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Resource circulation1

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Basics of Sustainability Science


Resource Circulation 1/2
Seiji Hashimoto

Professor, Department of Environmental Systems Engineering
Ritsumeikan University



S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Contents: Resource circulation


!  Concepts for resource circulation
"  Japan, China, and Europe

"  Brief history of Japan's "Junkan-Gata Society"
"  Required change in resource use
!  Japan's material cycling & waste management policies
"  Legislative framework
"  Fundamental Law and national material flow indicators
"  Extended producer responsibility
!  Resource circulation and climate change
"  Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions
"  Case studies of recycling
"  Energy recovery
!  Topics for the future

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Concept of resource circulation

“Junkan-Gata Society”

循 環 型 社 会

Cycle
Circulation
Recycling

循環経済


Society





Circular Economy

-Oriented
-Based


-Type

Circular Economy

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How to translate “Junkan-Gata Society”?

“Junkan-Gata Society”

循 環 型 社 会

Recycling society
Resource recycling society
Recycling-based society
Material-recycling-based society
Recycle-oriented society
Recycling-oriented society

Material cycles oriented society
Society with sound material cycles
Sound material-cycle society
Circulatory society
Circulating society
Closed loop society
Sustainable eco-society
Sustainable society

Source: Hashimoto et al. (2006) Journal of the Japan Society of Waste Management Experts 17(3), pp.204-218 (in Japanese)


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Brief history of Junkan-Gata Society


!  1990: A committee for Junkan-Gata Socio-System for
Environmental Protection (Environment Agency)
"  Examined ideal socio-system for environmental protection (idea of
Junkan-Gata Socio-System) according to the processes of production,
distribution, consumption, disposal, and recovery, which are the cores
of socio-economic activity

!  1994: The First Basic Environment Plan
"  Based on The Basic Environment Law (1993)
"  Established four long-term goals of environmental policy
1. Junkan (environmentally sound material cycle)
2. Harmonious coexistence
3. Participation
4. International activities


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Brief history of Junkan-Gata Society


!  2000: The Fundamental Law for Establishing a JunkanGata Society
"  Aims at achieving “junkan,” one of the four long-term goals in the
Basic Environment Plan, specifically proper material cycles in the
human society, by focusing on measures for waste management and
recycling, which are its emergent and central issue

"  Defined “Junkan-Gata Society” for the first time in the law

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Definition of Junkan-Gata Society


!  2000: By The Fundamental Law for Establishing a JunkanGata Society
"  “Junkan-gata society” is a society where the consumption of
natural resources is restrained and the environmental load is
reduced to the greatest extent possible, by restraining products,
etc. from becoming wastes, etc., promoting appropriate cyclical use
of products, etc. when they have become recyclable resources, and
securing appropriate disposal of the recyclable resources not recycled

"  「循環型社会」とは、製品等が廃棄物等となることが抑制され、・・
・製品
等が循環資源となった場合においては・・・適正に循環的な利用が行われる
ことが促進され、・・・循環的な利用が行われない循環資源については適正
な処分・・・が確保され、もって天然資源の消費を抑制し、環境への負荷が
できる限り低減される社会をいう



S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Definition of Junkan-Gata Society


!  1990: By Committee for Junkan-Gata Socio-System for
Environmental Protection
"  To achieve sustainable development, the way of economic activity that fits
to great cycles in ecosystems must be designed and practiced.….. (To
this end,) it is necessary to restrain the input of primary resources, to
minimize the amount of emissions to natural ecosystem, and to
prevent the emissions from disturbing the environment by putting a
higher priority on reuse and recycling than disposal. Such socioeconomic system can be called “Junkan-Gata Society”

"  「持続可能な開発」を達成するには・・・生態系の大循環に適合するよ
うな経済活動の在り方を考え、具体化していかねばならない。・・

(このためには、)廃棄より再使用・再生利用を第一に考え、新たな資
源の投入をできるだけ押さえることや、自然生態系に戻す排出物の量を
最小限とし、その質を環境を攪乱しないものとすることが必要である。
こうした経済社会の在り方は「循環型社会」と呼ぶことができよう。



S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Cycles in the environment and socio-economic system


Cycle in the
Natural
Environment

Extraction

Emission
Resource

Material cycle in
the SocioEconomic System

Socio-Economic System
Natural Environment

Exhaust Gas
Waste Liquid
Solid
Waste

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Sustainable Resources & Waste Management Laboratory
Seiji Hashimoto

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Material flows and associated environmental problems


Extraction

Manufacturing

Disposal
Exhaust gases
Waste water
Solid waste

Use

We continuously extract natural resources from the environment,
manufacture products by converting resources,
use those products, and
dispose useless things to the environment

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Material flows and associated environmental problems

Environmental problems (upstream)


Environmental problems (downstream)


Climate change
Ozone-layer depletion
Biodiversity loss
Desertification
Air pollution
Acid rain
Noise
Ground subsidence
Water pollution Offensive odor
Vibration
Marine pollution Soil contamination
Trans-boundary movements
※Seven typical pollution

of hazardous wastes
※Global environmental problems

Deforestation

Extraction

Manufacturing

Disposal
Exhaust gases
Waste water
Solid waste

Use


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Question

What is he saying?


