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Ngữ văn 11 tập 2 cơ bản

BO GIAO DUC VA OAO TAO

TAP HAI

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO DUC VIET NAM



BO GlAO DUC VA DAO TAO
PHAN TRONG LU^N (Tong Chu bien) - TRAN DANG SUYEN (Chu bien phan Van)
BUI MINH TOAN (Chii bien phan Tieng Viet) - LE A (Chii bien phan Lam van)
LE NGUYEN CAN - DANG ANH DAO - NGUYEN VAN DUONG
PHAN THI THU HIEN - NGUYEN THAI H O A - D 6 KIM HOI
NGUYEN XUAN NAM - D O A N DUC PHUONG - VU DUONG QUY
DANGDUC SIEU -TRINH THI THU TIET- HABINH TRI

Ngu van 11
TAP HAI
(Tdi bdn ldn thut ba)

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO DUC VIET NAM



Ban quy^n thu6c Nha xuSft ban Giao due Vi6t Nam - B6 Giao due va Dao tao.
01-2010/CXB/573-1485/GD

Ma s6': CH112T0


LUll BI|T KHI

XUAT

DlfONG(1)

PHAN B O I

CHAU

(Xudt duang luu bi$t)
KET QUA CAN OAT
Cam nhan dugc ve dep lang man hao hung ciia
nha chf sT each mang d i u th^ k[ XX va giong tha
tam huyet soi trao cua Phan B6i Ch^u.

TIEU DAN
Phan BOi CMu (1867 -1940) ten thu6 nh6 la Phan Van San, bi$t hi$u chinh la Sao Nam, quS b
lang Dan Nhifim, nay thupc thi tran Nam Dan, huyfn Nam Dan, tinh Ngh6 An. Vao nhiing nam
cudi the' ki XK, khi phong trao Caii vuong ch6ng Phap th^t bai, Phan B6i Chau la mdt trong nhung
nha nho Vi§t Nam dau tifen nu6i y tu6ng di tim mot con duong ciiu nuoc m6i. Sau khi d6 Giai
nguygn (1900), 6ng bit diu vao Nam ra BSc, tim ngu6i ciing chi hudng, lap ra Duy tan hOi - to
chuc cdch m ^ g theo dudng I6i dan chu tu sin dau tien 6 nuoc ta (1904). Theo chu truong cua hOi,
dng lanh d^o phong trao Ddng du va xu^t duong sang Nheit Ban (1905). Tii do, su6t hai muoi ndm,
6ng bon ba, khi Nh?it Bin, khi Trung Qudc, khi Thai Lan dl muu su phuc qudc, nhung viec khong
thanh. Nam 1925, thyc dan Phap bdt c6c dng d Thupng Hai (Trung Qu6<;), dua ve nudc, dinh bi
m^t thii ti6u. Trudc lan sdng d^u tranh sdi sue cia nhan dan ck nudc, nha cam quyen bupc phai
dua dng ra xu cdng khai t ^ Ha Ndi. Phan Bpi Chau dugc tring an, nhung bi giam long d Hu^ cho
dei^ liic qua ddi.

Khdng nhimg la nha y6u nudc va each m?ing, Phan Bpi Chau cdn la nha van ldn, de 1^ mOt kho
tang tha vdn do sp. Nhung tdc pham chinh ciia dng: Vi$tNdm vong quoc su (1905), Hdi ngoai huyit


thu (1906), Ngifc trung rhw (1914), TrungQuang tdm su
(viet trong thdi Id luu vong d nudc ngoai), Phan Bdi
Chdu nien bi^u (1929), Phan Sdo Nam vdn t^p, Phan
Sao Nam tien sinh qudc vdn thi tdp (chii yeu tglp hpp
tho van lam trong thdi Id b) giam Idng d Hue),...
Vdi tu duy nh^y b6n va khdng ngtmg doi mdi, tai
nang sang t^o da d?ing, phong phii, Phan Bpi Chau
tung mpt thdi lam rung ddng bidt bao con tim yeu
nudc bang nhirng vin tho sue sdi nhi^t huyet cua
minh. Trong vdng may chye nam dau the ki XX, Phan
Bpi Chau dupe coi la cay but xuat sic nhat cua van
tho each m^ng.
vao nhirng nam diu thd ki XX, ddi vdi eae nha
y6u nudc Vi$t Nam, hudng vi Nhat Ban cung cd
nghia la hudng v& mpt chan trdi mdi dly hi vpng va
udc mo. Nam 1905, trudc liic 16n dudng sang Nhat
Bin, dng lam bai tho Luu bi$t khi xudt duong de tir
gia b ^ bd, d6ng chi.
(1) Xudt duong: vugt bien di ra nudc ngoai.

Phan Bpi Chad


VAN BAN
Phien dm
Sinh vi nam tu yeu hi ki,
Khang hiia ean khon tvr ehuyen di.
U baeh nien trung tu huu nga,
Khoi thien tai hau canh v6 thuy.
Giang son tu hi sinh do nhue,
Hien thanh lieu nhien tung diee si!
Nguyen tmc truong phong Dong hai khu,
Thien triing bach lang nhat te phi.
Bich nghia
Da sinh lam ke nam nhi thi cung phai mong co dieu la,
Ha lai de troi dat tu chuyen van lay sao !
Giua khoang tram nam nay, phai co ta chii,
Ching nhe ngan nam sau lai khong co ai (de lai ten tudi) u ?
Non song da chet, sdng chi nhue,
Thanh hien da vang thi co doc sach cung ngu thoi!
Mong dudi theo ngpn gio dai di qua bien Dong,
Ngan dot song bac etipg bay len.
Dich tha
Lam trai phdi la a tren dai^^\
Hd decdn khon^^^tu chuyen dai.
Trong khodng tram ndm cdn co ta,
Sau ndy muon thua, hd khong ai ?
Non song dd chet, song them nhue,
Hien thdnh^^^ cdn ddu, hoc cdng hodi!
Muon vuat be Dong theo cdnh gio,
Muon triing song bac tiin ra khai.
TON QUANG PHIET dich'^'
(Theo Vdn tha Phan Boi Chdu chon loc. NXB Van hgc. Ha Ndi, 1967)

(1) Y tho nay dua theo quan nifim ve chi nam nhi (chi lam trai) eua cac nha nho thdi xua.
(2) Cdn khdn {can: trdi, khdn: dat): chi trdi dat, vii tru.
(3) Hiin thdnh: cac bac tai due vugt hin ngudi thudng, dupe dung d^ ggi nhiing ngudi sang lap
Nho giao nhu Khdng Tii, Manh Tu.
(4) Bin dich tha cua Tdn Quang Phiet nhin chung sat nghia va hay, rieng hai cau 6 va 8 nen ddi
chieu vdi phan dich nghia.


