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Lý thuyết và bài tập chuyên đề điền từ vào đoạn văn tiếng anh có đáp án

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CHUYÊN ĐỀ ĐIỀN TỪ VÀO ĐOẠN VĂN
Môn: TIẾNG ANH

PHƯƠNG PHÁP ĐIỀN TỪ VÀO BÀI ĐỌC
 NGUYÊN TẮC CHUNG:
1. Xác định từ loại cần điền cho chỗ trống trong bài và tìm từ có từ loại tương ứng để điền vào chỗ
trống.
2. Dựa vào hàm ý và văn phong của đoạn văn để suy luận ra từ cần điền.



XÁC ĐỊNH TỪ LOẠI CẦN ĐIỀN CHO CHỖ TRỐNG

* Cấu tạo từ thuộc lĩnh vực từ loại
Bước 1: Xác định từ loại
Đọc qua câu hỏi và quan sát thật kĩ vị trí của từ cần điền. Việc xác định từ loại của từ cần điền vào

chỗ trống là điểm quan trọng nhất có tính quyết định đến độ chính xác của đáp án.
Ví dụ1: Some species of rare animals are in _____ of extinction.
A. danger

B. dangerous

C. dangerously

D. endanger

=> Nếu em nào không biết thành ngữ to be in danger (đang bị đe dọa, đang trong tầm nguy
hiểm) thì hãy để ý rằng vị trí của từ cần điền không thể là một từ loại nào khác ngoài danh từ (giữa
2 giới từ).
Ví dụ2: Life here is very _____.
A. peace

B. peaceful

C. peacefully

D. peacefulness

=> Sau động từ to be (is) có 2 từ loại là tính từ và danh từ. Tuy nhiên do có trạng từ chỉ mức độ
very nên từ loại cần điền phải là một tính từ.
Bước 2: Quan sát đáp án và chọn đáp án đúng
Sau khi đã xác định được từ loại của từ cần điền các em quay lại quan sát 4 phương án đã cho, thấy
từ nào phù hợp với từ loại đã được xác định thì đó chính là đáp án. Trong ví dụ 1 chỉ có danger là
danh từ và cũng là đáp án của câu. (Dangerous là tính từ, dangerously là trạng từ, endanger là động
từ). Trong ví dụ 2 peaceful là tính từ duy nhất trong các từ đã cho và cũng là đáp án của câu.
Lưu ý: Nếu 4 phương án là 4 từ loại khác nhau thì vấn đề thật đơn giản. Tuy nhiên cũng có những
câu mà người ra đề đòi hỏi thí sinh kết hợp cả kiến thức ngữ pháp nữa.
Xét ví dụ sau đây: There are small _____ between British and American English.
A. differences

B. different

C. difference

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D. differently


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=> Sau khi xác định từ loại của từ cần điền là một danh từ nhưng khi quan sát các phương án
các em lại thấy có 2 danh từ differences và difference. Vậy từ nào mới là đúng? Lúc này các
em mới cần để ý đến thì của động từ trong câu – to be được chia ở số nhiều (are) do đó đáp án
của câu phải là một danh từ số nhiều – differences.
* Cấu tạo từ thuộc lĩnh vực ngữ pháp
Dạng thứ 2 trong bài tập cấu tạo từ là phân biệt dạng thức bổ trợ của động từ, tính từ, trạng từ hay
phương thức so sánh. Trong dạng bài tập này các em phải nắm vững được cấu trúc ngữ pháp, loại
bổ trợ của động từ cũng như các hình thức so sánh.
Dạng 1: Tính từ -ed hay –ing
Ví dụ: We are _____ of the long journey.
A. tire

B. tiring

C. tired

D. to tire

=> Chỗ trống cần điền một tính từ nhưng trong 4 phương án lại có 2 tính từ là tiring và tired, vậy
từ nào mới là đáp án của câu. Lúc này chúng ta lại vận dụng kiến thức ngữ pháp để giải quyết vấn
đề. Khi chủ ngữ là người chúng ta dùng quá khứ phân từ; khi chủ ngữ là sự vật, hiện tượng chúng
ta dùng hiện tại phân từ. Đáp án của câu trên là tired.
Dạng 2: Bổ trợ của động từ
Ví dụ: Would you mind ____ me a hand with this bag?
A. to give