Source) High Moon: Gomic Haikibutsu, Vol.3, Nippo, 1995


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Required change in resource use
Reducing the amount of resources extracted from the
environment (& emissions to the environment)
Toward resource efficient society

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

How to translate “Junkan-Gata Society”?

“Junkan-Gata Society”

循 環 型 社 会

Cycle
Circulation
Recycling

循環経済


Society





Circular Economy

-Oriented
-Based
-Type

Circular Economy

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Circular economy in EU


!  European Commission (2015)
"  The circular economy is an economy “where the value of products,
materials and resources is maintained in the economy for as
long as possible, and the generation of waste minimised’’. The
transition to a more circular economy would make “an essential
contribution to the EU's efforts to develop a sustainable, lowcarbon, resource-efficient and competitive economy’’.

!  European Environment Agency (2016)
"  ‘’A circular economy provides opportunities to create well-being,
growth and jobs, while reducing environmental pressures. The
concept can, in principle, be applied to all kinds of natural resources,
including biotic and abiotic materials, water and land’’.

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Contents: Resource circulation


!  Concepts for resource circulation
"  Japan, China, and Europe
"  Brief history of Japan's "Junkan-Gata Society"
"  Required change in resource use
!  Japan's material cycling & waste management policies
"  Legislative framework
"  Fundamental Law and national material flow indicators
"  Extended producer responsibility
!  Resource circulation and climate change
"  Materials management (3Rs) and GHG emissions
"  Case studies of recycling
"  Energy recovery
!  Topics for the future

39


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Legislative framework

Junkan
(environmentally sound
material cycle)

Basic Environment Law
Basic Environment Plan

Fundamental Law for Establishing
Junkan-Gata Society
Fundamental Plan for Establishing Junkan-Gata Society

Waste Management and Public
Cleansing Law

Law for the Promotion of Effective
Utilization of Resources

Appropriate waste management

Promotion of reuse and recycling

Containers
and
Packaging
Recycling
Law

Home
Appliance
Recycling
Law

Constructio
n Material
Recycling
Law

Food Waste
Recycling
Law

End-of-life
Vehicle
Recycling
Law

Law on Promoting Green Purchasing

Small Home
Appliance
Recycling
Law

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Segregation of household waste


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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Segregation of household waste


Containers
and
Packaging
Recycling
Law

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Segregation of household waste


Home
Appliance
Recycling
Law


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Segregation of household waste


Containers
and
Packaging
Recycling
Law

Small Home
Appliance
Recycling
Law

Law for the Promotion of Effective
Utilization of Resources

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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

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Fundamental Law for Establishing Junkan-Gata Society
!  Defining Junkan-Gata Society to be formed

"  “Junkan-gata society” is a society where the consumption of
natural resources is restrained and the environmental load is
reduced to the greatest extent possible, by (1) restraining products,
etc. from becoming wastes, etc., (2) promoting appropriate cyclical use
of products, etc., and (3) securing appropriate disposal

!  Defining priority of treatments for the first time in the law

"  Priority of (1) reduce, (2) reuse, (3) recycle, (4) energy recovery , and
(5) appropriate disposal

!  Requiring government to make fundamental plan

"  The government shall make Fundamental Plan for Establishing
Junkan-Gata Society to promote a comprehensive and systematic
formulation of Junkan-Gata Society


S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

EU waste directive (COUNCIL DIRECTIVE of 15 July 1975 on waste)
!  Priority of waste management

"  Article 3 Member States shall take appropriate measures to
encourage:
a)  firstly, the  prevention or reduction  of waste production and its
harmfulness:
b)  secondly:
i.  the recovery of waste by means of  recycling, re-use or
reclamation  or any other process with a view to extracting
secondary raw materials, or
ii.  the use of waste as a source of  energy .


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S.Hashimoto, Ritsumeikan University

Fundamental Law for Establishing Junkan-Gata Society
!  Clarifying role of stakeholder

DR

Manufacturing


Use


EPR

"  Especially

1)  Clarifying discharger responsibility (DR)
of businesses and citizens

2)  Establishing general principle of
extended producer responsibility (EPR)
– producers have certain degree of
responsibility for their products even after
the products are disposed of

Extraction &
production


Waste
management


Definition by OECD: EPR is an environmental policy approach in which a
producer’s responsibility for a product – financial and/or physical – is
extended to the post-consumer stage of a product’s life cycle


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