HUlorNG DAN HOC BAI
1. Doc Ti^u ddn, chii y bdi canh lich sii dat nuac va nhiing ^nh huang tir nuac
ngoai de hieu bai tha.
2. Tu duy mai m6, tao bao va khat vong hanh dong ciia nha chi si each mang trong
budi ra di tim duang cuu nuac dugc bieu Ig nhu the nao ?
Dvra tr6n cam xuc cua tac gia va nhung hinh anh nghe thuat trong bai tha, chti
y tim, hieu cac van de sau :
- Quan niem mai ve chi lam trai va tu the, tam voc cua con ngudi trong via tru.
- Y thiic trach nhiem ca nhSn truac thoi cugc.
-Thai do quyet Uet trudc tinh canh dat nuac va nhung tin dieu xua cii.
- Khat vgng hanh dgng va tu th6' budi len duong.
3. Anh (chi) co nhan x6t gi ve hai cau 6 va 8 cua ban dich tho so voi nguyen tac
(ddi chieu voi phan dich nghia) ?
4. Theo anh (chi), nhung yeu td nao da tao nen siic loi cudn manh me cua bai
tha nay?
GHINHO

.

Bang giong tha tam huyet co siic lay ddng manh me, Luu biet khi
xuat duang da khac hoa ve dep lang man hao hung ciia nhk chf s7 each mang
nhung nam dau the ki XX, vai tutudmg mai me, tao bao, bau nhiet huy^t s6i
trao va khat vong chay bong trong budi ra di tim duong cuu nuae.

LUYEN TAP
Vi^t mot doan van trinh b^y nhung cam nhan eua anh (chi) ve hinh knh nghe
thuSt 6 hai cau tha cudi bai.


NGHiA CUA CAU
K^TQUACANDATNhan thiie dugc hai thanh phin nghia eua e^u
6 nhung ndi dung phd bi^n va d§ nh|n th^y
eua chung.
•1 Co kl nang phan tich, iTnh hdi nghia ciia cau
va kT nSng dat eau thd hien dugc Ccic thanh
phIn nghia mot each phu hgp nhjft.
V

I - HAI THANH PHAN NGHIA CUA CAU
1. So sanh hai cau trong tvmg cap cau sau day va tra loi cau hoi neu a duoi.
aj) Hinh nhuco mot thai hdn dd ao uac cd mot gia dinh nho nhd.
(Nam Cao, ChiPheo)

83) Co mdt thai hdn dd ao udc cd mot gia dinh nho nhd.
h{) N^u tdi ndi thi chac ngudi ta cQngbdng long...
(Vu Trgng Phyng, Sdd6)

b2) Neu tdi ndi thi nguoi ta cdng bdng Idng...
-Hai cau trong mdi cap cau deu de cSp den ciing mot su vide. Su viec d6 la ^ ?
-Ngoai noi dimg su viec, anh (chi) thay:
+ Cau nao the hien su viec nhung chua tin tuong chic chSn ddi vdi su viec ?
+ Cau nao the hien su phong doan cd dd tin cay cao ddi voi su viSc ?
+ Cau nao the hien su nhin nhan va danh gia binh thudng cua ngudi ndi ddi vdi
strviec?
2. Tii su so sanh tren day, co the di den nhiing nhan dinh sau :
Mdi cau thudng cd hai thanh phan nghia : de cap den mdt su viec (hoac mot
vai su viec); bay to thai do, su danh gia cua ngudi noi ddi vdi su viec do. Thanh
phan nghia thii nhat ggi la nghia su viec, thanh phan nghia thii hai ggi la nghia
tinh thai.


Thong thuang, trong mdi cau, hai thanh phan nghia tren hoa quyen vdi nhau
va khong the eg nghia su viec ma khdng co nghia tinh thai. Ngay ea d nhiing
truang hgp cau khdng c6 tii ngii rieng the hien nghia tinh thai thi hghia tinh thai
van tdn tai trong cau. Do la tinh thai khach quan trung hoa, nhu d cae cau 83, b2
tren dSy. Nhung cdng cd trudng hgp cau ehi cd nghia tinh thdi. Dd la khi cau chi
cau tao bang tu ngu e4m than.
Phan tich them vi du sau :
Da bdm, thera y vdn vd deii cd tdi cd. Chd chd!
(Nguyen Tuan, ChO nguoi tii til)

Trong vi du nay, d cau thii nhat:
- Nghia su vi$c chu ydu dugc bieu hien g cae tir ngQ y vdn vd deu cd tdi cd.
- Thai dd ngac nhien cua ngudi ndi khi phat hien ra su that ve viec "y van vo
deu cd t£u ca" dugc the hien d tu th^ra.
- Ngoai ra, 6 cau nay, ngudi ndi cdn td thai do kinh can ddi vdi ngudi nghe
thdng qua cac tu dCdn cau thii hai chi cd tir cam than chd chd n6n chi cd nghia tinh thai: bay td
thai do than phuc.
H-NGHIA SirVlfC
Nghia su viec cua cau la thanh phan nghia ling vdi su viec ma cau de cap den.
Su vide trong hidn thuc khach quan rat da dang va thudc nhieu loai khac nhau. Do
dd, cau cung cd nhiing nghia su viec khac nhau. 6 miic do khai quat, cd the phan
biSt mdt sd nghia su vide va phan biet cau bi^u hien nghia su viec nhu sau :
- Cau bieu hien hanh ddng:
Xudn Tdc Dd cat dat ddu vdo ddy roi mdi xuong cho nhiing nguoi. di dua.
(Vu Trong Phung, Sodd)

