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GIAI DE THI IELTS WRITING THANG 9 10 2017 IELTS NGOC BACH

Hi các bạn,
Mình là Ngọc Bách. Mình mới viết xong phần bài viết tham khảo cho các đề thi
IELTS Writing mới ra ở Vietnam 2017 (FULL ĐỀ bao gồm cả task 1 lẫn task 2)
trong các tháng gần đây
Có mấy ưu điểm khi các bạn tham khảo các bài mẫu của mình:
Thứ nhất, tất cả các bài viết của mình (bao gồm cả task 1, task 2) đều viết theo
một phong cách giống hệt nhau. Cách tiếp cận, cách triển khai ý cho các bài cũng
có cấu trúc giống nhau -> các bạn học theo bắt chiếc sẽ rất dễ.
Thứ hai, về cách hướng dẫn các bạn tiếp cận bài viết. Mọi người thây mỗi bài
viết bao giờ mình cũng kèm phần plan lên ý tưởng (đây chính là phần hướng dẫn
cách các bạn tư duy, định hướng bài viết). Đọc phần này các bạn sẽ hiểu cách
mình tư duy viết bài -> từ đó áp dụng cho chính bài viết các bạn sau này
Thứ ba, với các bạn đang học theo bộ từ vựng IELTS Topic Vocabulary do mình
soạn thì trong các bài viết task 2 của mình, các bạn có thể tham khảo cách mình
áp dụng các collocations vào trong bài viết thực tế như thế nào ( Thường một bài
mình phải dùng đến hơn 20 collocations tốt trong bộ từ vựng và khi gửi chấm
thường đạt band 9.0 cho tiêu chí tư vựng)

Hy vọng các bạn sẽ tận dụng nguồn tài liệu này một cách hiệu quả.
Chúc các bạn học tốt !
-Ngọc Bách-


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Nếu các bạn cảm thấy phù hợp với phong cách hướng dẫn và viết của mình. Có
thể follow các kênh chính thức sau của mình.

1) Page Tuhocielts 8.0 (342k thành viên):
https://www.facebook.com/tuhocIelts8.0
2) Group IELTS Ngoc Bach (116k thành viên)
https://www.facebook.com/groups/ieltsngocbach
3) Facebook cá nhân:
https://www.facebook.com/nguyenngoc.bach.77
4) Đăng ký mua sách từ mình. Có rất nhiều trường hợp các bạn mua sách từ các
trang giả mạo hay nick facebook ảo nhắn mình là sách nhiều bài còn lỗi sai và
cập nhật không chính xác. Các bạn lưu ý chỉ mua từ địa chỉ DUY NHẤT sau
đây:
http://ngocbach.com/chuyen_muc/view/70001902/Sach-IELTSSpeaking%20Writing_Ngoc-Bach.html

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Đề thi IELTS ngày 09-09-2017
Task 1
The plans below show a school library five years ago and the same library
now.

‘booking shelves’ is incorrect. ‘Bookshelves’ is correct. This is taken
from a ‘read-only file’, so I was unable to change the words in the
plans.
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Report Plan:
• Paragraph 1: paraphrase: diagrams=plans; compare=show;
present=now.
• Paragraph 2: overview: (1) desks for laptops; (2) private studying
tables
• Paragraph 3: compare (1) studying tables (2) bookshelves (3)
studying tables
• Paragraph 4: compare (1) office>conference room (2)
classroom>recording studio (3) borrowing and returning now
separated (4) meeting room the same.
Report:
The diagrams compare a school library five years ago with its present
layout.
Overall, it is clear that today there are desks provided for students to use
their laptops. In addition, tables for private study have now replaced
shared studying tables.
Five years ago, four large studying tables occupied the centre of the library,
but now 36 individual study tables, arranged in 6 groups, now take up this
space. The bookshelves shown at the top of the old plan still remain today.
However, the bookshelves at the bottom of the library plan five years ago
have been replaced by desks for students’ laptops. There are also extra
desks for students’ laptops today, in the place formerly occupied by
computer desks.
The library office of five years ago is now a conference room. There have
also been changes on the left side of the plans. Today, a recording studio
has replaced a classroom and, while the borrowing and returning areas have
been retained, they are now separated. The meeting room between these
areas, however, is still in the same place.
179 words

