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an evaluation and application of multimedia tools to learn vocabulary for second year students

DECLARATION
I guarantee that the study with title: “an evaluation and application of multimedia
tools to learn vocabulary for 2nd year English major students at Hung Yen University
of Technology and Education “is my own research. I certify that no part of the above
report has been copied or reproduced by me from any person’s work and that report is
originally by me under guidance of my supervisor.

Signature


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to a number of
people, without whose support, this graduation paper would not have been completed
. First and foremost, I would like to express my sincerest and deepest gratitude towards
my supervisor for his dedicatedly invaluable help and useful corrections. It was he who
continually reminded me about managing time despite his busy schedule at school and at
home. His kindly constructive guidance, suggestions and comments have made it possible
for me to finish this study.
Next, I am very grateful to all my teachers at the Faculty of Foreign Languages, at Hung
Yen University of Technology and Education whose support and considerations have
enabled me to pursue the course

Moreover, I want to show my special attitude to the second year English major students
at Hung Yen University of Technology and Education who help me finish the survey
questionnaire of this research.
Last but not least, I am truly grateful to my family and friends for their continual
encouragement during the time I conducted the research.


ABSTRACT
The acquisition of vocabulary has long been left to be a crucial component of
learning a foreign language. Therefore, techniques for teaching and learning vocabulary
become the matter of concern in many studies. There are a lot of different techniques for
students to improve their vocabulary. However, the current students’ methods often
learning vocabulary do not satisfy with their expectation. Students are not interested in
learning English vocabulary
The application of multimedia tools is considered one of the effective ways to learn
English vocabulary to students. So, it is necessary to get teachers and students familiarized
with this relaxing but useful and effective technique. This research intends to investigate
different applications of multimedia tools by students to develop vocabulary to teach
English vocabulary to for the second year English major students at UTEHY. More
specifically, the researcher strived to find out difficulties encountered by for second-year
English major students in applying multimedia tools in learning vocabulary, the specific
use of visual aids and propose some recommendations for teaching vocabulary at this
University. To get information for the research, the researcher has exploited survey
questionnaires with 47 English major students. To attain the information back- up survey
questionnaires, informal interviews with 5 among 47 students are also conducted.
The result of this study indicated that all students were fully aware of the
importance of learning vocabulary. However, the quality of learning vocabulary was not
really good. Besides, students used different techniques to lean vocabulary and they also
used multimedia tools as an effective aid when learning vocabulary. However, each
technique still has some limitations so this study also provides some suggestions for
students to improve their vocabulary.
The researcher hopes that the study would make some contributions to
improvement of learning vocabulary in the Department of Foreign Language.


TABLE OF CONTENT
Page
DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………………
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………


TABLE OFCONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF TABLES ANDCHARTS
PART A: INTRODUCTION
1.Rationale
2. Aims of the study
3. Research questions
Study
5. Instruments of the study
6. Design of the study
PART B: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1An overview of using multimedia tools
1. Definition of multimedia tools
1.1.2. Multimedia language learning and teaching
1.1.3. Multimedia tools use in vocabulary learning.
1.1.3.1. Definition of vocabulary
1.1.3.2. Multimedia tools in learning vocabulary.
2.2. The important of Information Technology and multimedia tools
2.2.1: The important of IT in learning vocabulary.
2.2.2: The important of multimedia tools in learning vocabulary.
3.3: Computer- assisted learning language.
3.3.1. Behavioristic CALL
3.3.2. Communicative CALL.
3.3.3. Integrative CALL
4.4: The difficulties of finding and using multimedia tools


CHAPTER 2: THE STUDY, DATA ANALYSIS
2.1: The context of the study
2.1.1. An overview on context of the Department of Foreign Languages at UTEHY
2.1.1.1. Teachers
2.1.1.2. Learners
2.1.1.3. Facilities
2.1.2. Participants of the study
2.2.1. Survey questionnaires
2.2.2. Interview
2.2.3. Procedures of data collection.
2.3. Data analysis
2.3.1. The different applications of multimedia tools by second year English major students
to learn vocabulary.
2.3.1.1. The questionnaires
2.3.1.2. The interview
2.3.2. The difficulties encountered by for second-year English major students in applying
multimedia tools in learning vocabulary
2.3.2.1. Questionnaires
2.3.2.2. The interview
2.3.3.Solutions and techniques to improve the efficiency of learning vocabulary for
second-year English major students at UTEHY
2.3.3.1. Questionnaires
2.3.3.2. The interview
CHAPTER 3: FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
3.1. Findings
3.2. Suggestions and techniques for learning vocabulary with multimedia tools.


