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0. ID# 17110084 Name Pham Thi Lan Huong
Review Note for Classes of 180405&06

What was discussed in the class

In the first class, we discussed about two worlds which are the virtual world and the real world and to
identify which world that policy, strategy belong to.
We also discussed the two aspects of strategy which are formal - logical aspect and substantive
aspect. The formal one is totally general and universal way of approach while the latter aspect focus
is more specific and focus on the issues, the substantive interest in the real world of the one who set
the strategy. The first class focused on the first aspect of strategy, the formal logical aspect, which
involve the end-means relationship and the cause-effect relationship.

In today class, we reviewed what we had learnt in Introduction to Public Policy course and discussed
about the different between learning and studying and what should be aware and pay attention to
when we want to make something we studied into our own knowledge.

What have you learned? What was good for you?

In first two classes, I learn that:
i) Self-conscious, self-critical and strategic thinking is necessary in analysis. It is important to know
the true meaning of a word or a term when you using it, whether you truly understand it or not,
whether you make it clear in the sentences so that it is easy to understand. And one also need to
aware that the meaning of a term can be different in different context, with different purposes and by
different people.
ii) There are two worlds, virtual world or word world which often expressed by words and symbols
and the real world which involve actions. And it is crucial for one to distinguish these two worlds;
iii) Policy and strategy are belong to the virtual world because it is generated from idea and intention


and nothing more than word. Analysis of policy therefore also belong to the virtual world;
iv) The first step in the policy making process is identification of the policy issues (an issues become
a policy issues when it has negative impacts on citizens in a large scale on space and time, it violate
the nation legal system and it is a universal concern of the citizens). From the class I learn that the
issues do not exist in the real world, only situations do, because some people might think a situation
is a problem while for others do not have the same opinion. Thus, the issues are identified in the
virtual world;
v) The arrow symbol in a model or diagram can has different meaning but it usually represent the
time sequence, the order of when the step in a process take place;
vi) One need to be aware of tautology in writing, try to make the sentences clear by make the words
self-explanatory and easy to understand; and
vii) citation is very important in writing.
These information are useful for me because there are things that I have never noticed before such
as the difference between virtual world and real world and the importance to be aware of the
meaning of a word when using it.

What do you want more of?

I think it would be helpful if we can have an overview about what we will learn in the course and how
is the connection between the contents in this course with the Introduction with Public Policy and
Public Policy Formulation and Implementation course.

Whatever else …

Review Note for Class of 180407

What was discussed in the class

In today class, we discussed the model of formal-logical aspect of strategy that we learned yesterday
by answering these following questions:
i) What is the connection between end-means relationship and cause-effect relationship? (endmeans relationship is the relation between goal and idea for action while cause-effect relationship is
the relationship between real action and results);
ii) In the previous class, we learned that the implementation arrow (the arrow from idea for action to
real action) cut through the line between virtual world and real world. So what are there in each part
of the implementation that belong to the virtual world and the real world?;


iii) We learned that goal generated from situations in the real world, but is it the only source that goal
comes from?;
iv) What kinds of tools are often used to assess the situation in real world?;
v) When does the assessment take place?; and
vi) Do the real actions that we proposed always lead to the desired results?

What have you learned? What was good for you?

In today class, I learned that:
i) The cause-effect relationship is the logical support for the end-means relationship. To be more
specific, the action (in end-means relationship) is proposed to achieve the goals while the goal can
only be achieved in real world, thus, proposed action need to be implemented in real world in order
to achieve the goal by producing certain results. Therefore, the end-means relationship is not
valuable unless it have the logical support from the cause-effect relationship;
ii) The part of implementation that belong to the virtual world requires “specificity of expression”, by
which the idea for action need to be specific enough to be able to perform reality check. Usually, we
use 4W1H questions to check the specificity of the idea which are who, when, where, what and how
(to whom – question also used in some cases). In theory, the people that plan the idea for action
often be responsible for the specificity of expression. However, in reality, usually, the people that
implement the action in real world are the one take this responsibility.
The part of implementation that belong to the real world requires reality check, which means to see
whether the proposal for action are feasible to implemented in real world or not;
iii) In reality, goals are not only come from the situation in real world but also come from the order of
iv) Indicators can be used to break the border between two worlds because it reflects the situations
in real world. We used indicators as the tool to reflect the real world, thus, if the indicators is not
good then we can get distorted view about the real world;
v) Assessment take place before the actions to make us aware of unintended results, and if bad
results might happen, is there any way to prevent, mitigate or compensate its effects; and
vi) The action that implemented is not always ensure desired resulted. It can induces intended and
unintended consequence (the side effects). So one need to aware of that when analyzing the effect
of an action.
From what I learned, the model can be revised as follow:



What do you want more of?
Whatever else …

Regarding the exercise “write down a strategy that familiar for you”, I would like to describe a policy
that implemented in Myanmar, which is motorcycle ban policy in the case of Yangon, Myanmar.
Virtual world:
Goals: To solve the severe traffic congestion situation in Yangon, Myanmar which cause mostly by
the large number of motorcycle users.
Proposal action: Reduce motorcycle-use of citizens by implementing motorcycle demand
management in Yangon
Real world
Real action: banned motorcycle in central business districts of Yangon since 2003; provide public
transports to people as an alternative to motorcycle.

Intended consequence: local people adjust to the life with motorcycle, they accepted

motorcycle ban, the number of people using motorcycle in Yangon decreased, and the traffic
congestion also reduced
Unintended consequence: in the long-run, income of people increase, local people are able


to purchase car rather than motorcycle, thus the number of car increase which make the traffic
congestion increase. Therefore, the motorcycle ban policy is not really effective in the long run.

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