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Task 2

The mobile phone is used both for work and personal phone calls at all
times of the day, every day of the week. Do you think this has more
positive or negative effects both for individuals and society?
Essay Plan:
• Introduction: agree that mobile phones are used all the time for
business and social calls. The positive effects outweigh the negative
effects.
• Paragraph 2: negative effects. (1) inconsiderate use disturbs others –
examples: train journeys, concerts
• Paragraph 3: positive effects. (1) business – improved efficiency in
production, transportation and sales, because of rapid transactions –
boosts the whole economy – society benefits. (2) personal calls –
keep in touch with family and friends anytime, for important things
or just for a chat – individuals benefit.
• Conclusion: there are negative aspects, but there are more positive
ones.
Essay:
It is true that mobile phones are now used all the time for business and
social purposes. While there are some negative impacts on both
individuals and society as a whole, I would argue that these are outweighed
by the positive effects.
There is one major negative aspect of the way in which mobile phones are
often used. In order to live in harmony with one another in society,
people must show consideration for others, especially in public places.
Personally, for example, I do not consider that using a mobile phone to
make small talk in a loud voice is socially acceptable. While some
people may have a laid-backattitudeto such discourteous behaviour, I
have frequently argued with fellow passengers on buses or trains who chat
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endlessly at the top of their voices on their phones, oblivious to all around
them. Fortunately, codes of conduct are strictly enforced in cinemas,
theatres and concert halls, where mobile phones must be switched off.
However, most people would say that their mobile phone enables them to
do so many things which improve their lifestyle. Entrepreneurs argue
that it is easier to conduct their business outside the office if customers or
employees can contact them instantly, for example to place an order or to
arrive at a quick decision. With the rapid transactions made possible by
mobile phones, the improved efficiency of production, transportation and
sales boosts the whole economy. Fewer firms go out of business and
everyone is able to earn a living. Individuals also benefit, taking into
accountthe ease with which they can contact friends and family, whether
for important matters or just for a chat.
In conclusion, I believe that mobile phones have had huge positive impacts
on society, despite their inconsiderate use by a minority.
297 words

Vocabulary:
Communication and Personality
• to live in harmony with one another
Meaning: to live with others in a way which avoids conflict or disagreement
Example: The students who share the house are all good friends and they are able
to live in harmony with one another.
• to make small talk
Meaning: to talk in a polite way about unimportant matters such as the weather
Example: I enjoy a serious discussion and I don’t like to make small talk or
exchange pleasantries with others simply in order to be polite.
• to have a laid-back attitude
Meaning: to be relaxed, not worrying about anything
Example: Our teacher had a laid-back attitude in the classroom, but she was
always well-prepared and committed to her students.
• codes of conduct
Meaning: voluntary rules which people accept in a situation
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Example: The codes of conductare voluntary but they are seen as a sign of best
practice.
Society:
• to be socially acceptable
Meaning: agreed or approved of by most people in a society
Example: Smoking in public places is no longer socially acceptable in many
countries.

Business and Money
• to conduct a business
Meaning: to operate a business in a particular way
Example: It is important to conduct a business with honesty in order to gain the
confidence of customers.
• to go out of business
Meaning: if a company goes out of business, it stops doing business permanently,
especially because it has failed
Example: If we sold food at those prices we’d soon go out of business.
• to earn a living
Meaning: to earn money
Example: I used to earn a living as a teacher, but now I sell used cars.
• to take (sth) into account
Meaning: to consider or remember something when judging a situation
Example: No business will succeed if it fails to take the needs of customers into
account.
Other vocabulary:
• discourteous (adjective): having bad manners and showing no respect for
other people
Example: It is discourteous to interrupt other people when they are speaking.
• oblivious (adjective):not aware of something
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Example: I used to live near an airport, but after a short time I became oblivious
to the noise of the aircraft.
• entrepreneur (noun): a person who makes money by running a business
Example: I dream of becoming a successful entrepreneur like Bill Gates.

