# Mechanics of materials 10e global edtion hibbeler 2

398

Chapter 7

transverse shear

p R E LImIN aRY pROB L Em S
7

P7–1. In each case, calculate the value of Q and t that are
used in the shear formula for finding the shear stress at A.
Also, show how the shear stress acts on a differential volume
element located at point A.

0.2 m
0.2 m
0.2 m

V

0.2 m

A

0.3 m
0.1 m

V
0.1 m

A

0.2 m

0.2 m
0.2 m
0.2 m
(d)

0.1 m

(a)
0.1 m
0.3 m

0.1 m

0.2 m
A

0.3 m

V

0.3 m
V

0.2 m

A
0.4 m

0.1 m

0.2 m

0.2 m
(e)

(b)

0.1 m
0.1 m
0.1 m

0.1 m

A

0.5 m
0.1 m
0.1 m
0.2 m

V

0.3 m

A
0.5 m

0.1 m

V

0.3 m
0.1 m
0.1 m

(c)

(f)

Prob. P7–1

7.2

399

the shear Formula

FUN DamEN TaL pR O B L Em S
F7–1. If the beam is subjected to a shear force of
V = 100 kN, determine the shear stress at point A. Represent
the state of stress on a volume element at this point.

F7–4. If the beam is subjected to a shear force of
V = 20 kN, determine the maximum shear stress in the beam.

300 mm
20mm

PP

200 mm

PP

PP
PP

90 mm A
20 mm V

PP

PP

20mm
PP

Prob. F7–1
V

F7–2. Determine the shear stress at points A and B if the
beam is subjected to a shear force of V = 600 kN. Represent
the state of stress on a volume element of these points.
100 mm

PP

PP

Prob. F7–4

100 mm
100 mm

100 mm

F7–5. If the beam is made from four plates and subjected
to a shear force of V = 20 kN, determine the shear stress at
point A. Represent the state of stress on a volume element
at this point.

100 mm
B
100 mm
V

A

50 mm
50 mm

Prob. F7–2
F7–3. Determine the absolute maximum shear stress
developed in the beam.
30 kN

25 mm
150 mm

25 mm

A
15 kN

150 mm
V

B

A
300 mm

300 mm

50 mm

150 mm
300 mm

Prob. F7–3

75 mm

Prob. F7–5

7

400

Chapter 7

transverse shear

p R OBLEmS
7–1. If the wide-flange beam is subjected to a shear of
V = 20 kN, determine the shear stress on the web at A.
7 Indicate the shear-stress components on a volume element
located at this point.

7–6. The wood beam has an allowable shear stress of
tallow = 7 MPa. Determine the maximum shear force V that
can be applied to the cross section.

7–2. If the wide-flange beam is subjected to a shear of
V = 20 kN, determine the maximum shear stress in the
beam.

50 mm

7–3. If the wide-flange beam is subjected to a shear of
V = 20 kN, determine the shear force resisted by the web of
the beam.

100 mm

50 mm

50 mm

200 mm
200 mm
V
A

20 mm

50 mm

20 mm
V

B

Prob. 7–6
300 mm

200 mm

20 mm

Probs. 7–1/2/3
*7–4. If the beam is subjected to a shear of V = 30 kN,
determine the web’s shear stress at A and B. Indicate the
shear-stress components on a volume element located
at these points. Set w = 200 mm. Show that the neutral axis
is located at y = 0.2433 m from the bottom and
I = 0.5382(10−3) m4.

7–7. The shaft is supported by a thrust bearing at A and a
journal bearing at B. If P = 20 kN, determine the absolute
maximum shear stress in the shaft.
*7–8. The shaft is supported by a thrust bearing at A and a
journal bearing at B. If the shaft is made from a material
having an allowable shear stress of tallow = 75 MPa,
determine the maximum value for P.

7–5. If the wide-flange beam is subjected to a shear of
V = 30 kN, determine the maximum shear stress in the
beam. Set w = 300 mm.
300 mm
A

C

20 mm

A

20 mm

1m

B

1m

B
w

Probs. 7–4/5

400 mm

1m
P

P

V

D

30 mm

20 mm
40 mm

Probs. 7–7/8

7.2

401

the shear Formula

7–9. Determine the largest shear force V that the member
can sustain if the allowable shear stress is tallow = 56 MPa.

7–13. Determine the shear stress at point B on the web of
the cantilevered strut at section a–a.

7–10. If the applied shear force V = 90 kN, determine the
maximum shear stress in the member.

7–14. Determine the maximum shear stress acting at
section a–a of the cantilevered strut.
7

75 mm

2 kN

25 mm
V
75 mm 25 mm

250 mm

250 mm

a

4 kN
300 mm

25 mm

a

Probs. 7–9/10

20 mm

7–11. The overhang beam is subjected to the uniform
distributed load having an intensity of w = 50 kN>m.
Determine the maximum shear stress in the beam.

70 mm
20 mm

B

50 mm

Probs. 7–13/14

w
A
B
3m

3m
50 mm

7–15. Determine the maximum shear stress in the T-beam at
the critical section where the internal shear force is maximum.

100 mm

*7–16. Determine the maximum shear stress in the T-beam
at point C. Show the result on a volume element at this point.

Prob. 7–11
*7–12. A member has a cross section in the form of an
equilateral triangle. If it is subjected to a shear force V,
determine the maximum average shear stress in the member
using the shear formula. Should the shear formula actually
be used to predict this value? Explain.