3.2.1. Internet.
3.2.2. Software.
PART C: CONCLUSION
1. Summary of the study
2. The limitation of the study.
3. Suggestion for further studies.


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
UTEHY: Hung Yen University of Technology and Education
FL: Foreign Language
CALL: Computer- assisted learning language
IT: Information technology


LIST OF TABLES ANDCHARTS
Chart 1: Multimedia tools’ important
Chart 2: Frequency of using multimedia tools in learning vocabulary
Chart 3: Types of multimedia tools using to learn vocabulary
Chart 4: Students’ perception of the effects of using visual aids on their vocabulary
Chart 5: Students’ time spent on multimedia tools.
Chart 6: Students’ losing concentration
Table 1: Learning vocabulary on multimedia tools
Table 2: Problems in choosing types of multimedia tools.
Table 2: Problems in choosing types of multimedia tools.
Table 4: Applications to learn vocabulary

.


PART A: INTRODUCTION
1.Rationale
It is generally accepted that vocabulary is an important element during teaching and
learning a foreign language. Taylor, L.2005 stated that “Vocabulary plays an important role
in second language acquisition and academic achievement. Vocabulary is central to English
language teaching because without sufficient vocabulary students cannot understand others
or express their own ideas. Wilkins (1972) wrote that “Without grammar, very little can be
conveyed. Without vocabulary, nothing can be conveyed.” In Vietnam, with the changes
and the developments of the economy and society, as well as the implementation of the
open- door policy, English has been used more and more widely both by the young and the
old and it has been the most popular foreign language. English also occupied specially
important status in the development of international relationship in Vietnam. More
importantly, English has been influenced on our education curriculum as a compulsory
subject. It is known that, in learning a foreign language in general, and English in
particular, the knowledge and mastery of vocabulary play an extremely important role.
Pyles and Algeo (1970) noted that: "When we first think about the language, we think
about words. It is words that we arrange together to make sentences, conversations and
discourse of all kind". In fact, vocabulary is the element that links the four skills of
speaking, listening, reading and writing all together.
Many efforts have been made to improve the quality of teaching and learning
vocabulary. The use of multimedia tools in learning vocabulary is one of the efforts, and it
is proving to be advantageous. For developing countries like Vietnam, so that applying
multimedia tools to education is indeed necessary for integration.
Nowadays, there are a lot of multimedia tools which are used in learning English
especially vocabulary. However, learners have faced many difficulties in learning
vocabulary. It seems difficult for students to apply the suitable way to learn. As a student at
the Foreign Language Department at Hung Yen university of Technology and Education, I
and most of students have encountered difficulties in learning vocabulary. Even though we
have our own computer to study, the results were not as expected. This is the reason why I
carry out my study with entitled” an evaluation and applications of multimedia tools to


learn vocabulary for second year English major students at Hung Yen University of
Technology and Education” to find out applications of multimedia tools to learn
vocabulary efficiently for English major.
2.Aims of the study
The main aims of this study is to find out applications of Multimedia tools on
learning vocabulary of second year English major student at UTEHY so that some useful
techniques can be given to help them improve the quality of learning vocabulary with
multimedia tools
These are the specific aims:
-

Investigate different applications of multimedia tools by second year English major
students to learn vocabulary.

-

Find out difficulties encountered by for second-year English major students in
applying multimedia tools in learning vocabulary.

-

Propose some solutions and techniques to improve the efficiency of learning
vocabulary for second-year English major students at UTEHY.

3. Research questions
In order to achieve the aims above, the study concentrates on answering the
following research questions:
3.1. How do second-year English major students apply multimedia tool to learn
vocabulary?
3.2. What are difficulties encountered by second-year English major students when
applying multimedia tool to learn vocabulary?
3.3. What are some suggestions and techniques to improve the efficiency of learning
vocabulary through application of multimedia tools?