- Cau bieu hidn trang thdi, tinh chat, dac diem :
+ Trdi thu xanh ngdt may tdng cao.
(Nguyin BChuyen, Vinh miia thu)

+ Ngdti ndi xudn di xudn lai lai.
(H6 Xuan Huong, Tu tinh - bai II)


- Cau bieu hien qua trinh:
Ld vdng trudc gid khe dua veo.
(Nguyen Khuydn, Cdu cd mua thu)

Cau bieu hien tu the:
+ Lam khom dudi. nui tieu vdi chu.
(Ba Huyen Thanh Quan, Qua Deo N^ng)

+ Giua giudng thdt bdo ngoi tren mdt bd.
(Nguyfin Du, Truyen KiSu)

Cau bieu hien su tdn tai:
+ Cdn bac, cdn tien, cdn de tii.
Met cam, het ruau, hit dng tdi.
(Nguyfen Binh Khiem, Thdi dai)

+ Ngodi song thd the oanh vdng.
(Nguyfen Du, Truyen Kieu)

Cau bieu hien quan he :
+ Ddi Tdo Id mgt tay vai ve trong lang.
(Nam Cao, C/ziPheo)

-I- Ngua xe nhu nudc do quan nhu nerri.
(Nguyen Du, Truy$n Kieu)

Nghia su viec eua cau thudng dugc bieu hien nhd nhiing thanh phan ngii phap
nhu chu ngu, vi ngii, trang ngii, khdi ngu va mdt sd thanh p h ^ phu khac. Mdt cau
cd the bieu hien mdt su viec, ciing cd the bieu hien mdt sd su vi^c,

GHI NHO
Nghia eiia eau bao gom hai thanh phin : nghia su vide va nghia tinh thai.
Nghia su viec la nghia ling vdi su viec dugc de c|p den trong cau. N6 thudng
dugc bieu hien nhd eae tu ngCr ddng vai trd chu ngu, vj ngu, trang ngCr,
khdi ngu va mot sd thanh phan phu khac.

.


LUYINTAP
1. Hay phan tich nghia su viec trong tiing eau tha d bai tha sau :
Ao thu lanh leo nudc trong veo.
Mot chiec thuyen cdu be tea teo.
Sdng biic theo ldn hai gan ti,
Ld vdng trudc gid kh§ dua v^o.
Tang mdy la lung trdi xanh ngdt,
Ngo true quanh co khdch vdng teo.
Tua goi budng cdn Idu chdng duoc,
Cd ddu dap ddng dudi chdn beo.
(Nguyin Khuydn, Cdu cd miia thu)

2. Tach nghia tinh thai va nghia su viec trong nhiing eau sau :
a) Cd mdt dng ri quy nhu Xudn kicdngdanhgid thuc, nhung cung ddng s^ Idm.
(Vu Trgng Phyng, Sddd)

b) Cd le hdn cung nhu minh, chon nhdm nghi mdt rdi.
(Nguyin Tuan, Chic nguoi tu tu)

c) Di ho cung phdn vdn nhu minh, vi den chinh ngay minh, minh cung khdng
biit rd con gdi minh cd hu hay Id khdng!
(Vu Trgng Phung, Sddd)

3. Chgn tii ngCr thich hgp nhat cd the dien vao chd trdng de cau sau the hidn dung
hai tiianh phin : nghia su viec vi nghia tinh thai.
Mot ke biet kinh min khi phdch, mdt ke biit tiic, biit trong nguoi cd tdi, /.../
khdng phdi Id kexdu hay Id vd tinh.
{Theo Nguyin Tuan, Cha nguai tii tii)

I I hinh nhu
\Z\cdthi
I I hdn
I I lendo
I I hoa chdng


VliT BAI LAM V A N S6 5 : NGHl LUAN V A N HOC

K ^ QUA CAN DAT

0

Van dung cac thao tac ISp lucin phan tieh, so sanh
de viet bai van nghj luan v^ mdt van d^ vSn hgc.

I - HUdNG DAN CHUNG
Anh (chi) hay chuan bi trudc d nha :
- Xem lai cdc bai: Phdn tich de, lap ddn y bdi vdn nghi ludn; Thao tdc lap ludn
phdn tich; Thao tdc lap ludn so sdnh.
- Dgc lai cdc vdn ban van hgc da hgc de chuan bi lam bai.

H-GOIYMdTSdDiBAI
1. Ngudi xua cd cau: "Dan ba chd ke Thuy Van, Thuy Kieu". Anh (chi) hay ndi rd
y kien cua minh ve quan niem tren.
2. Cdm nhan cua anh (chi) ve hinh tugng nhan-vat Chi Pheo trong truy$n ngdn
ciing ten cda Nam Cao ?
3. Phan tich thdi dd cda nhan vat Huan Cao ddi vdi vidn qudn nguc trong
Cha ngudi tu til (Nguyin Tuan).
HI - GUI t CACH LAM BAI
- Vdi de 1, de phe phdn quan nidm khdng dung tren, cd the l^p l u ^ nhu sau:
Theo cdc nha nho, Thuy Kieu cd nhirng hanh ddng ling xu khdng phii hgp vdi
Id gido phong kien (neu ddrl chting). Dd la cdch ddnh gid sai, bdo thu, chi nhin su
viec, eon ngudi mdt cdch phien dien.

10


Thuc ra, Thuy Kieu ddng thuang chii khdng ddng trdch. Bdn than Kiiu la mdt
ngudi eon gdi tai sdc, diic hanh (thu^ chung trong tinh yeu, hieu thao vdi cha me,
y thiic sdu sic vi nhan pham,...). Cugc ddi luu lac day dau khd cua nang la do che
dg phong kidn tdn bao gay nen, mdc dii nang cd gugng day nhung khdng dugc.
Dgc TruySn Kieu, ta biet dugc su tan ac, vd nhan dag cua che dd phong kien ddi
vdi con ngudi, nhat la ddi vdi ngudi phu nii.
- Vdi di 2, cin ndi rd vi cugc ddi nhan vat Chi Pheo qua cdc giai doan: ttr mdt
cd ndng hien lanh den mdt con ngudi bi tha hod cd tdm hdn lin ngoai hinh
(nhung chua m^t hit nhdn tinh). Tim nguyen nhan din din su tha hod eua
ChiPhdo.
Chi Pheo la nan nhan cua bon dia chu, cudng hao d ndng thdn trudc Cdch mang
thdng Tdm ndm 1945.
- Di 3 ciing la mdt dang di phan tich nhan vat. Vide phan tich cin tap trurlg
vao qud trinh chuyen bien tam li cua nhan vat trong su phdt trien cua truyen.
Giai doan diu : Vien quan nguc biet dai rfuan Cao, nhung Huin Cao lai td thdi
dd khinh bac. Giai doan sau : Hufo Cao cam "tam Idng bidt nhdn lien tai", viet
chii tdng vidn qudn nguc vd ndi nhiing Idi tam huyit. Cin nhan xet hai thdi do
do tuy khdc nhau, nhung deu hgp 11, phu hgp vdi hoan canh va nhan cdch cua
nhan vdt Huan Cao.