10 kN/m

A
1.5 m

3m

150 mm

a
V

h

150 mm

30 mm
30 mm

Prob. 7–12

B

C

Probs. 7–15/16

1.5 m

402

Chapter 7

transverse shear

7–17. The strut is subjected to a vertical shear of V = 130
kN. Plot the intensity of the shear-stress distribution acting
over the cross-sectional area, and compute the resultant shear
force developed in the vertical segment AB.
7

B

150 mm

7–21. Determine the maximum shear stress acting in the
fiberglass beam at the section where the internal shear force is
maximum.
3 kN/m

2.5 kN/m

D

A

50 mm

A

2m
V

150 mm

130 kN

2m

0.6 m

150 mm

100 mm

150 mm

12 mm

150 mm
50 mm

18 mm

100 mm

Prob. 7–17
7–18. Plot the shear-stress distribution over the cross
section of a rod that has a radius c. By what factor is the
maximum shear stress greater than the average shear stress
acting over the cross section?

18 mm

Prob. 7–21
7–22. If the beam is subjected to a shear of V = 15 kN,
determine the web’s shear stress at A and B. Indicate the
shear-stress components on a volume element located at these
points. Set w = 125 mm. Show that the neutral axis is located
at y = 0.1747 m from the bottom and INA = 0.2182(10−3) m4.
7–23. If the wide-flange beam is subjected to a shear of
V = 30 kN, determine the maximum shear stress in the
beam. Set w = 200 mm.
*7–24. If the wide-flange beam is subjected to a shear of
V = 30 kN, determine the shear force resisted by the web
of the beam. Set w = 200 mm.

c
y

200 mm

V

Prob. 7–18

A

30 mm

7–19. Determine the maximum shear stress in the strut if
it is subjected to a shear force of V = 20 kN.
*7–20. Determine the maximum shear force V that the
strut can support if the allowable shear stress for the
material is tallow = 40 MPa.
12 mm

60 mm

25 mm
V
B

250 mm
30 mm

w

Probs. 7–22/23/24
7–25. Determine the length of the cantilevered beam so
that the maximum bending stress in the beam is equivalent
to the maximum shear stress.

V

P
12 mm

80 mm
20 mm

Probs. 7–19/20

h

20 mm
L

Prob. 7–25

b

7.2
7–26. If the beam is made from wood having an allowable
shear stress tallow = 3 MPa, determine the maximum
magnitude of P. Set d = 100 mm.

7
10 mm

A

B
0.6 m

403

7–29. The composite beam is constructed from wood and
reinforced with a steel strap. Use the method of Sec. 6.6 and
calculate the maximum shear stress in the beam when it is
subjected to a shear of V = 50 kN. Take Est = 200 GPa,
Ew = 15 GPa.

2P

P

0.6 m

the shear Formula

V= 50 kN

0.6 m
300 mm

d
10 mm
175 mm

50 mm

Prob. 7–26

Prob. 7–29
7–27. The beam is slit longitudinally along both sides. If it
is subjected to a shear of V = 250 kN, compare the
maximum shear stress in the beam before and after the cuts
*7–28. The beam is to be cut longitudinally along both
sides as shown. If it is made from a material having an
allowable shear stress of tallow = 75 MPa, determine the
maximum allowable shear force V that can be applied
before and after the cut is made.

7–30. The beam has a rectangular cross section and is
subjected to a load P that is just large enough to develop a
fully plastic moment Mp = PL at the fixed support. If the
material is elastic perfectly plastic, then at a distance x 6 L
the moment M = Px creates a region of plastic yielding
with an associated elastic core having a height 2y′. This
situation has been described by Eq. 6–30 and the moment M
is distributed over the cross section as shown in Fig. 6–48e.
Prove that the maximum shear stress in the beam is given
by tmax = 32(P>A′), where A′ = 2y′b, the cross-sectional
area of the elastic core.
P
x

25 mm
200 mm

25 mm
25 mm

25 mm

25 mm
200 mm

Probs. 7–27/28

2y¿

h

b
Elastic region

V
100 mm

Plastic region

L

Prob. 7–30

7–31. The beam in Fig. 6–48f is subjected to a fully plastic
moment Mp . Prove that the longitudinal and transverse
shear stresses in the beam are zero. Hint: Consider an
element of the beam shown in Fig. 7–4d.

404

Chapter 7

transverse shear

7.3

Shear Flow in built-up
MeMberS

Occasionally in engineering practice, members are “built up” from several
composite parts in order to achieve a greater resistance to loads. An
example is shown in Fig. 7–13. If the loads cause the members to bend,
fasteners such as nails, bolts, welding material, or glue will be needed to
keep the component parts from sliding relative to one another, Fig. 7–2.
In order to design these fasteners or determine their spacing, it is necessary
to know the shear force that they must resist. This loading, when measured
as a force per unit length of beam, is referred to as shear flow, q.*
The magnitude of the shear flow is obtained using a procedure similar
to that for finding the shear stress in a beam. To illustrate, consider
finding the shear flow along the juncture where the segment in Fig. 7–14a
is connected to the flange of the beam. Three horizontal forces must act
on this segment, Fig. 7–14b. Two of these forces, F and F + dF, are the
result of the normal stresses caused by the moments M and M + dM,
respectively. The third force, which for equilibrium equals dF, acts at the
juncture. Realizing that dF is the result of dM, then, like Eq. 7–1, we have

7

Fig. 7–13

dx
M
F

t

dx
dF

dF =
A¿

dM
y dA′
I LA′

M ϩ dM

dx

(b)