4. Scope of the study
This thesis cannot cover the whole issue of using multimedia tools in learning
English vocabulary due to the limitation of time, experience as well as shortages of
reference materials. The study only focuses on an evaluation and application of multimedia
tools to learn vocabulary for 2nd year English major students, not all English majors at
UTEHY.
5. Instruments of the study
To collect data to support the study” an evaluation and application of multimedia
tools to learn vocabulary for 2nd year English major students at UTEHY”, two instruments
were used in this chapter:
Survey questionnaires: to collect the information from students, these questions are
handled to 47 students in 2 classes in Faculty of Foreign Languages at Hung Yen
University of Technology and Education. The data collection for survey questionnaires
supplies useful information for the research.
Interviews: the researcher interviews 5 students to get more information about the
subjects of this study.
6. Design of the study
The study consists of the following main parts:
Part A: -Introduction: gives information about the topic of this paper, background
to the study, the reason for choosing the topic, the aims of the study, the scope of the study
and instruments of the study.
Part B: - Development, this part is divided into 3 main chapters as follow:
Chapter 1: Literature review: presents the relevant theories related to research
topic. It focuses on four main points: an overview of using multimedia tools in language
learning and teaching, the important of Information Technology and multimedia tools,
computer- assisted learning language and the difficulties of using and exploiting
multimedia tools in language learning and teaching.
Chapter 2: Methods of the study and data analysis: mention the participant of the
study, data collection instruments and procedures of data collection, the data collected will
be analyzed to find out solutions and techniques to improve the efficiency of learning
vocabulary for second-year English major students at UTEHY


Chapter 3: Findings and suggestions and techniques: summarizes results of the
research and gives some suggestions on how to use multimedia tools in learning
vocabulary.
Part C: - Conclusion: summarizes the main issues of the study, proposes some
limitations of the study and suggests the further studies will be also added here.


PART B: DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1. An overview of using multimedia tools in language learning and teaching.

1.1.1 Definition of multimedia tools
Multimedia may be defined in multiple ways, depending upon one’s perspective.
Typical definitions include the following:


Multimedia is the use of multiple forms of media in a presentation.( J.E. Schwartz.
1999).



Multimedia is “information in the form of graphics, audio, video, or movies. A
multimedia document contains a media element other than plain text. (R. Greenlaw,
1999).



Multimedia comprises a computer program that includes text along with at least
one of the following: audio or sophisticated sound, music, video, photographs….
(Maddux, 2001).
Multimedia tools are apparatus that use a combination of various content forms.

For example a computer is a multimedia tool because it combines audio, video and textual
content. It can be used as visual, audio and even textual.
1.1.2. Multimedia language learning and teaching.
It is undeniable that every single development in science and technology virtually
affects the ways of teaching and learning. Before looking at the use of technology in
Foreign Language(FL) learning today, it is necessary to take a brief review of technology
in FL classroom, which is called “educational technology” (Harmer 2001, p.134)
Learning second and foreign languages is demanding more and more specialized
teaching and more sophisticated learning resources, as well as a teaching methodology
adapted to the new multimedia tools that are starting to be used in language classes.
Computer-based multimedia technologies introduce students and teachers in an innovative
and exciting universe. Our world is changing and communication skills are becoming
essential to earning a living, and although it is too early to know in full the real
consequences and effects that multimedia technologies are going to have on our lives, we
already know that they are essential for academic and professional development, and our