11


HAU TROI

TAN DA

K^T QUA CAN OAT ~->^
Cam nhan dugc tam hdn lang man dgc dao ciia
thi sT Tan Da va nhOng dau hieu ddi mdi ca ve ndi
dung va nghe thuat theo hudng hien dai ciia tha
ca Viet Nam vao dIu nhiing nam 20 ciia the ki XX.
^

TIEU DAN
Tan Da (1889 -1939) tdn khai sinh la Nguyin Khac Hieu, que d lang Khe Thugng, huyen
Bat Bat, tinh Son Tay (nay thudc huyen Ba Vi, Ha Ndi). Que huong dng nlm ben bd sdng Da, gan
chan mii Tan Vien. Ong sinh ra va ldn len trong budi giao thdi, Han hgc da tan ma Tay hpe cung
mdi bit dau, nen con ngudi dng, ki ca hgc van, Idi sdng va su nghiep van chuong deu mang dau
an "ngudi cua hai the ki" (Hoai Thahh). Tan Da theo hpe chii Han tir nho, nhung sau hai khoa thi
Huong hong, dng bd thi, chuyen sang sang tac van chuong qudc ngii.

Vao nhiing nam 20 cQa the ki XX, ten tudi Tan Da noi len nhu mpt ngdi sao sang trSn thi dan.
cac tac pham chinh cua Tan Da: Khdi tinh con I, II (tha -1916,1918), Giac mdng con I, II (truy$n
phifiu luu viin tudng - 1916, 1932), Khdi tinh bdn
chinh, Khdi tinh bdn phii (luan thuyet -1918), Cdn
chai (thova van xudi -1921), ThaTdnDd (1925), Gidc
mdng Urn (tu truyen -1928),...
Dieu tam hon mdi me, "cai tdi" lang man bay
bdng, vira phdng khoang, ngdng nghfinh, vira cam
thuong, uu ai trong tho van dng da chinh phuc the he
doe gia mdi dau thd ki XX. Giiia liic tho phii nha nho
tan cude. Tin Da cd loi di rieng, vira tim ve vdi ngpn
nguon tho ea dan gian va dan tdc, vira cd nhiing sang
tao dpc dao, tai hoa. Tho van dng cd thi xem nhu mdt
gach ndi giiia hai thdi dai van hpe cua dan tdc: trung
dai va hien dai.
Bai Hau Troi in trong tap Cdn chci, xua't ban lan
dau nam 1921. Trong tac pham nay cdn cd nhiing bai
ndi tieng khac nhu Cdn chai, Lo vdn e, Tdng biet,...

Tan Da

12


VAN BAN

Dem qua chang biet cd hay khdng,
Chang phai hoang hdt, khdng ma mdng.
That hdn ! That phach! That than the !
That dugc len tien - sudng la limg.
Nguyen luc canh ba ndm mdt minh,
Vat chan dudi bdng ngpn den xanh.
Nam buon, ngoi day dun nudc udng,
Udng xong am nude, nam ngam van.
Choi van ngam chan lai choi trang
Ra san cimg bdng di tung tang
Tren trdi bdng thay hai cd xudng
Mieng cudi mum mim cimg ndi rang:
- "Trdi nghe ha gidi ai ngam nga,
Tieng ngam vang ca sdng Ngan Ha'^'l
Lam Trdi mat ngil, Trdi duong mSng
Cd hay len dpc, Trdi nghe qua."
Udc mai bay gid mdi gap tien!
Ngudi tien nghe tieng lai nhu quen!
van chuong nao cd hay cho lam
Trdi da sai goi thdi phai len.
Theo hai cd tien len dudng may
Vii vu khdng canh ma nhu bay.
Cua son dd chdi, oai rue rd
Thien mon de khuydt'^'nhu la day!
vao trdng th^y Trdi, sup xudng lay
Trdi sai tien nii dat Idi day.
Ghe banh nhu tuyet vari nhu may
Truyen cho van si ngdi choi day.

Chu tien ngdi quanh da tinh tuc'^^
Trdi sai pha nude de nhap gigng.
Truyin cho "van si dgc van nghe !"
- "Da bam lay Trdi con xin dgc."
(1) Ngdn Hd {ngdn: bac; hd: con sdng): ten gpi eua dai sao day dac vat ngang bau trdi, trdng nhu
mdt ddng sdng bac.
(2) Thien mon dekhuyet {thien mon : cua trdi; dekhuyet: cai lau canh ciia d cung vua hoac cung
trdi): chi eua trdi.
(3) Tinh tuc {tinh hay tinh : yen ISng; nic: tni lai, d lai): ngoi yen ehd, ngdi yen lang.