(a)

F ϩ dF

The integral represents Q, that is, the moment of the segment’s area A′
about the neutral axis. Since the segment has a length dx, the shear flow,
or force per unit length along the beam, is q = dF>dx. Hence dividing
both sides by dx and noting that V = dM>dx, Eq. 6–2, we have
q =

Fig. 7–14

VQ
I

(7–4)

Here
q = the shear flow, measured as a force per unit length along the beam
V = the shear force, determined from the method of sections and the
equations of equilibrium
I = the moment of inertia of the entire cross-sectional area calculated
Q = y′A′, where A′ is the cross-sectional area of the segment that is connected
to the beam at the juncture where the shear flow is calculated, and y′ is
the distance from the neutral axis to the centroid of A′

*The use of the word “flow” in this terminology will become meaningful as it pertains
to the discussion in Sec. 7.4.

7.3

Fastener Spacing. When segments of a beam are connected by
fasteners, such as nails or bolts, their spacing s along the beam can be
determined. For example, let’s say that a fastener, such as a nail, can
support a maximum shear force of F (N) before it fails, Fig. 7–15a. If
these nails are used to construct the beam made from two boards, as
shown in Fig. 7–15b, then the nails must resist the shear flow q (N>m)
between the boards. In other words, the nails are used to “hold” the top
board to the bottom board so that no slipping occurs during bending.
(See Fig. 7–2a.) As shown in Fig. 7–15c, the nail spacing is therefore
determined from

F
F
F
F
F

V

The examples that follow illustrate application of this equation.

N

Other examples of shaded segments connected to built-up beams by
fasteners are shown in Fig. 7–16. The shear flow here must be found at
the thick black line, and is determined by using a value of Q calculated
from A′ and y′ indicated in each figure. This value of q will be resisted by
a single fastener in Fig. 7–16a, by two fasteners in Fig. 7–16b, and by three
fasteners in Fig. 7–16c. In other words, the fastener in Fig. 7–16a supports
the calculated value of q, and in Figs. 7–16b and 7–16c each fastener
supports q>2 and q>3, respectively.

N

V
V

V (a)

V

V

V

(a)

V

V

V
A

N

V

(b)

(b)
TT

(c)

of a beam. This value is found from the shear formula and is used
to determine the shear force developed in fasteners and glue
that holds the various segments of a composite beam together.

Fig. 7–15

A¿
A¿
N
A

(a)

(b)

Fig. 7–16

F

(c) F
V
F
(c)
V

• Shear flow is a measure of the force per unit length along the axis

N

A

(b)

I m p o rta n t p o I n t

_
y¿

A

V

V

_
y¿

F

(a)

F (N) = q (N>m) s (m)

A¿

A

_
y¿
N

A

(c)

405

shear Flow in Built-up memBers

TT
TT

7

406

Chapter 7

ExampLE

transverse shear

7.4

A¿B

The beam is constructed from three boards glued together as shown in
Fig. 7–17a. If it is subjected to a shear of V = 850 kN, determine the
shear flow at B and B′ that must be resisted by the glue.

10 mm

250 mm

7

B¿

B

_
y¿B

SOLUTION
A

N
300 mm
_
y

V ϭ 850 kN

Section Properties. The neutral axis (centroid) will be located from
the bottom of the beam, Fig. 7–17a. Working in units of meters, we have
y =

2[0.15 m](0.3 m)(0.01 m) + [0.305 m](0.250 m)(0.01 m)
Σ∼
yA
=
ΣA
2(0.3 m)(0.01 m) + (0.250 m)(0.01 m)

= 0.1956 m
10 mm

125 mm

10 mm

The moment of inertia of the cross section about the neutral axis is thus

(a)

I = 2c
+ c

1
(0.01 m)(0.3 m)3 + (0.01 m)(0.3 m)(0.1956 m - 0.150 m)2 d
12

1
(0.250 m)(0.01 m)3 + (0.250 m)(0.01 m)(0.305 m - 0.1956 m)2 d
12

= 87.42(10 - 6) m4
The glue at both B and B′ in Fig. 7–17a “holds” the top board to the
beam. Here
QB = yB= AB= = [0.305 m - 0.1956 m](0.250 m)(0.01 m)
= 0.2735(10 - 3) m3
Shear Flow.
q =
C¿

C
N

A¿C

_
y¿C

A

850(103) N(0.2735(10 - 3) m3)
VQB
=
= 2.66 MN>m
I
87.42(10 - 6) m4

Since two seams are used to secure the board, the glue per meter
length of beam at each seam must be strong enough to resist one-half
of this shear flow. Thus,
qB = qB′ =

q
= 1.33 MN>m
2

Ans.

NOTE: If the board CC' is added to the beam, Fig. 7–17b, then y and I
(b)

Fig. 7–17

have to be recalculated, and the shear flow at C and C′ determined
from q = V y′C A′C >I. Finally, this value is divided by one-half to obtain
qC and qC′.

7.3

ExampLE

407

shear Flow in Built-up memBers

7.5

A box beam is constructed from four boards nailed together as shown
in Fig. 7–18a. If each nail can support a shear force of 30 N, determine
the maximum spacing s of the nails at B and at C to the nearest 5 mm
so that the beam will support the force of 80 N.

80 N

7
s

SOLUTION
Internal Shear. If the beam is sectioned at an arbitrary point along
its length, the internal shear required for equilibrium is always
V = 80 N, and so the shear diagram is shown in Fig. 7–18b.

