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Resource circulation2

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Basics of Sustainability Science


Resource Circulation 2/2
Seiji Hashimoto

Professor, Department of Environmental Systems Engineering
Ritsumeikan University



S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Contents: Resource circulation


!  Concepts for resource circulation
"  Japan, China, and Europe

"  Brief history of Japan's "Junkan-Gata Society"
"  Required change in resource use
!  Japan's material cycling & waste management policies
"  Legislative framework
"  Fundamental Law and national material flow indicators
"  Extended producer responsibility
!  Resource circulation and climate change
"  Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions
"  Case studies of recycling
"  Energy recovery
!  Topics for the future

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions


!  Materials life-cycle and GHG emissions
"  GHGs are emitted from the life-cycle of materials, i.e., from extraction
stage to waste management and recycling stage

"  These GHG emissions change through the changes in materials/
waste management

Reduce

Reduce
Collection

Extraction
Fabrication &
Manufacturing

Use

Reuse
Recycling



Waste
Management
& Recycling

Incineration

Landfill

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Question

How does reduce change GHG emissions
from the life-cycle of materials?

Reduce

Reduce
Collection

Extraction
Fabrication &
Manufacturing

Use

Reuse
Recycling

Waste
Management
& Recycling

Incineration

Landfill

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions


!  Reduce
"  Ex. Reduction of packaging material decreases emissions from all the
stages
disposal through disposal
stages from
from extraction,
extraction, production,
fabrication &through
manufacturing,

"  Ex. Long-term use of house decreases emissions from all the stages
fabrication &through
manufacturing,
from extraction, production,
disposal through disposal

Reduce

Reduce
Collection

Extraction
Fabrication &
Manufacturing

Use

Reuse
Recycling

Waste
Management
& Recycling

Incineration

Landfill


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Question

How does recycling change GHG
emissions from the life-cycle of materials?

Reduce

Reduce
Collection

Extraction
Fabrication &
Manufacturing

Use

Reuse
Recycling

Waste
Management
& Recycling

Incineration

Landfill

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions


!  Recycling
"  Ex. Recycling of plastic packaging waste
#  increases emissions from collection stage because
of increased source separation of wastes
#  adds emissions from recycling stage
#  avoids emissions from incineration, landfill, and extraction stage
#  decreases emissions from manufacturing stage

Reduce

Reduce
Collection

Extraction
Fabrication &
Manufacturing

Use

Reuse
Recycling

Waste
Management
& Recycling

Incineration

Landfill

14


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Question

How much energy consumption (≒GHG emissions)
can be reduced by recycling of aluminum cans ?
A. 37%
B. 67%
C. 97%

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Recycling of aluminum cans


Waste Management & Recycling

Recycling
Collection as
empty cans

Nonrecycling

Sorting of
scrap Al cans

Waste Management
& Recycling
Collection as
non-burnable
waste

Landfilling of
scrap cans

Extraction

Fab &
Manuf.
Al
Making

Use

Fab. &
Manuf.
Use

Extraction
of bauxite

Al
Making

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Recycling of aluminum cans

Primary aluminum

Recycled aluminum
Energy consumption of aluminum
Primary aluminum: 133,000MJ/t-aluminum
Recycled aluminum: 4,400MJ/t-aluminum (3.3%)

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Question

Can recycling of plastic bottles reduce GHG
emissions?

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Recycling of plastic bottle (PET bottle)

Mechanical recycling


Flake, pellet


Feedstock recycling (Monomerization)


Monomer


Energy recovery


Electricity, heat

Flake

Pellet

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Recycling of plastic bottle (PET bottle)


Waste Management & Recycling

Recycling
Collection of
waste plastic bottle

Nonrecycling

Use

Sorting of
waste plastic bottle

Waste Management
& Recycling
Collection of
waste bottle

Fab. &
Manuf.

Incineration of
waste bottle

Extraction

Fab. &
Manuf.
Use

Extraction
of crude oil

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

30
 

Production of
recycled resin

Production of
Recycled fiber

Production of
recycled cloth
Waste
treatment

Landfilling

JPN-CHN MR
(flake in CHN-cloth)

Incineration with
energy recovery

Production
of new cloth

Production
of new fiber

Domestic MR
(flake-cloth)
Domestic FR
( resin for bottle)
Domestic FR
(fiber for cloth)
JPN-CHN MR
(flake in CHN-fiber)
JPN-CHN MR
(flake in JPN-fiber)

Production
of new resin
Domestic MR
(flake-fiber)
Domestic MR
(pellet-fiber)

CO2 emissions
(kg/kg-plastic bottle)


Recycling of plastic bottle (PET bottle)