13


Dgc het van van sang van xudi
Het van thuyet li l^i van chai
Duong con d^c y dgc da thich
Che trdi nh^p gigng cang tot hgi.
Van dai hoi tot ran cung may!
Trdi nghe, Trdi ciing lay lam hay.
Tam^i^ nhu nd d^, Co^^) i^ i^oi
Hing Nga^3^ Chiic Nii<*^ chau ddi may
Song Thanh, Tiiu Nggc^^ Idng tai diing
Dgc xong mdi bai ciing vd tay.
- "Bam con khdng ddm man<^^ cua Trdi
Nhiing dng van eon in cd roi
Hai quyen Khoi tinh vdn thuyet 11
Hai Khdi tinh con la vdn choi
Thdn tien, Gidc mdng van tieu thuyet
Ddi guang, Len sdu vdn vi ddi
Quyen Ddn bd Tdu Idi vdn dich
Den quyen Len tdm^''^ nay Id mudi
Nhd Trdi van eon cdn bdn dugc
Chua biet con in ra may muoi ?"
Van da giau thay, 1^ 1dm loi
Trdi nghe Trdi cung bat budn cudi!
Chu tien ao udc tranh nhau dan:
- "Anh gdnh len day bdn chg Trdi!"
Trdi l£U phe cho : "Vdn that tuydt!
Vdn tran duac the chic cd it!
(1) Tdm : ten mpt ngdi sao, d day tac gia cdn lay ci nghia chii tdm la "Idng d^" di vidt nd dd
(mdt Idi choi chu).
(2) Ca: ten mpt ngdi sao. Ca (chu Han) cdn cd nghia la "cai thung", "cdi m?t", ttr dd tac gid lay
nghia bdng de vidt le luai (mdt Idi choi chii).
(3) Hdng Nga: ten gpi mat trang, ciing chi ngudi con gai d^p.
(4) Chiic NO: ten mpt ngdi sao 6 phia bdc sdng Ngan Ha, ciing la ten ngudi con gai dft vii trong
truyfin co Nguu Lang - Chiic NU.
(5) Song Thdnh, Tiiu Nggc: ten hai thj nii cua ba Tay Vuong MSU trfin trdi.
(6) Man: ddi tra.
(7) Khdi tinh, Khdi tinh con, Thdn tien, Gidc mgng, Ddi guang Len sdu, Ddn bd Tdu, Lin tdm :
ten cac tac phdm cua Tin Da.

14


Nhdi van chudt dep nhu sao bang!
Khi vdn hiing manh nhu may chuyin!
Em nhu gid thoang, tinh nhu suong!
Dim nhu mua sa, lanh nhu tuyet!
Ching hay van si ten hg ^ ?
Ngudi d phuong nao, ta chua biet."
- "D^, bam lay Trdi con xin thua
Con ten Khac Hieu hg la Nguyin
Que dA chau vi Dia ciu
Sdng Da nui Tdn nude Nam Viet."
Nghe xong Trdi ngg rndt luc lau
Sai bao thidn tao'^' lay sd xet.
Thien tao tra sd xet vua xong
D$ sd len trinh Thugng de trdng
- "Bam qua cd ten Nguyin Khac Hieu
Day xudng ha gidi vi tdi ngdng."
Trdi ring: "Khdng phdi Id Trdi ddy,
Trdi dinh sai con mdt viec nay
La vi^c "thign luang"'^) cua nhan lo?u,
Cho con xudng thuat ciing ddi hay."
- "Bim Trdi, canh con thuc ngheo khd
Trin gian thudc dat cung khdng cd
Nhd Trdi nam xua hgc it nhiiu
Vdn lieng cdn mdt bung vdn dd.
Giiy ngudi muc ngudi thue ngudi in
Mudn cua hang ngudi bdn phudng phd.
Vdn chuong ha gidi re nhu beo
Kiem dugc ddng lai thue rat khd.
Kiem dugc thdi it tieu thdi nhieu
Lam mai quanh nam chang du tieu.
(1) Thien tdo: chd d eia Trdi, trong cau nay tac gid mudn ndi mdt vi quan trdng coi sd sach tren trdi.
(2) Thien luang : theo Tin Da, thien luang d mdi con ngudi m^f thuOc vao su tu dudng eua ban than.
6 nhiiu tac pham khac, Tdn Da van tu nhan minh la ngudi dupe Trdi trao cho nhi$m vu lam sao
cho thiin luang dupe hung thinh 6 ha gidi : Hai chti "thien luang" thdng Hieu nha - Ddm xin
khdng phv Trdi trdng mong (Tiin dng Cdng lin chdu Trdi).
15


Lo an lo mdc h^t ngay thdng
Hgc ngay mdt kem tudi ngay cao
Sue trong non yeu ngoai chen rap
Mdt cay che chdng bdn ndm chiiu.
Trdi 1^ sai con vi$c nang qud
Biet lam cd dugc ma ddm theo."
Rang: "Con khdng ndi Trdi da biet
Trdi diu ngdi cao, Trdi thiu het
Thdi con cur vi md lam dn
Ldng thdng chd ngai chi suong tuyet I"
vang nhdi Trdi day, lay xin ra
Trdi sai Khien Nguu'^' ddng xe tiin
Xe trdi da chuc ngoai thifin mdn
Chu tien theo ra ciing tiin bi$t.
Hai hang luy bi$t gipt suong roi
Trdng xudng tran gian v^n djm khoi.
Thien tien'^* d lai, trich tien'^' xudng
Theo dudng khdng khi vi tran ai.
D6m khuya khi thanh sao thua vdng
Trang ta dua Idi ve non Doai'*'.
Non Doai da tdi que tran gidi,
Trdng len chu tien khdng cdn ai.
Tidng ga xao xac, tiing ngudi d$y
Giiia san cdn dung ridng ngam ngiii.
Mdt nam ba tram sau muoi dem,
Sao duoc mdi d6m Ifin hau Trdi I
(Theo Tuyin tdp Tdn Dd,
NXB van hpe, Ha Ndi, 1986)

(1) Khien Nguu: ten mdt ngdi sao d phia nam sdng Ngan Ha, cung la ten chang chan trau trong
truyen cd Ngicu Lang - Chiic Nu, da duoc Ngpc Hoang gk Chiic Nu cho, nhung vi pham tdi, bi
Ngpc Hoang phat, mdi nam chi dupe qua cau 6 Thudc (bdc qua sdng Ngan Ha) gap Chiic Nii
mpt lan vao ngay th& tich (7 - 7 am lich).
(2) Thien tien: tien d tren trdi.
(3) Trich tiin: tifin bi day xudng hij gidi. 6 nhiiu tac pham khac, Tan Da ty nh?in minh la trich tiin.
(4) Non Dodi: niii d vi phia tay, chi qu6 huong cua Tin Da (nui Tin Vien d phia tay eua Ha N0i).