15 mm
60 mm

Section Properties. The moment of inertia of the cross-sectional
area about the neutral axis can be determined by considering a
75@mm * 75@mm square minus a 45@mm * 45@mm square.

B

V (N)

80

QC = y′A′ = (0.03m)(0.045m)(0.015m) = 20.25(106)m3

qC =

0.015 m
B

B9

A

3

(80 N)[33.75(10 ) m ]
VQB
=
= 1176.47 N>m
I
2.295(10-6) m4

(c)

3

(80 N)[20.25(10 )m ]
VQC
=
= 705.88 N>m
I
2.295(10-6) m4

0.045 m

These values represent the shear force per unit length of the beam
that must be resisted by the nails at B and the fibers at B′, Fig. 7–18c,
and the nails at C and the fibers at C′, Fig. 7–18d, respectively. Since in
each case the shear flow is resisted at two surfaces and each nail can
resist 30 N, for B the spacing is
30 N
sB =
= 0.0510 m = 51.0 mm Use sB = 50 mm Ans.
(1176.47>2) N>m
And for C,
sC =

0.075 m
0.03 m
N

Shear Flow.

-6

x (m)

(b)

Likewise, the shear flow at C can be determined using the “symmetric”
shaded area shown in Fig. 7–18d. We have

qB =

60 mm

(a)

QB = y′A′ = (0.03m)(0.075m)(0.015m) = 33.75(10-6)m3

-6

15 mm

15 mm

1
1
I =
(0.075 m)(0.075 m)3 (0.045 m)(0.045 m)3 = 2.295(10-6) m4
12
12
The shear flow at B is determined using QB found from the darker
shaded area shown in Fig. 7–18c. It is this “symmetric” portion of the
beam that is to be “held” onto the rest of the beam by nails on the left
side and by the fibers of the board on the right side.
Thus,

C

30 N
= 0.0850 m = 85.0 mm Use sC = 85 mm
(705.88>2) N>m

Ans.

0.015 m
0.03 m
N

C¿

C
A

(d)

Fig. 7–18

408

Chapter 7

ExampLE

7

transverse shear

7.6
Nails having a shear strength of 900 N are used in a beam that can be
constructed either as in Case I or as in Case II, Fig. 7–19. If the nails
are spaced at 250 mm, determine the largest vertical shear that can be
supported in each case so that the fasteners will not fail.
s

250 mm
10 mm

10 mm

25 mm
80 mm N

100 mm N

A

A
s

Case I
10 mm

75 mm

250 mm
Case II

10 mm
25 mm

Fig. 7–19

SOLUTION
Since the cross section is the same in both cases, the moment of inertia
1
1
(0.075 m)(0.1 m)3 (0.05 m)(0.08 m)3 = 4.1167(10 - 6) m4
12
12
Case I. For this design a single row of nails holds the top or bottom
flange onto the web. For one of these flanges,
I =

Q = y′A′ = (0.045 m)(0.075 m)(0.01 m) = 33.75(10-6) m3
so that
q =

VQ
I

V[33.75(10-6) m3]
900 N
=
0.25 m
4.1167(10-6) m4
V = 439.11 N = 439 N

Ans.

Case II. Here a single row of nails holds one of the side boards onto
the web. Thus
Q = y′A′ = (0.045 m)(0.025 m)(0.01 m) = 11.25(10-6) m3
q =

VQ
I

V[11.25(10-6) m3]
900 N
=
0.25 m
4.1167(10-6) m4
V = 1.3173(103) N = 1.32 kN

Ans.

7.3

shear Flow in Built-up memBers

409

FUN DamEN Ta L pR O B L Em S
F7–6. The two identical boards are bolted together to form
the beam. Determine the maximum spacing s of the bolts to
the nearest mm if each bolt has a shear strength of 15 kN. The
beam is subjected to a shear force of V = 50 kN.

F7–8. The boards are bolted together to form the built-up
beam. If the beam is subjected to a shear force of V = 20 kN,
determine the maximum spacing s of the bolts to the nearest 7
mm if each bolt has a shear strength of 8 kN.
50 mm
25 mm
25 mm

s
s

200 mm

100 mm
100 mm

s
50 mm

s

V

150 mm

300 mm

150 mm

V

Prob. F7–6
Prob. F7–8
F7–7. Two identical 20-mm-thick plates are bolted to the
top and bottom flange to form the built-up beam. If the beam
is subjected to a shear force of V = 300 kN, determine the
maximum spacing s of the bolts to the nearest mm if each
bolt has a shear strength of 30 kN.

F7–9. The boards are bolted together to form the built-up
beam. If the beam is subjected to a shear force of V = 75 kN,
determine the allowable maximum spacing of the bolts to
the nearest multiples of 5 mm. Each bolt has a shear strength
of 30 kN.
25 mm

12 mm

12 mm
200 mm
20 mm

100 mm
s

75mm

s

s

10 mm

s

25 mm

300 mm

25 mm

10 mm
V
10 mm
200 mm

Prob. F7–7

V

20 mm

Prob. F7–9

75 mm

100 mm

410

Chapter 7

transverse shear

p ROBLEmS
*7–32. The double T-beam is fabricated by welding the
three plates together as shown. Determine the shear stress in
7 the weld necessary to support a shear force of V = 80 kN.
7–33. The double T-beam is fabricated by welding the
three plates together as shown. If the weld can resist a shear
stress tallow = 90 MPa, determine the maximum shear V
that can be applied to the beam.
20 mm