B. give

C. giving

D. to giving

=> Trong dạng bài tập này các em cần phải học thuộc loại V nào thì đi với loại bổ trợ nào.
Ví dụ: Các Verb như mind, enjoy, avoid, finish, keep...thì Verb đi sau nó luôn là V-ing.
Các động từ như agree, aim, appear, ask, attempt, decide, demand...thì bổ trợ luôn là động
từ nguyên thể có to.
Dạng 3: Dạng thức so sánh
Ví dụ: Sara speaks so _____ that I can’t understand her.
A. fast

B. fastly

C. faster

D. faster

Khi trong câu có các dấu hiệu như more hoặc than thì tính từ hoặc trạng từ trong câu phải ở dạng
so sánh hơn, có the hoặc most trước ô trống thì tính/ trạng từ phải ở dạng so sánh
nhất. Xét câu trên không có các dấu hiệu của câu so sánh nên trạng từ fast là đáp án (Lưu ý
rằng fastly không tồn tại trong tiếng Anh).

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XÁC ĐỊNH CẤU TRÚC NGỮ PHÁP CỦA CÂU

Ví dụ 1:The equipment in our office needs _____.
A. moderner

B. modernizing

C. modernized

D. modernization.

=> Câu có chủ ngữ là vật (The equipment) nên sau need sẽ là một V-ing – Đáp án của câu là
modernizing.
Mỗi một loại động từ chỉ đi với một dạng bổ trợ nhất định. Khi các em biết được cấu trúc của nó rồi
thì việc xác định cấu tạo của từ đi sau nó rất dễ dàng.
Các động từ như mind, enjoy, avoid, finish, keep...thì động từ đi sau nó luôn là V-ing. Các động từ
như agree, aim, appear, ask, attempt, decide, demand...thì bổ trợ luôn là động từ nguyên thể có to.
Ví dụ 2: That is the most _____ girl I’ve seen.
A. beautifuler

B. beautiful

C. beautifulest

D. beautifully

=> Từ cần điền là một tính từ bổ nghĩa cho girl. Trước vị trí ô trống là the most – dấu hiệu của so
sánh nhất. Đến đây nhiều em sẽ chọn beautifulest vì nghĩ rằng tính từ ở dạng so sánh nhất thêm–est
cuối từ nhưng quy tắc này chỉ áp dụng với tính từ ngắn, đối với tính từ dài (hai âm tiết trở nên ) thì
cấu trúc sẽ là the most + nguyên mẫu tính từ.
CHÚ Ý:
* Khi 4 phương án A, B, C, D đều thuộc cùng loại từ vựng (danh từ hoặc tính từ) thì các em phải
xem xét ý nghĩa của từng từ để chọn đáp án chính xác nhất.
Ví dụ :Computer is one of the most important _____of the 20th century.
A. inventings

B. inventories

C. inventions

D. inventor

=> Sau one of phải là một danh từ số nhiều. Tuy nhiên inventories lại có nghĩa là bản tóm tắt,
bản kiểm kê trong khi inventions là sự phát minh, sáng chế. Đáp án của câu đương nhiên là
inventions. Nếu không các em hãy chú ý đến đuôi –tion, một cách cấu tạo danh từ chỉ vật từ động từ
rất thông dụng cũng có thể suy ra đáp án của câu.
* Xem xét ý nghĩa phủ định của từ
Khi thêm các tiền tố như in, un, ir, dis... thì nghĩa của từ bị đảo ngược hoàn toàn. Dựa vào các yếu
tố đó các em có thể nhận biết được nghĩa của từ là khẳng định hay phủ định. Tuy nhiên mỗi một từ
chỉ có thể kết hợp với một loại phụ tố nhất định. Ví dụ responsible chỉ kết hợp với tiền tố ir, illegal
chỉ kết hợp với tiền tố il-...
Ví dụ: I think it’s very _____ of him to expect us to work overtime every night this week.
A. reason

B. reasonable

C unreasonable

D. inreasonable

=> Từ cần điền là một tính từ. Cụm từ “work overtime every night this week” mang hàm ý phủ định
nên tính từ của câu cũng mang nghĩa phủ định – unreasonable. (Reasonable chỉ kết hợp với tiền tố
un- để tạo nên từ trái nghĩa).
Để làm dạng bài tập này các em phải liên hệ từ cần điền với các cụm từ khác trong câu để nhận biết
được ý của câu là khẳng định hay phủ định rồi từ đó xác định dạng thức của từ.
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 XÁC ĐỊNH CỤM TỪ CỐ ĐỊNH, THÀNH NGỮ
a) Cấp độ cụm từ
Khi học bài trên lớp, học sinh thường không chú ý nhiều đến các cụm từ cố định. Hầu như học sinh
mới chỉ dừng lại ở việc hiểu nghĩa của các cụm từ đó nhưng như vậy là chưa đủ. Các bài điền từ
thường nhằm vào những cụm từ trên, bỏ trống một thành phần và yêu cầu học sinh chọn từ điền
vào. Các phương án đưa ra thường không khác nhau về chức năng/ ngữ nghĩa nhưng chỉ có một
phương án kết hợp được với các thành tố xung quanh và là đáp án đúng.
Ví dụ: Her parents wanted her to go to university but I know that she was really fed ____(2)____
with studying.
2. A. on