ways of communicating with the world. It is also early to know what effects computers are
going to have on outreaching methods, so it might be better to get into the train before it
leaves without us. Over quite a few decades, computer-assisted language learning has
proven to be extremely useful in the language learning classroom, especially teachers, who
introduce computers in their teaching practices successfully. Multimedia has been
considered as an effective media for enhancing teaching and learning process. This new
tool, with its various forms is now common to find in many schools, from elementary to
university. The new function of multimedia had led the programmer to develop new
software for teaching and learning process. Within learning language such as: Computerassisted learning language (CALL), many programs for improving speaking, vocabulary,
grammar and listening skills are easily found in the internet.
1.1.3. Multimedia tools use in vocabulary learning.
1.1.3.1. Definition of vocabulary
One of the general components which have to be mastered well by students in
learning English is vocabulary. If the students lack of vocabulary, they will have
difficulties in using English. To know what is vocabulary the writer would like to present
several definitions. Up till now, there has not been only one but a wide variety of
definitions of vocabulary. In order to find the best and easiest-to- understand definition is
such an unfeasible task. Each linguist or scholar, in his specialized field, with his own set
of criteria has found out for his own a way to define vocabulary. However, in the most
popular way, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary Online has applied a meaning for
vocabulary as “all the words which exist in a particular language or subject.” This
definition covers vocabulary’s meaning on the whole. Nevertheless, it does not show
vocabulary in a deep understanding. More precisely, Longman Dictionary of
Contemporary English (1995) presents six meanings of the word “Vocabulary” as follow:
1. All the words that someone knows, learns or uses.
2. The words that are typically used when talking about a particular subject.
3. All the words in a particular language.
4. The word failure/ compromises, etc. is not in somebody’s vocabulary used to say
that

someone never thinks of accepting failures, etc


5. A list of words with explanations of their meaning in a book for learning foreign
languages.
6. A list of the codes or terms used in a computer system.
A clear explanation of vocabulary is cited as follows:
In his book “A course in language teaching” Penny Ur defined vocabulary roughly
as the words we teach in the foreign language which the teacher has to introduce and
explain to students. However, a new item of vocabulary may be more than a single word:
for example, post office and mother-in law, which are made up of two or three words but
express a single idea. There are also multi-word idioms such as call it a day, where the
meaning of the phrase cannot be deduced from an analysis of the component words. A
useful convention is to cover all such cases by talking ‘items’ rather than ‘words” (Ur
Penny, 1996, p. 60). In this definition, it also suggests that vocabulary is bigger than just
the meaning of words. It covers a huge aspect of language and is the medium to express
ideas. Pyles and Algeo (1970) said, “it is true that vocabulary is the focus of language with
its sound and meaning, which interlock to allow us to communicate with one another”. In
our opinion, it is logical to say that the vocabulary of a language is all its words,
compounds and idioms used to convey and receive information in oral and written
communication. The teacher needs to present the vocabulary in a way that students can
easily understand how to use the new words. In addition to that, the learner’s individual
strategies for learning and using vocabulary need to be taken into consideration.
There is a large body of research that indicates a strong correlation between
vocabulary and others skills among both L1 and L2 readers (e.g. Coady & Huckin, 1997;
Nation, 1990). If the more knowledge of word meanings a reader has the easier it will be to
understand the text; it follows then that ignorance of individual word meanings hinders
comprehension. Students often instinctively recognize the importance of vocabulary to
their language learning. As Schmitt(2010) noted that, “ learners carry around dictionaries
and not grammar books” (p.4). Teaching vocabulary helps students understand and
communicate with others in English. Voltaire purportedly said, “Language is very difficult
to put on words.” English language students generally would concur, yet learning
vocabulary also helps students master English for their purposes.
1.1.3.2. Multimedia tools in learning vocabulary.


For most English learners, the frequently used way in vocabulary learning is by
memorizing. However, multimedia technology in English learning and teaching can help
students improve the results of memorizing words (NAN Chao, 2005). In recent years
with the development of media and computer technology, educators have begun to make
use of multimedia tools to improve teaching and learning including English Foreign
Language teaching and learning. Language teaching can be enhanced by effective of uses
of education technology. Applications of multimedia in EFL teaching and learning are
more and more widely. Available multimedia tools include Web pages, Internet, Software,
Computer, etc. A lot of teaching and learning activities can be carried out with the support
of these programs.
Chun (2007, p. 245) notes that for vocabulary learning some addition of visuals in
addition to glosses is helpful, whereas she reports that the majority of studies show no
effect of annotations and visuals for overall reading comprehension. In addition, CALL’s
ability to provide immediate, individualized materials and feedback has been shown to be
helpful in promoting long-term retention of vocabulary items practiced (Heilman et al.,
2010; Zapata and Sagarra, 2007). Goodwin-Jones (2010) provides a detailed overview of
the current themes that this paper addresses: individualization of learning, the context in
which CALL is implemented and specific tools such as on-line glosses.
Students often use all the media types that go to make up multimedia in their
learning nowadays. The media types include pictures, sounds, written texts and videos and
each of these delivers messages in its own particular way. The particular character of
multimedia to language learning is its delivers’ ability to exist within the same space. Most
students seem to remember more efficiently what they have experienced rather than what
they have just read. Memory is also connected with images and multimedia provides
opportunities to experience language in a variety of media, each of which can serve to
reinforce the other.
In multimedia tasks the same content is presented through texts, graphics, sounds
and motions, which offer opportunities for a variety of learning styles and build multiple
paths in memory. As students simultaneously see and hear the same information, it is easier
to recall it (Healey, 2000a). The same is true for multimedia drills, most of which are
programs in game formats. They encourage quick response, and their fun factor helps to