*7–36. The beam is constructed from four boards which
are nailed together. If the nails are on both sides of the
beam and each can resist a shear of 3 kN, determine the
maximum load P that can be applied to the end of the beam.
P

3 kN

B

A

C

2m

2m

100 mm

150 mm
30 mm

V
50 mm

75 mm
20 mm

50 mm

150 mm

20 mm
30 mm

Probs. 7–32/33

250 mm 30 mm
30 mm

7–34. The beam is constructed from two boards fastened
together with three rows of nails spaced s = 50 mm apart. If
each nail can support a 2.25-kN shear force, determine the
maximum shear force V that can be applied to the beam.The
allowable shear stress for the wood is tallow = 2.1 MPa.
7–35. The beam is constructed from two boards fastened
together with three rows of nails. If the allowable shear stress
for the wood is tallow = 1 MPa, determine the maximum shear
force V that can be applied to the beam. Also, find the maximum
spacing s of the nails if each nail can resist 3.25 kN in shear.

Prob. 7–36
7–37. The beam is fabricated from two equivalent structural
tees and two plates. Each plate has a height of 150 mm and a
thickness of 12 mm. If a shear of V = 250 kN is applied to
the cross section, determine the maximum spacing of the
bolts. Each bolt can resist a shear force of 75 kN.
7–38. The beam is fabricated from two equivalent structural
tees and two plates. Each plate has a height of 150 mm and a
thickness of 12 mm. If the bolts are spaced at s = 200 mm
determine the maximum shear force V that can be applied to
the cross section. Each bolt can resist a shear force of 75 kN.

s

12 mm
s

s

75 mm
25 mm
A

40 mm
V

40 mm

150 mm

V

N

12 mm

150 mm

75 mm

Probs. 7–34/35

Probs. 7–37/38

7.3

411

shear Flow in Built-up memBers

7–39. The double-web girder is constructed from two
plywood sheets that are secured to wood members at its top
and bottom. If each fastener can support 3 kN in single
shear, determine the required spacing s of the fasteners
needed to support the loading P = 15 kN. Assume A is
pinned and B is a roller.

7–42. The simply supported beam is built up from three boards
by nailing them together as shown. The wood has an allowable
shear stress of tallow = 1.5 MPa, and an allowable bending
stress of sallow = 9 MPa. The nails are spaced at s = 75 mm,
and each has a shear strength of 1.5 kN. Determine the
maximum allowable force P that can be applied to the beam.

*7–40. The double-web girder is constructed from two
plywood sheets that are secured to wood members at its top
and bottom. The allowable bending stress for the wood is
sallow = 56 MPa and the allowable shear stress is
tallow = 21 MPa. If the fasteners are spaced s = 150 mm
and each fastener can support 3 kN in single shear,
determine the maximum load P that can be applied to the
beam.

7–43. The simply supported beam is built up from three
boards by nailing them together as shown. If P = 12 kN,
determine the maximum allowable spacing s of the nails to
support that load, if each nail can resist a shear force of 1.5 kN.

50 mm
50 mm

P

s

A

B
1m

P

1m

s

100 mm

250 mm
A

1.2 m

1.2 m

25 mm

B

50 mm
50 mm

25 mm

200 mm

150 mm
12 mm 12 mm
25 mm

Probs. 7–39/40
Probs. 7–42/43
7–41. A beam is constructed from three boards bolted
together as shown. Determine the shear force in each bolt if
the bolts are spaced s = 250 mm apart and the shear is
V = 35 kN.

25 mm
25 mm
100 mm 250 mm

*7–44. The T-beam is nailed together as shown. If the nails
can each support a shear force of 4.5 kN, determine the
maximum shear force V that the beam can support and the
corresponding maximum nail spacing s to the nearest
multiples of 5 mm. The allowable shear stress for the wood
is tallow = 3 MPa.

50 mm

s

300 mm
s

300 mm

V

350 mm

V

s ϭ 250 mm

25 mm

Prob. 7–41

50 mm

Prob. 7–44

7

412

Chapter 7

transverse shear

7–45. The nails are on both sides of the beam and each can
determine the maximum load P that can be applied to the
end of the beam. The nails are spaced 100 mm apart and the
allowable shear stress for the wood is tallow = 3 MPa.
7

7–47. The beam is made from four boards nailed together
as shown. If the nails can each support a shear force of
500 N, determine their required spacing s′ and s to the
nearest mm if the beam is subjected to a shear of V = 3.5 kN.
D

P

2 kN/m

25 mm
25 mm
50 mm

s¿
s¿

A

B

C

1.5 m

A

C

s

1.5 m

250 mm

25 mm

s

250 mm
V

100 mm
B

40 mm

200 mm

Prob. 7–47
*7–48. The beam is made from three polystyrene strips
that are glued together as shown. If the glue has a shear
strength of 80 kPa, determine the maximum load P that can
be applied without causing the glue to lose its bond.

200 mm 20 mm

30 mm

P

20 mm

7–46. Determine the average shear stress developed in the
nails within region AB of the beam. The nails are located on
each side of the beam and are spaced 100 mm apart. Each
nail has a diameter of 4 mm. Take P = 2 kN.