Đề thi IELTS ngày 16-09-2017
Task 1
The diagram below shows the development of a particular area between
1965 and the present day.

Report Plan:
Paraphrase: diagram=maps; development=growth; between=from…to…
Overview paragraph: (1) more housing (2) a road bridge has replaced the
ferry.
Paragraph 3: growth of housing.
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Paragraph 4: changes to roads; car parks.
Paragraph 5: future changes.

Report:
The maps illustrate the growth of an area from 1965 to the present.
Overall, it is clear that more housing has been built and a road bridge now
links the area to the city, replacing a ferry to cross the river.
In 1965, there were only a few houses to the east of the river. Today,
however, many more houses and apartments have been constructed,
expanding the original housing site along the riverside. To the south of the
new road bridge, some more houses have been added.
Replacing the winding road and ferry, a straight road bridge now crosses
the river. To the west of the river, trees have been cut down to make way
for a large riverside car park. To the east, a smaller car park is now sited at
the end of the old road in the middle of the housing.
Further developments are planned for 2018, providing a footbridge just
south of the road bridge, and another car parking area next to a yacht
marina, both to be sited south –east of the footbridge.
178 words

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Task 2
High school students are usually not good at managing money. What are
the reasons? What are the solutions?
Essay Plan:
• Introduction: agree with the statement. Two main reasons, but
solutions are possible.
• Paragraph 2: reason (1) adolescents rebel and ignore parental advice
(2) the media encourages consumption by this age group
• Paragraph 3: parents should teach children from an early age to
manage money; governments must control advertising aimed at this
age group.
• Conclusion: these two major factors can be controlled by parents and
the government.

Essay:
It is true that high school students are not renowned for their skills in
managing their own finances. Two factors stand out as being responsible
for this failing, but there are steps which can be taken to remedy the
problem.
High school students are often incapable of managing money for two main
reasons. The first is family background. During their formative years,
children of high school age are often rebellious, asserting their
independence as they prepare to enter adult life. They may say that
parents are being overprotective when giving advice about money
matters. Secondly, adolescents are very impressionable. They are easily
swayed by advertisements, and the media skilfully employs market
research to persuade teenage consumers to buy particular goods
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impulsively. So, regardless of the cost, high school students sometimes
borrow on credit to spend on ‘must have’ items, such as designer label
clothes or the latest i-Pod.
There are measures which parents and the authoritiesshould take to deal
with this issue. From an early age, parents ought to bring up their children
to make the most of their pocket money. Parents must encourage
patterns of behaviourin which youngsters learn to use money wisely and
not to squander their savingsin order to keep up with their peers in
school. Government, as well as parental involvement, also has a role to
play. Controls must be placed on how the media operates, particularly in
the booming field of online advertising.Celebrity endorsement should be
banned, as young people of high school age are vulnerable to the
association of certain products with glamour and success.
In conclusion, persuading high school students to manage their money
wisely is not an easy task for the reasons explained, but parents and
government can implement some common-sense solutions.
293 words.
Vocabulary
Family and children:
• family background
Meaning: the details of a person’s family
Example: Criminals sometimes have a bad family background, neglected or
abused by their parents.
• formative years
Meaning: a period of a person’s life, usually childhood, that has a big influence
on the person they become later in life
Example: UNICEF states that the early childhood years from birth through age 8
are formative years in terms of intelligence, personality and social behavior.
• to enter adult life
Meaning: the stage when adolescents are almost old enough to be legally
independent of their parents
Example: Parents who have devoted time and thought to raising and educating
their children have given them a good prepartion to enter adult life.
• to be overprotective

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Meaning: to be too worried about the safety of someone, especially a child
Example: If parents are overprotective of their children, there is a danger that
the children will become too dependent on their parents.
• patterns of behaviour
Meaning: ways of acting and doing things (either positive or negative)
Example: Patterns of behaviour copied from parents often influence the way
that children grow up.