build a positive attitude towards learning vocabulary while habit formation is going on. A
considerable advantage of computer-based drills over paper-based ones is the ability to
offer immediate feedback to learners
2.2. The important of Information Technology and multimedia tools
2.2.1: The important of IT in learning vocabulary.
Information technology (IT) can be a wonderful and convenient resource for
authentic materials for foreign language learners. IT application in learning and teaching
foreign language has contributed to promote proactive, positive student in the school,
creating interesting period and high efficiency. Information technology provides teachers
an endless choice of multimedia, software, applications and devices with which to create
more exciting, interactive lessons. The traditional lecture-based lesson, while effective to a
point, does not stimulate every type of learner. By adding a dimension to their lessons,
teachers have the opportunity to engage more students and lead a more involved, energetic
class.
One of the advantages by using information technology in vocabulary learning is
that the students can get joy and relax in learning vocabulary. The others are autonomous
or independent learning done by students, various authentic materials in interesting
vocabulary software and online exercises, and technology vocabulary improvement. The
students enjoy their vocabulary learning by using a computer. From their enjoyment,
meaningful learning can be constructed. Then, their memory of what they have learned can
be stored in their long-term memory chamber. It is in line with Brown (2001). Based on his
statement, long-term memory can stay long and make the students keep remembering what
they have learnt. The long-term memory can be achieved through impressing the students
by offering new experience and meaningful learning. Then, the goal of vocabulary learning
will be achieved too. Besides meaningful learning, the students can apply independent
learning using a computer. It is very significant to get their improvement. They are
autonomous to improve their vocabulary outside classroom without teacher’s involvement.
They can be free to explore various sources to deepen their vocabulary mastery. By being
independent in learning, they get knowledge beyond what they get from their teacher. In
addition, Nunan (1999) agrees that learning autonomy gives the students a big chance to
learn broadly. That means that the students do not have particular limitation to employ
sources in vocabulary learning.


Many authentic materials in interesting software and online vocabulary exercise are
provided today. The exercises are various and shown with attracting display so that the
students’ motivation can be promoted. By using the programs and doing the online
exercises that provide authentic materials, the students are able to understand the use
of some terms naturally in proper situation. Like Tomlinson (1998:13) says that it is
important to use authentic material in learning English. In relation to vocabulary learning,
the students need real life situation as examples when they learn some new terms. So, the
students really know how to apply the words in a proper sentence and situation. Using
information technology lets the students meet some terms of IT usage and commands that
delivered in English. The terms and commands of IT that they do not get in printed
materials can be great input for student vocabulary improvement. They meet many terms
when using the information technology. More often they meet those terms, more
vocabulary that they can obtain. It means that the vocabulary storage of the students can be
added with computer terms automatically.
The rapid development and wide application of multimedia technology makes great
influence on the teaching and learning English. A brand- new teaching and learning model
is coming into being accordingly. “The application of multimedia and internet technology
in foreign language teaching makes it possible to provide a great amount of information of
various kinds and fields at the same time, which can help to create a more authentic
language learning environment, enrich the teaching contents and integrate the training of
such language skills as speaking, writing, reading, listening, translating at one time
(Zhou&Gong, 2010, 101, 102)
2.2.2: The important of multimedia tools in learning vocabulary.
It has been increasingly argued that computer technologies can support learning in
a number of ways. Many features of the computer are considered to enhance vocabulary
development and reading comprehension: multimedia is one of them. Multimedia refers to
computer-based systems that use various types of content, such as text, audio, video,
graphics, animation, and interactivity.