B
1.5 m

C
1.5 m

100 mm

A
0.8 m

1m

0.8 m

7–49. The timber T-beam is subjected to a load consisting
of n concentrated forces, Pn. If the allowable shear Vnail for
each of the nails is known, write a computer program that
will specify the nail spacing between each load. Show an
application of the program using the values L = 5 m,
a1 = 1.5 m, P1 = 3 kN, a2 = 3 m, P2 = 6 kN, b1 = 40 mm,
h1 = 200 mm,
b2 = 200 mm,
h2 = 25 mm,
and
Vnail = 900 N.
P1

P2

Pn
s3

s2

A

sn
B

a1
200 mm 20 mm
20 mm

1m

Prob. 7–48

s1

Prob. 7–46

B

40 mm

40 mm

200 mm

1
—P
4

20 mm

60 mm

P

2 kN/m

A

1
—P
4

40 mm

Prob. 7–45

40 mm

b2

h2
h1

a2
an
L

Prob. 7–49

b1

7.4

7.4

413

shear Flow in thin-walled memBers

Shear Flow in thin-walled
MeMberS

In this section we will show how to describe the shear-flow distribution
throughout a member’s cross-sectional area. As with most structural
members, we will assume that the member has thin walls, that is, the wall
thickness is small compared to its height or width.
Before we determine the shear-flow distribution, we will first show
how to establish its direction. To begin, consider the beam in
Fig. 7–20a, and the free-body diagram of segment B taken from the top
flange, Fig. 7–20b. The force dF must act on the longitudinal section in
order to balance the normal forces F and F + dF created by the
moments M and M + dM, respectively. Because q (and t) are
complementary, transverse components of q must act on the cross
section as shown on the corner element in Fig. 7–20b.
Although it is also true that V + dV will create a vertical shear-flow
component on this element, Fig. 7–20c, here we will neglect its effects.
This is because the flange is thin, and the top and bottom surfaces of
the flange are free of stress. To summarize then, only the shear flow
component that acts parallel to the sides of the flange will be
considered.

t
V

7

M

B
C
M ϩ dM
V ϩ dV
dx

q

F

t
dF

dA

B
(b)

F ϩ dF

q assumed constant
throughout flange
thickness

Fig. 7–20

(c)

q¿ is assumed to be zero
throughout flange
thickness since the top
and bottom surfaces of
the flange must be
stress free

(a)

414

Chapter 7

transverse shear

d
2

t

7
t

N
V

d
2

t

x

A

q

b
2

t

dy

t

dx d
2

N

b

q
A

y

N

A

t

b
t

d
2

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 7–21

Shear Flow in Flanges. The shear-flow distribution along the top
flange of the beam in Fig. 7–21a can be found by considering the shear
flow q, acting on the dark blue element dx, located an arbitrary distance x
from the centerline of the cross section, Fig. 7–21b. Here
Q = y′A′ = [d>2](b>2 - x)t, so that
q =

V [d>2](b>2 - x)t
VQ
Vt d b
=
=
a - xb
I
I
2I 2

(7–5)

By inspection, this distribution varies in a linear manner from q = 0 at
x = b>2 to (qmax)f = Vt db>4I at x = 0. (The limitation of x = 0 is
possible here since the member is assumed to have “thin walls” and so
the thickness of the web is neglected.) Due to symmetry, a similar analysis
yields the same distribution of shear flow for the other three flange
segments. These results are as shown in Fig. 7–21d.
The total force developed in each flange segment can be determined
by integration. Since the force on the element dx in Fig. 7–21b is
dF = q dx, then
Ff =

L

q dx =

L0

b>2

Vt d b
Vt db2
a - xb dx =
2I 2
16I

We can also determine this result by finding the area under the triangle
in Fig. 7–21d. Hence,
Ff =

1
b
Vt db2
(qmax)f a b =
2
2
16I

All four of these forces are shown in Fig. 7–21e, and we can see from
their direction that horizontal force equilibrium on the cross section is
maintained.

7.4
(qmax)f

Ff

2(qmax)f

shear Flow in thin-walled memBers

415

Ff

(qmax)w

Fw ϭ V

7
2(qmax)f

(qmax)f

Ff

Ff

Shear-flow distribution
(d)

(e)

Fig. 7–21 (cont.)

Shear Flow in Web. A similar analysis can be performed for the
web, Fig. 7–21c. Here q must act downward, and at element dy
we have Q = Σy′A′ = [d>2](bt) + [ y + (1>2)(d > 2 - y)] t(d>2 - y) =
bt d>2 + (t>2)(d 2 >4 - y2), so that
q =

VQ
Vt db
1 d2
=
J
+ ¢
- y2 ≤ R
I
I
2
2 4

(7–6)

For the web, the shear flow varies in a parabolic manner, from
q = 2(qmax)f = Vt db>2I at y = d>2 to (qmax)w = (Vt d>I )(b>2 + d>8)
at y = 0, Fig. 7–21d.
Integrating to determine the force in the web, Fw , we have
Fw =
=

L

d>2

q dy =

Vt db
1 d2
J
+ ¢
- y2 ≤ R dy
I
2
2
4
L-d>2

d>2
Vt db
1 d2
1
J y + ¢ y - y3 ≤ R 2
I 2
2 4
3
-d>2

Vtd 2
1
a2b + d b
4I
3
Simplification is possible by noting that the moment of inertia for the
cross-sectional area is
=

I = 2J

1 3
d 2
1 3
bt + bt a b R +
td
12
2
12

Neglecting the first term, since the thickness of each flange is small, then
I =

td 2
1
a2b + d b
4
3

Substituting this into the above equation, we see that Fw = V, which is to
be expected, Fig. 7–21e.

