring to frequency)
1.

“Widespread” là tính từ hay xuất hiện trong Ielts. Các bạn có thể
dùng nó với một số danh từ sau:
Widespread belief
Widespread acceptance
Widespread support
Widespread assumption
Widespread use
Ví dụ: There is widespread support for government policy in urban areas.

2.

“Common” – bạn có thể dùng với một số từ vựng sau:
Common experience
Common practice
Common use
Common concern
Ví dụ: It is increasingly common practice for UK teenagers to take a gap
year before entering university.

3.

“Specific” cụ thể, chi tiết. Từ này được dùng trong một số trường
hợp sau:
Specific context
Specific information


Specific case
Specific type
Specific form
Specific purpose
Specific condition
Specific example
Ví dụ: The reaction occurs only under specific conditions.
III. Một số cụm từ ĐẶC BIỆT khác
1.

Inevitable = unavoidable
Inevitable outcome
Inevitable consequence
Inevitable collapse
Inevitable decline
Inevitable conflict
Inevitable effect
Inevitable developments

2.

Explicit
Một từ khác cũng rất thú vị. Thay vì dùng “clear; exact” bạn nên
dùng “Explicit”
Explicit reference
Explicit statement
Explicit comparison
Explicit account
Explicit mention

3.

Relevant = connected
Relevant data
Relevant documents


Relevant information
Relevant details
Relevant factors
Unit 11: Verbs and the words they combine with (C ụm động t ừ)
Sau đây là một số động từ quen thuộc trong IELTS
Verb

Meanings

Nouns

Adverbs

Examples
The story was loosely
based on a true event

Base (on)

Dựa vào

Research,

Mainly, partly,which

occurred

theory, story

loosely

The

1892.

in

theory

is mainly based on the
writer’s initial study
A decrease in consumer
spending is generally
Associate

Liên quanWord,
tới

idea,Generally,

theory, term

commonly

associated with fears of
instability. The word
iscommonly
associated withyouth
culture.

Idea, problem,
Discuss

Thảo luận

issue,
question,
topic, theme

Establish

Wilson
At

and

Crick

length,discuss the problem at

briefly,

length.

Sim’s

thoroughly

articlediscusses the
issue thoroughly.

Thành lập Relationship, Firmly, clearly,Geologists have been
connection

conclusively

unable

to firmly


establish a connection
between the two types
of fossils
We shall now briefly
Examine

Kiểm tra

Facts,

Briefly,

examinethe

evidence

evidence

critically

for the existence of
dark matter.

Existence,
Demonstrate Minh họa need,

effects,

importance

Identify (with)
(used

inXác định

passive voice)

The
Clearly,

study clearly

demonstrates the

convincingly importance of support
for dementia sufferers.

Causes,

This approach is closely

factors, issues,Correctly,

identified

needs,
approach

clearly, closely work

of

with

the

H.Crowley

during the 1950s.

Unit 12: Prepositional phrases – cụm giới từ
Bài học của chúng ta hôm nay sẽ tập trung vào nh ững cụm gi ới t ừ trong
văn phong học thuật các bạn nên tận dụng thường xuyên.
Cùng tham khảo bài viết dưới đây nhé!
The Guide to the Semi-Colon in English was written by Keith Pedant in
conjunction with a team of researchers at Boardham University. In
comparison with previous works on the semin-colon, this is a very
substantial volume. In addition to the main text there are a number of
appendices. These are to some extent the most useful parts of the books
as, in line with modern linguistic practice, they provide a wealth of real
data. In spite of its potentially dry topic, the book contains many


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