出典:中谷隼ら(2008)使用済みペットボトルの国内リサイクルと日中間リサイクルのライフサイクル評価、日本LCA学会誌、4(4)、324-333


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions


!  Reuse
"  Ex. Reuse of a second-hand refrigerator
#  decreases emissions from waste management stage of this
# 

refrigerator and manufacturing stage of a new refrigerator
does not decrease emissions from use stage because of
energy inefficiency of old refrigerator

Reduce

Reduce
Collection

Extraction
Fabrication &
Manufacturing

Use

Reuse
Recycling

Waste
Management
& Recycling

Incineration

Landfill

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

35

Reuse of home appliances


Manufacturing
Disposal
Use

Use old


Buy new


Energy consumption


Use old


Buy new


Material consumption


出典:田崎智宏(2009)省エネ製品に買い替えるべき?、ココが知りたい温暖化、国立環境研究所
   http://www.cger.nies.go.jp/ja/library/qa/23/23-1/qa_23-1-j.html



S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Energy recovery
0
Steam coal (import)
Kerosene
Light oil
Paper
Newsprint
Polyethylene (PE)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Styrene foam
PET bottle
Grass / wood
Plywood / panel
Laminated wood /
Nylon fabric
Polyester fabric
Cotton
Tyre
Waste oil

Low calorific value (kcal/kg)
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000

12,000

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Incineration facility of household (general) waste
Incineration
Reception and supply

Remaining heat utilization
Exhaust gas treatment

Smokestack

Source: Yokohama City HP


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

41

Power generation from household (general) waste
!  Number of facilities and their capacity
"  Number increased gradually, total capacity more than a nuclear power plant
with 1 million kW

!  Total electric energy and generating efficiency

"  Total electric energy once saturated because of decrease in waste generation,
it increased again because of bottoming-out of waste generation and increase
in generating efficiency
9

1,600

2

2
2013

2012

0

2011

1
2010

0

4

2009

0

200

3

2008

400

50

6

2007

600

100

4

2006

800

2005

150

8

5

2004

1,000

6

2003

200

10

2002

1,200

7

2001

250

12

Generating efficiency

8

2000

1,400

14

Total electric energy

Generating efficiency (%)

1,800

Total capacity

Total electric energy (TWh)

300

10

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013

Number of facilities

350

2,000
Number of facilities

Total capacity(MW)

400

0

Data source: Ministry of the Environment "Waste management in Japan"


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Energy recovery
!  Household (general) waste
" 
" 
" 
" 

Waste power generation and heat supply at incineration facilities
Power generation and heat supply using RDF(Refuse Derived Fuel)
Methane gas collection from landfill sites
Methane fermentation of food waste, methane fermentation of
excretion and sludge of septic tank

!  Industrial waste
"  Waste power generation and heat supply at incineration facilities
"  Power generation and heat supply using RPF(Refuse Paper and
Plastic Fuel)
"  Use of waste plastics, waste tyres, waste oil,
waste wood, and sewage sludge as fuels
"  Use of digestion gas of sewage sludge

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

45

GHG reduction through waste to energy in Japan


GHG reduction (10 million ton-CO2)


20

21

鉄くずのリサイクル

Use of waste wood as fuel

Use of waste oil as fuel

Waste power generation


図出典:中央環境審議会(2015)第三次循環型社会形成推進基本計画の
進捗状況の第1回点検結果について



S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Contents: Resource circulation


!  Concepts for resource circulation
"  Japan, China, and Europe
"  Brief history of Japan's "Junkan-Gata Society"
"  Required change in resource use
!  Japan's material cycling & waste management policies
"  Legislative framework
"  Fundamental Law and national material flow indicators
"  Extended producer responsibility
!  Resource circulation and climate change
"  Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions
"  Case studies of recycling
"  Energy recovery
!  Topics for the future

47


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

http://www.recycleshop-mogland.jp/tenpo.html

!  2Rs
# 
# 
# 
# 
# 

The first two of 3Rs: Reduce & Reuse, more important than Recycle
For reduction of waste and increase of resource efficiency
Selling services, not products: servisizing, product-service system
Remanufacturing: the rebuilding of a product using a combination of
reused, repaired and new parts
Reduction of containers & packaging, food waste…

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

!  Stock management
# 
# 
# 
# 

Significant amount of infrastructures and durables in a society
Stocks as potential secondary resources and wastes; effective use of
existing stocks for resource efficiency
Extension of lifetime: building and infrastructure
Urban mining: urban ore contains more metals than natural ore, but
efficient collection is required

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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http://www.jishin.go.jp/main/yosokuchizu/kaiko/k_nankai.htm

!  Disaster waste management
# 
# 
# 
# 

Frequent earthquakes (tsunami) & floods expected
Speedy treatment of disaster waste necessary for recovery from disaster
Municipalities requested to make management plans including wide area
treatment
Detailed planning, including evaluation of effectiveness & estimation of costs


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