416

Chapter 7

V

7

(a)

V

transverse shear

From the foregoing analysis, three important points should be observed.
First, q will vary linearly along segments (flanges) that are perpendicular
to the direction of V, and parabolically along segments (web) that are
inclined or parallel to V. Second, q will always act parallel to the walls of
the member, since the section of the segment on which q is calculated is
always taken perpendicular to the walls. And third, the directional sense of
q is such that the shear appears to “flow” through the cross section, inward
at the beam’s top flange, “combining” and then “flowing” downward
through the web, since it must contribute to the downward shear force V,
Fig. 7–22a, and then separating and “flowing” outward at the bottom
flange. If one is able to “visualize” this “flow” it will provide an easy means
for establishing not only the direction of q, but also the corresponding
direction of t. Other examples of how q is directed along the segments of
thin-walled members are shown in Fig. 7–22b. In all cases, symmetry
prevails about an axis that is collinear with V, and so q “flows” in a
direction such that it will provide the vertical force V and yet also satisfy
horizontal force equilibrium for the cross section.

V

Im po rta nt po Ints
V

• The shear flow formula q = VQ>I can be used to determine
the distribution of the shear flow throughout a thin-walled
member, provided the shear V acts along an axis of symmetry
or principal centroidal axis of inertia for the cross section.

• If a member is made from segments having thin walls, then
only the shear flow parallel to the walls of the member is
important.

V

• The shear flow varies linearly along segments that are
perpendicular to the direction of the shear V.

• The shear flow varies parabolically along segments that are
inclined or parallel to the direction of the shear V.

(b)
Shear flow q

Fig. 7–22

• On the cross section, the shear “flows” along the segments so

that it results in the vertical shear force V and yet satisfies
horizontal force equilibrium.

7.4

ExampLE

7.7

The thin-walled box beam in Fig. 7–23a is subjected to a shear of 200 kN.
Determine the variation of the shear flow throughout the cross section.

C

B

25 mm

SOLUTION
By symmetry, the neutral axis passes through the center of the cross
section. For thin-walled members we use centerline dimensions for
calculating the moment of inertia.
I =

1
(0.05 m)(0.175 m)3 + 2[(0.125 m)(0.025 m)(0.0875 m)2] = 70.18(10-6) m4
12

Only the shear flow at points B, C, and D has to be determined. For
point B, the area A′ ≈ 0, Fig. 7–23b, since it can be thought of as
being located entirely at point B. Alternatively, A′ can also represent
the entire cross-sectional area, in which case QB = y′A′ = 0 since
y′ = 0. Because QB = 0, then
qB = 0
For point C, the area A′ is shown dark shaded in Fig. 7–23c. Here, we
have used the mean dimensions since point C is on the centerline of
each segment. We have
QC = y′A′ = (0.0875 m)(0.125 m)(0.025 m) = 0.27344(10-3 2m3
Since there are two points of attachment,

N

75 mm

7

200 kN
D

75 mm
25 mm

A

25 mm
50 mm
50 mm
25 mm
(a)
A9

N

A

(b)
0.025 m

0.125 m
0.0875 m
A
0.1 m

N

0.025 m 0.1 m
(c)

3
-3
3
1 VQC
1 [200 (10 ) N] [0.27344 (10 ) m
qC = a
b = c
d = 389.61(103) N>m = 390 kN>m
2
I
2
70.18 (10-6) m4

0.125 m
0.0875 m

N

0.0875 m
b(0.025 m)(0.0875 m)d + [0.0875 m](0.125 m)(0.025 m) = 0.4648(10-3) m3
2

(d)

Because there are two points of attachment,
3
-3
3
1 VQD
1 [200 (10 ) N][0.4648 (10 ) m ]
a
b = c
d = 662.33(103) N>m = 662 kN>m
2
I
2
70.18 (10-6) m4

Using these results, and the symmetry of the cross section, the shearflow distribution is plotted in Fig. 7–23e. The distribution is linear
along the horizontal segments (perpendicular to V) and parabolic
along the vertical segments (parallel to V).

390 kN/m
662 kN/m
A

N

qD =

0.0875 m
A

The shear flow at D is determined using the three dark-shaded
rectangles shown in Fig. 7–23d. Again, using centerline dimensions
QD = Σy′A′ = 2c a

417

shear Flow in thin-walled memBers

390 kN/m
(e)

Fig. 7–23

418

Chapter 7

transverse shear

*7.5

Shear Center For open
thin-walled MeMberS

In the previous section, the internal shear V was applied along a principal
centroidal axis of inertia that also represents an axis of symmetry for the
cross section. In this section we will consider the effect of applying the
shear along a principal centroidal axis that is not an axis of symmetry. As
before, only open thin-walled members will be analyzed, where the
dimensions to the centerline of the walls of the members will be used.
A typical example of this case is the channel shown in Fig. 7–24a. Here
it is cantilevered from a fixed support and subjected to the force P. If
this force is applied through the centroid C of the cross section, the
channel will not only bend downward, but it will also twist clockwise
as shown.