According to Liaw (1997), teachers should offer English language learners a
language-rich environment in which students are constantly engaged in language activities.
Children need to be able to interact with each other so that learning through
communication can occur. Multimedia tools can facilitate this type of environment. The
multimedia can act as a tool to increase verbal exchange.
Multimedia tools and games provide many fun opportunities for students to
practice vocabulary skills. There are numerous software packages for improving spelling,
and sight word vocabulary. When English Language Learners are learning their second
language, any and all language experiences are valuable to assist in vocabulary skill ability.
While the computer is now used in some forms or another in most language
classrooms, and is considered standard equipment, multimedia tools is also gradually being
introduced in the second language classrooms as teachers become more familiar with it. It
is a valuable resource to both language teachers and learners. The development of
computer-assisted language learning has created the need and opportunity for investigating
the effects of multimedia on vocabulary acquisition in recent years. And a great many of
studies have shown that computerized media and a multimedia environment can be very
helpful for leaning foreign language vocabulary. In multimedia tasks the same content is
presented through texts, graphics, sounds and motions, which offer opportunities for a
variety of learning styles and build multiple paths in memory. As students simultaneously
see and hear the same information, it is easier to recall it (Healey, 2000a). The same is true
for multimedia drills, most of which are programs in game formats. They encourage quick
response, and their fun factor helps to build a positive attitude towards learning while habit
formation is going on. A considerable advantage of computer-based drills over paper-based
ones is the ability to offer immediate feedback to learners.
3.3: Computer- assisted learning language.
Since the initial introduction of computers into the field of second/foreign
language education, a large number of practitioners have concurred that this technology
holds great potential for language learning (Levy, 1997; Warschauer, 1996; Warschauer &
Healey, 1998). This belief leads to what is known as Computer-Assisted Language
Learning, more commonly referred to as CALL. Even though the field is still young, many
language educators are endorsing its use as an essential component in language teaching.
Embracing the use of computers seems to be due to the fact that computers are capable of


performing multiple tasks and thus are more than simply text processors. The computer can
organize, select, and present multiple sensory components.
Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is defined as ‘the search for
and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning. Among the
concerns often raised in the domain of CALL is how to use the potential of a computer to
enhance the language learning process and how to use different media types in teaching
and learning. An area that has recently received attention is the impact of glossing
individual vocabulary via annotations embodied by different modes and media. Chun &
Plass were inspired by the premise that a variety of glosses for words in various modalities,
such as printed text, graphics, dynamic video, and sound, might have differing capacities to
facilitate vocabulary acquisition and retention.
Though CALL has developed gradually over the last 30 years, “this
development can be categorized in terms of three somewhat distinct phases which I will
refer to as behavioristic CALL, communicative CALL, and integrative CALL”(cf. Barson
& Debski, in press).
3.3.1. Behavioristic CALL.
The first phase of CALL, conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the1960s and
1970s, was based on the then-dominant behaviorist theories of learning. Programs of this
phase entailed repetitive language drills and can be referred to as "drill and practice" (or,
more pejoratively, as "drill and kill").
“Drill and practice” courseware is based on the model of computer as tutor (Taylor, 1980).
In other words the computer serves as a vehicle for delivering instructional materials to the
student. The rationale behind drill and practice was not totally spurious, which explains in
part the fact that CALL drills are still used today. Briefly, according to Taylor, behavioristic
CALL:


Repeated exposure to the same material is beneficial or even essential to learning.