16


HUlorNG D A N HOC BAI
1. Anh (chi) hay phan tieh khd tha diu. Cdch vao de eua bai tho ggi cho ngudi dgc
cam gidc nhu the nao vi eau ehuyen ma tdc gia sdp ke ?
2. Tdc gia da ke l^i chuyen minh dgc tho cho Trdi va chu tien nghe nhu the nao ?
(Thdi dg cua tdc gid, cua chu tien vd nhirng loi khen cua Trdi.) Qua doan tha dd,
anh (chi) cam nh§n dugc nhung diiu ^ vi cd tinh nha tha va niem khao khdt
chan thdnh cua thi si ? N h ^ xet vi gigng ke eua tac gia.
3. Cdm hiing chu dao cua bai tha la cam hiing lang man, nhung trong bai lai cd
mdt doan rat hi^n thuc. Dd la doan tha ndo ? Tim hieu y nghia doan tha dd.
Theo anh (chi), hai ngudn cam hiing nay d thi si Tan Da cd mdi hen he vdi nhau
nhu the nao ?
4. v i mat nghe thuat, bai tha nay cd gi mdi va hay ? (Chu y cdc m$t: the loai,
ngdn tir, cdch bieu hien cdm x^c, hu eau nghe thu^t,...)
,



CHI NHO

.

Qua bai Hau Trai, Tdn Da da manh dan tu bieu hien "cai tdi" ca nhan - mdt
"cai tdi" ngdng, phdng tung, tu y thiic ve tai nang, gia tri di'eh thue eiia minh
va khao khat dugc khing djnh giua eude ddi. Bai thd cd nhieu sang tao trong
hinh thiic nghe thuat : the tha theft ngdn trudng thien kha tu do, gigng di^u
thoai mai, tu nhien, ngdn ngCr gian dj, sdng ddng, hdm hfnh.

LUYEN TAP
1. Bai Hau Trdi cd y tudng gi hoac cau tha nao lam cho anh (chi) thich thu nha't ?
Hay viet mdt doan van trinh bay cam xuc cua minh.
2*. Anh (chi) hiiu the ndo la "ngdng" ? Cdi "ngdng" trong van chuong thudng bdc
Id mdt thdi do sdng nhu the ndo ? (Cd the dan chirng qua nhirng tdc pham da
hgc.) Cai "ngdng" ciia thi si Tan Da tiong bai tha nay bieu hien d nhiing diem
ndo vd cd the giai thich ra sao ?

2.NGavAN.11/2-A

17


NGHiA CUA CAU
(Tiep theo)

HI-NGHIA TINH THAI
Nghia tinh thdi la mdt linh vuc phiic tap, gdm nhieu khia canh khdc nhau.
Bai nay chi tap trung vao hai trudng h g p :
1. Su nhin n h p i , danh gia va thdi do cda ngudi ndi ddi vdi su vi$c dugc de c$p
den trong cau.
Khi d i cap den su vide nao do, ngudi ndi khdng the khdng bdc Ig thdi dg, su ddnh
, gid eua minh ddi vdi su viec dd. Dd cd the la sii tin tudng chdq chan, su hoai nghi, su
phdng dodn, su ddnh gia cao hay thap, tdt hay xau, su nhan manhiiodc coi nh^,...
ddi vdi sir vi$c. Mdt sd vi du (tii ngii the hi$n nghia tinh thdi dugc in dam):
- Khing dinh tinh chan thyc cua su vide:
+ Su that Id ddn ta da lay lai nudc Vi^tNam tii tay Nhdt, chii khdng phdi tU tayPhdp.
(Ho Chf Minh, Tuyin ngdn Dgc Idp)
+ Bd Kien qud cd y mudn ddn xip ciing hdn that.
(Nam Cao, C/w'P/ieo)
- Phdng dodn su vide vdi do tin cay cao hode vdi dd tin c$y thap:
+ Khi Chi Pheo mdmdt thi trdi sdng da Idu. Mdt trdi chdc dd len cao, vd ndng
ben ngodi chac Id rue ra.
{Nam Cao, Chi Phio)
+ Hinh nhu trong y mu, mu nghi: Chung mdy d nhd tao, thi nhiing thii cda
chdng mdy cung nhu cua tao.
(Kim Lan, lang)
- Ddnh gid v i miic do hay so lughg ddi vdi mdt phuang didn nao do cua
suviee:
+ Tdi xin thi vdi dng rdng, tuy chinh phu cd cho tdi hai trdm mdu don diin that,
nhung tdi mdt theo vdo cdi ay cd den sdu vg,n bgx:, md vdn chua thu vi mqt xu
ndo cd!
(VuTrpngPhyng, Gjd/jgro)
+ Vdi lai, dem hg chi mua bao diem hay gdi thuoc Id cung.
(Th^ch Lam, Hai diia tre)
- Ddnh gia sy viec cd thue hay khdng cd thyc, da xdy ra hay chua xdy r a :
+ Gid thu dem qud khdng cd thi thi hdn chet.
(NamCao, C/iiPftdo)
+ Hdn nhdt mdt hdn gach vd, toan ddp ddu.
{Nam Cao, Chi Phio)
18

2.NG0VANII/2-B


- Khang dinh tinh tat yeu, su cin thiet hay kha ndng cua su vi^c :
+ Viic til bd vdn hod cha dng vd tieng m? de phdi Idm cho moi ngudi An Nam
tha thiit vdi gidng ndi lo ldng.
(Nguyin An Ninh, Tieng m? de - nguon gidi phdng
cdc ddn toe bi dp bdc)

+ Tao khdng the Id ngudi luong thiin nita. •
(Nam Cao, Chi Pheo)

+ Trudng ki khdng chiin nhdt dinh thdng lai.
(Trudng Chinh)

2. Tinh cam, thdi dp cua ngudi ndi ddi vdi ngudi nghe
Ngudi ndi the hien rd thdi dg, tinh cam ddi vdi ngudi nghe thdng qua cdc tii
ngii xung hd, tii ngii cam than, tir tinh thai d cudi cau,....
Vidu:
- Tinh cdm tiidn mat, gin gdi:
+ Em thdp den len chi Lien nhe ?
(Th^eh Lam, Hai dda tre)

+ Cdi chdng ndy sdp gay roi chi nhi ?
(Ih^ch Lam, Hai diia tre)

- Thdi dd buc tiic, hdch dich:
.