7

(qmax)f

(qmax)w
P

(qmax)f
Shear-flow distribution

C

(b)

(a)

Ff

P
e

A

C

d

‫؍‬

O

A
P

VϭP
Ff

(c)

(d)

(e)

Fig. 7–24

7.5

419

shear Center For open thin-walled memBers

The reason the member twists has to do with the shear-flow distribution
along the channel’s flanges and web, Fig. 7–24b. When this distribution is
integrated over the flange and web areas, it will give resultant forces of Ff
in each flange and a force of V = P in the web, Fig. 7–24c. If the moments
of these three forces are summed about point A, the unbalanced couple
or torque created by the flange forces is seen to be responsible for
twisting the member. The actual twist is clockwise when viewed from the
front of the beam, as shown in Fig. 7–24a, because reactive internal
“equilibrium” forces Ff cause the twisting. In order to prevent this
twisting and therefore cancel the unbalanced moment, it is necessary to
apply P at a point O located an eccentric distance e from the web, as
shown in Fig. 7–24d. We require ΣMA = Ff d = Pe, or
e =

7

Ff d

P
The point O so located is called the shear center or flexural center.
When P is applied at this point, the beam will bend without twisting,
Fig. 7–24e. Design handbooks often list the location of the shear center
for a variety of thin-walled beam cross sections that are commonly used
in practice.
From this analysis, it should be noted that the shear center will always
lie on an axis of symmetry of a member’s cross-sectional area. For
example, if the channel is rotated 90° and P is applied at A, Fig. 7–25a, no
twisting will occur since the shear flow in the web and flanges for this
case is symmetrical, and therefore the force resultants in these elements
will create zero moments about A, Fig. 7–25b. Obviously, if a member has
a cross section with two axes of symmetry, as in the case of a wide-flange
beam, the shear center will coincide with the intersection of these axes
(the centroid).

Notice how this cantilever beam deflects
when loaded through the centroid (above)
and through the shear center (below).

P

P
Ff

A

(a)

P
2

Ff
A

P
2

(b)

Fig. 7–25

‫؍‬

A

420

Chapter 7

transverse shear

Im po rta nt po Ints
• The shear center is the point through which a force can be
applied which will cause a beam to bend and yet not twist.

7

• The shear center will always lie on an axis of symmetry of the
cross section.

• The location of the shear center is only a function of the
geometry of the cross section, and does not depend upon the

pro c e du re f o r a na lys I s
The location of the shear center for an open thin-walled member for
which the internal shear is in the same direction as a principal
centroidal axis for the cross section may be determined by using the
following procedure.

Shear-Flow Resultants.

• By observation, determine the direction of the shear flow

through the various segments of the cross section, and sketch
the force resultants on each segment of the cross section. (For
example, see Fig. 7–24c.) Since the shear center is determined by
taking the moments of these force resultants about a point, A,
choose this point at a location that eliminates the moments of
as many force resultants as possible.
The magnitudes of the force resultants that create a moment
about A must be calculated. For any segment this is done by
determining the shear flow q at an arbitrary point on the
segment and then integrating q along the segment’s length.
Realize that V will create a linear variation of shear flow in
segments that are perpendicular to V, and a parabolic variation
of shear flow in segments that are parallel or inclined to V.

Shear Center.

• Sum the moments of the shear-flow resultants about point A

and set this moment equal to the moment of V about A. Solve
this equation to determine the moment-arm or eccentric
distance e, which locates the line of action of V from A.
If an axis of symmetry for the cross section exists, the shear
center lies at a point on this axis.

7.5

ExampLE

7.8

Determine the location of the shear center for the thin-walled channel
having the dimensions shown in Fig. 7–26a.

b
t

SOLUTION

I =

t
(a)

1 3
h 2
th2 h
th + 2Jbt a b R =
a + bb
12
2
2 6

(qmax)w
(qmax)f

From Fig. 7–26d, q at the arbitrary position x is

Shear flow distribution
(b)

V(h>2)[b - x]t
V(b - x)
VQ
=
=
2
I
h[(h>6) + b]
(th >2)[(h>6) + b]

Hence, the force Ff in the flange is
b

h

PϭV

Ff

A

b

V
Vb2
Ff =
q dx =
(b - x) dx =
h[(h>6) + b] L0
2h[(h>6) + b]
L0

e

A

‫؍‬

V

This same result can also be determined without integration by first
finding (qmax)f , Fig. 7–26b, then determining the triangular area
1
2 b(qmax)f = Ff .
Shear Center.
we require

7

h

Shear-Flow Resultants. A vertical downward shear V applied to
the section causes the shear to flow through the flanges and web as
shown in Fig. 7–26b. This in turn creates force resultants Ff and V in
the flanges and web as shown in Fig. 7–26c. We will take moments
about point A so that only the force Ff on the lower flange has to be
determined.
The cross-sectional area can be divided into three component
rectangles—a web and two flanges. Since each component is assumed
to be thin, the moment of inertia of the area about the neutral axis is

q =

421

shear Center For open thin-walled memBers

Ff
(c)

Summing moments about point A, Fig. 7–26c,

Ve = Ff h =

Vb2h
2h[(h>6) + b]

N

h
2

q
x

Thus,

dx
b

e =

b2
[(h>3) + 2b]

Ans.

(d)

Fig. 7–26

A

422

Chapter 7

ExampLE

transverse shear

7.9
Determine the location of the shear center for the angle having equal
legs, Fig. 7–27a. Also, find the internal shear-force resultant in each leg.

7
t

b

qmax
45Њ
45Њ
qmax

b

Shear-flow distribution

t
(a)

(b)

V
F

‫؍‬

O

O

F

(c)

Fig. 7–27

SOLUTION
When a vertical downward shear V is applied at the section, the shear
flow and shear-flow resultants are directed as shown in Figs. 7–27b
and 7–27c, respectively. Note that the force F in each leg must be
equal, since for equilibrium the sum of their horizontal components
must be equal to zero. Also, the lines of action of both forces intersect
point O; therefore, this point must be the shear center, since the sum of
the moments of these forces and V about O is zero, Fig. 7–27c.

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