A computer is ideal for carrying out repeated drills, since the machine does not get
bored with presenting the same material and since it can provide immediate nonjudgmental feedback




A computer can present such material on an individualized basis, allowing students
to proceed at their own pace and freeing up class time for other activities
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, behavioristic CALL was undermined by two

important factors. First, behavioristic approaches to language learning had been rejected at
both the theoretical and the pedagogical level. Secondly, the introduction of the
microcomputer allowed a whole new range of possibilities. The stage was set for a new
phase of CALL.
3.3.2. Communicative CALL.
The second phase of CALL was based on the communicative approach to
teaching which became prominent in the 1970s and 1980s. Proponents of this approach felt
that the drill and practice programs of the previous decade did not allow enough authentic
communication to be of much value.
One of the main advocates of this new approach was John Underwood, who in
1984 proposed a series of "Premises for 'Communicative' CALL" (Underwood, 1984, p.
52).
Several types of CALL programs were developed and used during this the phase of
communicative CALL. According to Taylor & Perez (1989) there were three main types of
CALL:
-

Computer as tutor

-

Computer as stimulus

-

Computer as tool or Computer as workhorse
On the face of things communicative CALL seems like a significant advance over

its predecessor. But by the end of the 1980s, many educators felt that CALL was still
failing to live up to its potential (Kenning &Kenning, 1990; Pusack & Otto, 1990;
Roschoff, 1993). The challenge for advocates of CALL was to develop models which
could help integrate the various aspects of the language learning process. Fortunately,
advances in computer technology were providing the opportunities to do just that.
3.3.3. Integrative CALL
Integrative approaches to CALL are based on two important technological
developments of the last decade-multimedia computers and the Internet.


Multimedia technology--exemplified today by the CD-ROM-- allows a variety of
media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) to be accessed on a single machine.
Computer-mediated communication , which has existed in primitive form since the 1960s
but has only became wide-spread in the last five years, is probably the single computer
application to date with the greatest impact on language teaching.
It is not hard to see how computer-mediated communication and the Internet can
facilitate an integrative approach to using technology. The following example illustrates
well how the Internet can be used to help create an environment where authentic and
creative communication is integrated into all aspects of the course.
Students of English for Science and Technology in La Paz Mexico do not just study
general examples and write homework for the teacher; instead they use the Internet to
actually become scientific writers (Bowers, 1995; Bowers, in press). First, the students
search the World Wide Web to find articles in their exact area of specialty and then
carefully read and study those specific articles. They then write their own drafts online; the
teacher critiques the drafts online and creates electronic links to his own comments and to
pages of appropriate linguistic and technical explanation, so that students can find
additional background help at the click of a mouse. Next, using this assistance, the students
prepare and publish their own articles on the World Wide Web, together with reply forms
to solicit opinions from readers. They advertise their Web articles on appropriate Internet
sites (e.g. scientific newsgroups) so that interested scientists around the world will know
about their articles and will be able to read and comment on them. When they receive their
comments (by e-mail) they can take those into account in editing their articles for
republication on the Web or for submission to scientific journals.
4.4: The difficulties of finding and using multimedia tools in learning vocabulary.
Technology and visual images become more integral to society; schools have
reflected this change by incorporating multimedia technology like sound, video and
slideshows in learning and teaching vocabulary and other skills. Multimedia is becoming
an accepted educational practice for instruction. Whereas traditional instructional media
included tools such as books, newspapers and television, multimedia is a single medium
that includes many formats, including video, graphics, print, and audio. Multimedia is
provided in a digital format that allows students to actively interact with the material. It is


able to help student interest and present many topics in a more vivid, effective way.
Nonetheless, these methods also bring a number of challenges.
Perhaps the biggest disadvantage to using multimedia is the necessary technology.
Ideally, each student should have access to a computer or device to run the interactive
lesson. The computing devices need to be able to handle the processing demands of the
multimedia, and the school's network, if using web-based multimedia, needs to be able to
handle the bandwidth demands. Unfortunately, many schools struggle to keep computers
up to date and in good repair and do not have Internet capabilities that can keep up heavy
multimedia demands or computer labs with enough machines to provide one for each
student in a class.
Another problem is the digital divide, or gaps in technology access, since not all students
have easy access to the web or to computers that can run multimedia. When many users
access the Internet at the same time the lines will become busy, which takes users a lot of
time and makes the job of accessing the Internet a frustrating experience (Singhal, 1997).
Additionally, when teachers wanted to teach any lessons, they had to spend a lot of time to
find information, data designing and integrating them and making the PowerPoint lesson
was not easy to do quickly. This is the barrier to teacher who has limited knowledge of
multimedia tools.
Availability is also a head-aching problem in using multimedia tools. Lee (2000)
mentioned the lack of high quality software and the difficulty of choosing hardware and
software that are compatible to each other. He emphasized that software development is
time-consuming and costly, which leads to another barrier in using technology – financial
barrier. Providing sufficient hardware for learners and teachers may requires a lot of
funding. Beside, Singhal (1997) pointed out that because many teachers and students are
anxious about technology due to their little experience with computers, training them in
this area is necessary.
Last, problem of using multimedia tools to learn vocabulary is Viruses, a program that
infects computer files by duplicating itself. A malicious individual writes a code and buries
it in an existing program. When the program is located into the computer, the virus attaches
itself to other programs that are residing in the system. When a learner inserts a disk thus
inflected into a computer’s memory, the computer’s files become infected.