• parental involvement
Meaning: the act or process of parents when taking part in their children’s
activities.
Example: Without parental involvement in their schooling, children may lose
the motivation to study.

Media and advertising:
• to be swayed by advertisements
Meaning: to be influenced to buy things as a result of advertising
Example: If consumers were not easily swayed by advertisements, the
advertising industry would not exist.
• market research
Meaning: the action of collecting information about what people buy
Example: In deciding how to promote their products or services, businesses
should first conduct market research.
• to buy goods impulsively
Meaning: to buy things suddenly without any planning and without considering
the effects they may have
Example: Advertising motivates consumers to buy goods impulsively.
• online advertising
Meaning: advertising a product or service on the internet
Example: The growing popularity of online advertising has resulted in a loss of
revenue for the printed media in general.

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• celebrity endorsement
Meaning: A form of brand or advertising campaign that involves a well known
person using their fame to help promote a product or service
Example: Celebrity endorsement by famous TV stars is commonly used by
companies to encourage consumers to trust and buy their products.

Business and money:
• to make the most of something
Meaning: to make something appear as good as possible; to exploit something; to
get as much out of something as is possible.
Example: They designed the advertisements to make the most of the product's
features.
• to squander savings
Meaning: to waste moneyby not using it to your advantage
Example: James squandered all his savings in an unsuccessful business venture
to sell ice cream in Alaska.

Other vocabulary:
• renowned (adjective):famous or well-known
Example: Restaurants in France are renowned for the quality of their meals.
• failing (noun): a weakness or fault in somebody or something
Example: He has many failings, including addiction to alcohol and gambling.
• rebellious (adjective): unwilling to obey rules or expected forms of
behaviour
Example: My class is full of rebellious teenagers who are not interested in
learning.
• impressionable (adjective): easily influenced by somebody or something
Example: The thief was a bad influence on the child, who was at an
impressionable age.
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• common-sense (noun): a practical and sensibleapproach to things
Example: The government has adopted common-sense policies to control
inflation.

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Đề Thi IELTS ngày 30-09-2017
Task 1
The tables below show results of a survey of urban residents’ opinions
related to various aspects of life in 1980 and 2010.

1980
Good

Neither good
or bad

Bad

Education

82

17

6

Shops

75

11

14

Environment

72

20

8

Healthcare

64

24

12

Transport system

54

31

14

Accommodation

56

34

10

Good

Neither good
or bad

Bad

Education

76

13

11

Shops

81

9

10

Environment

64

16

20

Healthcare

83

10

7

Transport system

67

22

11

Accommodation

65

17

18

2010

Report Plan:
• Paraphrase: show=provide information on; results=findings;
opinions=views
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• Overview paragraph: education and the environment figures
worse in 2010. Numbers who thought that healthcare, the
transport system and shops were good increased in 2010.
• Paragraph 3: education – compare figures for good and bad, 1980
and 2010. Greater fall in number over the period who thought
that the environment was good – give figures. Accommodation
(give figures for ‘good’) – fewer people hold a middle view in
2010.
• Paragraph 4:shops, the transport system and healthcare –
numbers who thought these were good increased. Healthcare the
most dramatic rise – give figures.