.

.

^

Ong li cau mat, lac ddu, gia roi song to bdng ngdn chdn cdi lin trdi, ddm doa:
- Ke mdy, theo linh quan, tao chieu so dinh, thi ldn ndy den lugt mdy roi.
(Nguyin Cdng Hoan, Tinh thdn thid^c)

- Thai dd kinh can:
Ngudi loong toong dap:
- Bdm chi mdi cd hai dng a Hdi Phdng vd dHd Ngive trinh so sdch.
(Vu Trpng Phyng, Gidng td)
^

:

GHI NHO

.

Nghia tinh thai the hien thai do, su danh gia ciia ngudi ndi ddi vdi su viec
hoac ddi vdi ngudi nghe. Nd ed thi dugc bdc Id rieng qua eae tu ngu tinh thai
trong cdu.


19


LUYEN TAP
1. Phan tich nghia su viec va nghia tinh thdi trong cdc cau sau:
a)

Ngodi ndy ndng do cdnh cam
Chdc trong ay ndng xanh lam nggn diia.
{To Hvai, Tieng hdt sang xudn)

b) Tdm dnh chup hai me con kia rd rdng Id mg Du vd thdng DUng.
(Nguyen Hong, Mff DM)

c) That la mdt cdi gdng xiing ddng vdi tdi dn sdu ngucri tic til.
(Ngay&nTuan.Chii ngudi ta tii)

d) Xua nay hdn cMsdng bdnggidt cuop vd doa nQ.t. Niu khdng cdn sitcmd gidt
cuop, doa nqt nita thi sao ? Dd ddnh, hdn chi manh vi liiu.
{NamCao, Chi Pheo)

2. Xdc dinh nhiing tii ngii the hien nghia tinh thdi trong cdc cau sau :
a) Ndi ciia ddng tdi, thdng be hay dn chdng ldn Idm.
b) Cugc ddu tranh chdng Icii ke thii cd thi con gay go, quyit Hit han nita.
c) Nd mua chiic do ndy nhiing hai trdm ngdn dong day.
d) Anh da hen din dif sinh nhdt kia md!
3. Chgn tii ngir tinh thai d cot B diin vao chd trdng cua cau d cot A de t$o nen
cau cd nghia tinh thai phu hgp vdi nghia su viec.
A

B

a) Chi Pheo /.../ dd trdng trudc thay tuoi gid cua hdn, ddi ret
vd dm dau, vd cd dgc, cdi ndy cdn ddng sg han ddi ret vd dm

di

«dau. {Theo Nam Cao, ChiPheo)

b) Hdm nay trong dng gido ciing cd td tdm /.../ hg khdng phdi

chdle

di ggi ddu. {Theo Thach Lam, Hai diia tre)

tdn
c) Bdng bdc minh mdng ngd xudng ddt mot vungvd keo ddi
' din /.../ hdng rdo hai bin ngd. {Theo Thach Lam, Hai dua tre)

hinh nhu

4. Ddt eau vdi mdi tir ngu' tinh thai sau day: chua biit chimg. Id cung, it ra, nghe
ndi, chd le, hod ra, su that Id, ca md, dac bi$t Id, ddy md.
20


v d i VANG

XUAN DIEU
KET QUA CAN OAT Cam nhan dugc niem khao khat sdng manh
lidt, sdng hit minh va quan ni$m ve thdi gian,
ve tudi tre va hanh phuc ciia-Xuan Dieu.
Thay dugc su ket hop nhuan nhj giua mach
cam xuc manh liet, doi dao va mach luan If
sau sac ; nhCrng sang tao dgc dao ve nghe thuat
cua nha tha.

TIEU DAN
Xuan Dieu (1916 - 1985) cdn cd but danh la Trao Nha, ten khai sinh la Ngd Xuan Dieu.
6ng than sinh Xuan Dieu la mpt nha nho, que d larig Trao Nha (nay la xa Dai Ldc), huyen Can Lde„tinh Ha Tinh; me thi si que d Gd Bdi, xa Tiing Gian, huyen Tuy Phudc, tinh Binh Dinh. Xuan Dieu
ldn len d Quy Nhom. Sau khi tdt nghiep tii tai, dng di day hpe tu va lam vien chuc d MI Tho (nay la
Tiin Giang), sau dd ra Ha Ndi sdng bang nghi vidt van, la thanh vien cua Tu luc van doan. Xuan
Dieu tham gia Mat tran Vi6t Minh ttr trudc Cach niang thang Tam nam 1945. Ong hang say hoat
dpng trong linh vuc van hoa nghe thuat. Ca eude ddi dng gdn bd vdi nen vin hoc dan tdc. Ong la
U^ vien Ban Chap hanh Hdi Nha van Vipt Nam cdc khoa 1, H, 111. NSm 1983, Xuan Di^u duoc bau
la Vien SI thdng tail Vien Han lam nghe thuat Cdng hoa dan chu Due.
Xuan Dieu la nha tho "mdi nhat trong cac nha tho mdi" (Hoai Thanh). Ong da dem den cho tho
ca duong thdi mdt siic sdng mdi, mdt ngudn cam xiic mdi, the hien mdt quan niem sdng mdi me
cimg vdi nhiing each tan nghe thuat day sang tao. Ong la nha tho eia tinh yeu, cua miia xuan va
tudi tri vdi mpt gipng tho sdi ndi, dam say, yeu ddi thdm thidt. Tii sau Cach mang, tho Xuan Dieu
hudng manh vao thue t i ddi sdng va rat giau tinh thdi su. Ong co vii va hang hai thi nghiem khuynh
hudng tang cudng chat hien thuc trong tho.
Xuan Dieu la mdt cay biit cd sue sang tao manh liet,
ddi dao, bin bi, ed ddng gdp to ldn tien nhiiu linh vuc
ddi vdi nin van hpe Viet Nam hien dai. Xuan Dieu xiing
dang vdi danh hieu mot nha tho ldn, mdt nghe si ldn,
mpt nha van hoa ldn. Ong diloc Nha nude tang Giai
thudng Hd Chi Minh vi van hoc nghe thuat (1996).
Xuan Dieu de lai mdt su nghiep van hoc ldn, tieu
biiu la cac tap tho: Tha tha {1938), Gui huang cho gid
(1945), Riing chung (1960), MUi Cd Mau - Cam tdy
(1962), Hai dot sdng (1967), Tdi gidu ddi md'f (1970),
Thanh ca (1982) ; cac tip van xudi: PfidH thdrigddng
(1939), Trwowg ca (1945) ; cic tap tieu M n phd binh,
nghien cuu van hpe: Nhiing buac duang tu tudng tua tdi
(1958), (2dc nhd tho cd dien Viit Nam, hai tap (1981,
1982), Cdng i/i^c Zam t^o (1984),...