CHAPTER 2: THE STUDY, DATA ANALYSIS
2.1: The context of the study.
2.1.1. An overview on context of the Department of Foreign Languages at UTEHY
2.1.1.1. Teachers
There are 40 teachers in the Department of Foreign languages at UTEHY. Three of
them are teachers of Chinese and 37 of them are teachers of English. All teachers
graduated from universities and most of them have Master degree. In addition, they have
been strongly aware of enhancing their professional qualification with the aim at raising
the teaching and learning quality. They have experiences, good teaching methods as well as
enthusiasm in teaching English skills. They always exchange and support in department
with a common goal that is to bring their students interesting lessons and useful
knowledge.
2.1.1.2. Learners
Currently, there are about 350 English major students at UTEHY and their age is
from 18 to 22. Most of the students have been learning English since they were in grade 6.
Thus the majority of the students have strong and clear motivation in learning English and
they also aware about the importance of learning vocabulary in learning foreign languages.
In general, most of students have positive attitude towards learning vocabulary.
2.1.1.3. Facilities
The faculty of English at UTEHY has recently established for about 7 years.
Although it is a new faculty but it has the facility being well-equipped with cassette/CD
players, lab-room, projectors, and screen for visual aids, suitable textbooks and referenced
books. At the present, the teaching and learning listening skills are taking place at the
second campus at Pho Noi and the third campus at Hai Duong. The faculty has many LAB
rooms which serviced students’ learning need.
*Campus 2 - Pho Noi
Campus 2 includes 2 classroom 405 LAB which has 32PCs.
*Campus 3 – Hai Duong
Campus 3 includes 3 LAB rooms:
+Class room 303A LAB has 32 cabins
+Class room 403A LAB has 36PCs


+Class room 503A LAB has 36PCs
These classrooms with many facilities for teachers and students carry out various
classroom activities. This kind classroom is equipped with the following devices:
One computer for teacher. From this computer, teacher can manage the class
through LAN system. Form this computer, the teacher can view the students' screen and
contact to any of them through headphones without disturbing the others. All facilities are
connected to one another through LAN system. The teacher can also assign one of the
students to show what were on their screen for the whole class to view via Projector on a
big white screen. And other facilities are equipped in order to create a good environment
for students study listening better such as speakers, textbooks, screen for visual aid, etc
2.1.2. Participants of the study
The participant for my study is students who are learning in the Faculty of Foreign
Languages at Hung Yen University of Technology and Education.
The subjects of the study 48 second year English major students at UTEHY. 48
students study in 2 groups which include about 24 students in each group. Therefore, it
creates a good environment for students study better.
2.2. Instruments of the study
The instruments including survey questionnaires and interviews were employed to
obtain data and information for the study.
2.2.1. Survey questionnaires
Questionnaires were used in this study because they are one of the most popular
instruments in collecting data. The purpose of using questionnaires is that the researcher
wants to tap into knowledge, opinions, ideas and experiences of students. The answers are
usually recorded in some ways so that they become available for subsequent reflections
and analysis. Moreover, it is easy and simple to summarize and report collected data. In
addition, the questionnaires can help the researcher save time. They can be given to large
groups of subject at the same time and the data are more accurate.
The survey questionnaires designed for students includes twelve questions. The
aims of these questionnaires are to investigate different applications of multimedia tools
by second year English major students to learn vocabulary and find out difficulties
encountered by for second-year English major students in applying multimedia tools in
learning vocabulary. Twelve questions of the questionnaires were divided into three parts.


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