Report:
The tables provide information on the findings of a survey of residents’
views on six different aspects of life in 1980 and 2010.
Overall, it is clear that residents considered that education and the
environment were worse in 2010 than in 1980. In contrast, they thought that
healthcare, the transport system and shops had all improved over the period.
In 1980, 82 people thought that education was good, compared with 76 in
2010. There was an increase in the number who considered education bad,
from 6 in 1980 to 11 in 2010. The figures for the environment saw an even
greater decline in approval, falling from 72 who thought it good in 1980 to
64 in 2010. While 65 residents believed accommodation to be good in 2010,
compared with 56 in 1980, more residents also said that accommodation was
bad in 2010, with fewer people holding a middle view.
Shops, healthcare and the transport system all witnessed an increase in
approval from 1980 to 2010. The most dramatic rise was in the number of
those who thought that healthcare was good, with the 2010 figure of 83
showing an increase of 19 over the number 30 years earlier.
198 words.

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Task 2
The best way to reduce youth crime is to educate their parents with parental
skills. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Essay Plan:
• Introduction: parents play an important role in bringing up their children
to be good citizens. Educating parents on raising children is not the best
way to reduce youth crime.
• Paragraph 2: education in parental skills would reduce youth crime. Not
practical to extend this education to every family – need to target problem
families. If parents have a social conscience, they will not allow antisocial behaviour by their children.
• Paragraph 3: strict law enforcement is the best way to reduce youth
crime: prison sentences, probation, community service: example of the
UK.
• Conclusion: teaching parental skills is a good way to reduce youth crime,
but strict law enforcement is the best way.

Essay:
It is true that parents should play a significant role in reducing youth crime by
bringing up their children to be law-abidingcitizens. However, I disagree that
educating parents on how to raise their children is the most effective way to
reduce juvenile crime.
Counselling in parental skills would reduce youth crime. Family background is
an important influence in shaping a child’s personality, and parental
involvement is essential in teaching children the right moral values. While
advice on parenting skills should be given to parents, it is not practical to extend
this to every family. Local authorities which provide social services must
provide some form of counselling to single parent households, dysfunctional
families or to parentsin homes where there is domestic violence. Parenting
advice should be incorporated into a package of assistance to such families in all
countries where a welfare state exists. If parents are educated to have a social
conscience, then they will be more aware of the dangers of allowing their
adolescent children to turn to crime or drugs.
Strict law enforement is, however, the most effective means to reduce youth
crime. Judges and magistrates must be tough on crime and should apply the
letter of the law when juvenile offenders come before the courts. The
punishments imposed on youths who break the law must act as a deterrent
against re-offending. Youths should serveprison sentences when they commit
serious offences, and there are other effective non-custodial sentences which
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could be imposed. In the UK, for example, youngsters are sometimes put on
probation or given a chance of reintegrating back into society through
performing some community service.
In conclusion, though teaching parental skills would help to reduce youth crime,
a policy of harsh sentencing is the most effective measure.
293 words

Vocabulary:
Crime:
• law-abiding citizens
Meaning: people who respect and obey the law
Example: The government could put more police officers on the streets to protect
law-abiding citizens.
• to turn to crime or drugs
Meaning: : to start committing crimes or using drugs.
Example: During periods of high youth unemployment, some youngsters turn to
crime to obtain money.
• to enforce the law
Meaning: to make sure that the law is obeyed
Example: The role of the police and the courts is to enforce the law.
• to be tough on crime
Meaning: to punish crime severely
Example: The crime rate is likely to fall if governments take strong measures to
be tough on crime.
• the letter of the law
Meaning: the exact wording of the law, without considering any excuses
Example: I believe that the courts must apply the strict letter of the law and
impose the harshest possible sentences on criminals.
• to act as a deterrent
Meaning: a measure which makes somebody less likely to do something
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Example: Longer prison sentences would act as a deterrent and would be one
useful measure to tackle rising crime.
• to serve a prison sentence
Meaning: to carry out confinement in prison as a punishment
Example: They are serving long prison sentences for their part in the
assassination.
• a non-custodial sentence
Meaning: a sentence which is not served in prison
Example: There is a wide range of non-custodial sentences which a court may
give to offenders, including fines, probation orders or community service orders.
• to put on probation
Meaning: to make a convicted person see an official at regular intervals to check
on their good behavior, as an alternative to going to prison
Example: The young offender was put on probation, as his crime was not
serious enough to send him to prison.
• to reintegrate back into society
Meaning: to restore someone through education or therapy
Example: There is an increasing focus among policy-makers and practitioners on
identifying programs and strategies that will help prisoners successfully
reintegrate back into their communities without re-offending.