Xuan Dieu

Vdi vdng duoc in trong tap Tha tha, la mdt trong
nhirng bai tho tieu biiu nhat cda Xuan Dieu trudc Cach
mang thang Tam.
21


VAN BAN
Tdng va Dinh Liin

Tdi mudn tit ning di
Cho mdu dung,nhat mat;
Tdi mudn huge gid lai
Cho huong dung bay di.
Cda ong budm nay ddy tuin thdng mat'i';
Ndy ddy hoa eua ddng ndi xanh ri;
Ndy day Id cua canh ta pha phat;
Cua yen anh'^) ^^y ^^y khuc tinh si;
Vd ndy ddy dnh sdng chop hdng mi,
Mdi budi sdm, thin Vui hang gd cua;
Thdng gieng ngon nhu mdt cap mdi gin;
Tdi sung sudng. Nhung vdi vdng mdt nua:
Tdi khdng chd ning ha mdi hoai xuan'3'.
Xudn duong tdi, nghia la xudn duang qua,
. Xudn cdn non, nghia Id xudn se gid,
Md xudn hit, nghia Id tdi cdng mit.
Ldng tdi rdng, nhung lugng trdi cii chat,
Khdng cho ddi thdi tri cua nhdn giam,
Ndi 1dm chi ring xuan vdn tuin hoan''*^
Neu tudi tri chang hai lin thim 1^^^'!
Cdn trdi dit, nhung ching cdn tdi mai,
Ndn bdng khudng tdi tiec cd dit trdi ;
Miii thdng ndm diu rdm vi chia phdi,
Khip sdng nui vin than thim tiin biet...
Con gid xinh thi thao trong Id biec,
' Phdi chdng hdn vi ndi phdi bay di ?
Chim rgn rdng bdng diit tiing reo thi,
Phdi chdng sg dd phai tan sip sua ?
(1) Tuan thdng mdt (hay tudn trdng mdt): theo phong tuc chSu Au, 30 ngay sau li kit hdn gpi la thang
mat ciia va chdng. (j cau tho nay, cum tii tudn thdng mat cdn cd nghia: mua xuan hoa nd nhiiu,
ong budm di hiit tihuy hoa di l^y mat. ca hai nghia diu ndi len ^ vui sdng manh liet.
(2) ygh anh: chim ydn chim oanh, con trdng con mat ludn qu& qui^ nhau, thudng dupe so sanh
vdi su thfoi thidt trong tinh yeu nam nir, vp chdng.
(3)/fo(ii JCM/Jn: nhd tide miia xuan.
(4) Tudn hodn: theothii t\f ma xoay vin. 6 day y ndi miia xuan vin trd di trd lai.
(5) Trong bin in lin dau, cau tho nay la "Neu ddn nira khdng phai rSng gap lai!". 0 day ghi theo
cau tho tac gia da siia lai.

22


Chang bao gid, di! Chang bao gid niia.;.
Mau di thdi! Mua chua ngd chiiu hdm,
Ta mudn dm
Cd su sdng mdi bit diu mon mdn;
Ta mudn riit may dua vd gid lugn,
Ta mudn say cdnh budm vdi tinh yeu,
Ta mudn thau trong mgt cdi hdn nhiiu
Va non nudc, va cay, va cd rang,
Cho chenh chodng mtii tham, cho da diy dnh sdng,
Cho no ne thanh sac cua thdi tuoi;
- Hdi xudn hdng, ta mudn can vdo nguoi!
(Theo Tha tha,
NXB Ddi nay. Ha Ndi, 1938)

HUdNG D A N HOC BAI
1. Bai tha cd the chia Idm miy doan ? Neu y chinh cua tiing doan.
2. Xudii Di$u cdm nhdn vi thdi gian nhu the ndo ? Vi sao nhd tho cd tam trang vdi
vdng, cudng quyt trudc su trdi qua nhanh chdng cua thdi gian ?
3. Hinh dnh thidn nhien, su sdng quen thudc dugc tde gid cdm nhan va diin ta
nhu thi nao ? Hay chi ra nhirng net mdi trong quan niem cda Xudn Dieu vi
eude sdng, tudi tri va hanh phde.
4. Hay nhan xdt vi ddc diem cua hinh dnh, n^dn ttr, nhip didu trong d o ^ tha
cudi cua bai tha. Nhd tha da sdng tao dugc hinh dnh nao ma anh (chi) cho Id
mdi mi, ddc ddo nhit ?
,

GHI N H O

,

Voi vang la Idi giyc gia hay sdng manh lidt, sdng hit minh, hay quy trgng tung
gidy, tung phut eiia eude ddi minh, nhat la nhung thdng nam tudi tre cua mgt
hdn tha ydu ddi, ham sdng din cudng nhidt. Tu tudng dd dugc t h i hidn qua
mdt hinh thiie ngh§ thudt didu luyen : su ket hgp nhuan nhj giCra mach cam .
xijc va mach ludn If, gigng di§u say md, sdi ndi, nhung sang tao ddc dao ve
ngdn ttr va hinh anh tha.

LUYEN TAP
Trong Nhd vdn hi$n dq,i, nhd phe binh, nghien ciiu vdn hgc Vu Nggc Phan da
viit: "Vdi nhung ngudn cdm hiing mdi : ydu duong vd tudi xudn, du luc vui hay
luc budn, Xudn Didu cung ru thanh nien bang gigng ydu ddi tham thia".
Qiia phdn tich bdi tho Vgi vdng, anh (chi) hay 1dm sdng td nhdn dinh tren.
23


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