Family and children:
• family background
Meaning: the details of a person’s family
Example: Criminals sometimes have a bad family background, neglected or
abused by parents.
• to shape a child’s personality
Meaning: to decide or influence the form of a child’s personality
Example: Parents are very influential in shaping their children’s personality
through the example that they set.

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• parental involvement
Meaning: the act or process of parents when taking part in their children’s
activities.
Example: Without parental involvement, children will grow up without
guidance about the right way to behave.
• a single parent household
Meaning: a family in which one person takes care of their child or children
without a husband, wife or partner
Example: As a result of changes in society, single parent households are no
longer considered unusual.
• a dysfunctional family
Meaning: a family in which the relationships are bad or unhealthy
Example: Children who come from a dysfunctional family often exhibit
behavioral problems at school.

Government:
• local authorities
Meaning: government organizations acting within a local area
Example: Tackling crime is a responsibility of both national and local
authorities.
• a welfare state
Meaning: a taxation system which allows governments to provide for the
economic and social well-being of its citizens
Example: In order to eradicate poverty, I believe that a welfare state should be
established in all developing countries.

Society:
• social services
Meaning: a system that is organized by the government to help people who have
financial or family problems; the department or the people who provide this help
Example: Governments should assist poor families through the provision of
adequate social services.
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• domestic violence
Meaning: violence among family members in the home
Example: Children who witness domestic violence between parents often
develop problems.
• a social conscience
Meaning: the state of being aware of the problems that affect a lot of people in
society, such as being poor or having no home, and wanting to do something to
help these people Example: Charities depend on the social conscience of the
public in order to obtain donations and recruit volunteer helpers.

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Page 21


05/10/2017
Task 1
The table and chart below give information about the domestic water
use and cost in 5 countries.

Cost of water
(US dollars/m3)
US

0.01

Canada

0.31

Italy

0.7

France

2.1

Germany

1.35

Report Plan:
• Paraphrase: domestic water use=water used in households; give
information about=show
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• Overview: highest domestic water use>US; highest cost of
water>France.
• Paragraph 3: Compare figures for water use in each country.
• Paragraph 4: Contrast high water consumption and low cost in US
and Canada. Compare cost of water in Italy, Germany, France –
give figures.

Report:
The chart shows how many litres of water were consumed in households in 5
different countries, while the table compares the cost of water.
Overall, it is clear that domestic water use was highest in the US, while the cost
of water was highest in France.
Domestic consumers used about 360 litres of water in the US, whereas
households in Canada used slightly less at approximately 330 litres. Water use in
the other countries was lower, with domestic users in Italy, France and Germany
consuming 300, 250 and 210 litres of water respectively.
It is notable that water was cheapest in the US, where water consumption was the
highest. Water cost just $0.01 per m3 in the US, and it was also cheap in Canada,
at only $0.31 per m3. While the cost of water in Italy was still relatively low at
$0.7 per m3, in Germany the cost was almost double that figure at $1.35 per m3.
However, in France the cost of water was significantly higher at $2.1 per m3.
172 words.

Task 2

More and more people in the city live in homes with small spaces or no
outdoor areas. Do you think it is a negative or positive development?
Essay Plan:
• Agree with the statement. Opinion – a negative development
• Paragraph 2: positive aspect – people can afford to buy or rent
these small homes. In the cities, there is no option for many –
except to be homeless.
• Paragraph 3: negative aspects – no privacy (UK example – multiple
occupancy); no garden or yard for children to play or to dry
washing.
• Conclusion: it is mainly a negative trend.

Essay:
Written by Ngoc Bach
(Website: www.ngocbach.com)

Page 23


It is true that increasing numbers of people now live in cities in housing which is
cramped or where there is no outdoor area. While living in small flats or houses
may be more affordable, I would argue that this is largely a negative
development.
Smaller housing units are cheaper to rent or to buy, and therefore many urban
dwellers choose to live in them as the best available option. In the developing
world, the mass exodus to the cities has resulted in a high population density,
and the available housing stock has been inadequate to cope with growing
demands. High-rise buildings, comprising small flats, have been constructed as
a response to public housing needs or as the best means for property
developers to make money. Yet they are in popular demand, as many people are
prepared to put up with living in a confined space or toendure squalid living
conditions, because they cannot affordexorbitant rents. It is a much better
alternative than living on the streets.
However, this trend in the property market has significant negative aspects.
Firstly, with lack of space comes lack of privacy. Even in a developed country
like the UK, many traditional houses which used to occupy the inner city areas,
have now been divided into multiple occupancy, with all the inconvenience of
sharing bathrooms and kitchens. Secondly, a feature of contemporary urban
living is the lack of a garden, or even a yard, in which children can play or
laundry can be dried. If children cannot play outside in the sunshine, then their
physical development will suffer and, of course, they will be unhappy.
In conclusion, while some welcome a small living space as their only financial
option, this trend must be regarded as largely negative.
294 words

Vocabulary:
Cities:
• urban dwellers
Meaning: people who live in a city or a townExample: The main reason that
prevents urban dwellers from building relationships with their neighbours is
fear of strangers.
• a mass exodus
Meaning: the movement of a lot of people from a placeExample: Recently, there
has been a mass exodus of workers from the villages to the towns.
• population density
Meaning: the number of people in a place when compared with the size of the
placeExample: Tokyo is a city which has one of the highest population densities
in the world.
• to be inadequate to cope with
Meaning: not good enough to deal with a problemExample: The rapid growth of
cities has meant that urban infrastructure, such as housing, water and waste
Written by Ngoc Bach
(Website: www.ngocbach.com)

Page 24


disposal services have been inadequate to cope with the demands of an
increasing population.
• to endure squalid living conditions
Meaning: very dirty and unpleasant conditions in which to liveExample:
Newcomers to a city are often forced to endure squalid living conditions.
• exorbitant rents
Meaning: rents that are much too high and which people can only afford to pay
with difficultyExample: One factor of city life which migrants first experience
are the exorbitant rents which they have to pay for a roof over their heads.
• to be living on the streets
Meaning: to be without a place in which to liveExample: On my first visit to a
big city in the UK – London – I was shocked to see the number of young people
living on the streets.
• inner city areas
Meaning: the parts near the centre of a city, which often have social
problemsExample: Recent immigrants to cities often have to live in crowded
inner city areas, which have huge problems of crime and poverty.
• the housing stock
Meaning: all the houses available for living inExample: The inadequate housing
stock in most cities has resulted in high rents, overcrowded living conditions and
the growth of slum areas.
• multiple occupancy
Meaning: The occupation of a house or flat by more than one person or family,
with shared facilities such as a bathroom or kitchenExample: Multiple
occupancy is a common feature of city life, forcing people to live in
overcrowded conditions.
• a feature of urban living
Meaning: a typical quality of city life Example: Having access to a well
organised and qualified educational system is a positive feature of urban living.

Housing and architecture:
• high rise buildings
Meaning: tall modern buildings (not as tall as skyscrapers) Example: The centre
of my city is now full of high-rise buildings, mainly offices and apartments, and
the city has lost its old charm.
Written by Ngoc Bach
(Website: www.ngocbach.com)

Page 25


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