B. in

C. up

D. down

=> Trong 4 giới từ trên chỉ có up là đáp án đúng vì khi kết hợp với từ đứng trước và từ đi sau thì nó
tạo thành một cụm từ có nghĩa.
Chính vì vậy, trong quá trình học tập các em cần lưu ý học thuộc những cụm từ xuất hiện cố định
như:
· To be fond of sth = to be keen on sth: yêu thích cái gì
· To be interested in sth: thích thú, quan tâm cái gì
· To be good at sth: giỏi về lĩnh vực gì, giỏi làm gì
· To be surprised at sth: ngạc nhiên vì điều gì…
· To be fed up with sth: chán điều gì
· To be bored with sth: chán làm gì
· To be tired of sth: mệt mỏi vì điều gì
· To be afraid of sth: sợ, e ngại điều gì
Ngoài ra, các câu hỏi cũng hay tập trung vào những cụm động tân cố định hoặc những cụm động
ngữ (phrasal verbs)
b) Cấp độ cấu trúc
Người ra đề có thể bỏ bớt một từ trong các cấu trúc học sinh đã được học trong sách giáo khoa và
đưa ra 4 phương án lựa chọn. Khi làm các câu hỏi này, các em cần lưuý phân biệt rõ các từ và đặt
nó vào bối cảnh cụ thể trong câu vì các lựa chọn đưa ra hầu hết đều có cùng ý nghĩa với nhau nhưng
chỉ có một từ có thể điền vào chỗ trống để tạo thành cấu trúc đúng.
Ví dụ 1: It really takes you years to get to know someone well _____ to consider your best friend.
A. enough

B. such

C. too

D. so

=> Trong câu trên, chỉ có enough có thể được điền vào chỗ trống để tạo thành cấu trúc có nghĩa
là V + Adv + enough + to do sth. Trong khi đó, such và so thường đi kèm với mệnh đề phía sau.
Too cũng có cấu trúc gần giống nough nhưng khác về vị trí và ý nghĩa. Hãy xem ví dụ sau: The
coffee is too hot to drink. (Cà phê nóng quá nên không thể uống được).
Như vậy, cấu trúc too là: Too + adj + to do sth: quá…. đến nỗi không thể làm gì.
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Ngoài ra, trong chương trình học tiếng Anh phổ thông cũng có rất nhiều bài nói về cấu trúc so sánh
của tính từ và trạng từ nên đây cũng là mảng kiến thức trọng tâm trong các câu hỏi trắc nghiệm điền
từ. Người ra đề có thể bỏ bớt 1 thành tố trong câu trúc so sánh như “than, as” hoặc đưa ra những
dạng so sánh hơn kém khác nhau của cùng một tính từ/ trạng từ và yêu cầu học sinh lựa chọn.
Ví dụ 2: When receiving the exam result, she seemed _____ than his sister.
A. more happy

B. happier

C. the more happy

C. the happiest

=> Rõ ràng câu trên cần chọn B. happier để điền vào chỗ trống vì câu này so sánh hơn tính từ happy
(do có than). Ta không dùng more happy vì tính từ này kết thúc bằng chữ “y”.
c) Cấp độ mệnh đề và câu
Phổ biến nhất về cấp độ này là các câu hỏi về sự hòa hợp giữa chủ ngữ và động từ (subject – verb
concord). Để làm tốt câu hỏi dạng này, các em cần phân biệt danh từ đếm được và danh từ không
đếm được; danh từ số ít và danh từ số nhiều để chia động từ/ trợ động từ cho đúng. Các em cần lưu
ý có rất nhiều từ kết thúc là –s nhưng vẫn là danh từ số ít (ví dụ như series) hay có những danh từ
không kết thúc bằng –s mà vẫn là danh từ số nhiều như men (đàn ông), women (phụ nữ), feet(bàn
chân), geese(con ngỗng), teeth (răng), lice (con rận), mice (con chuột). Ngoài ra còn có một số danh
từ có thể dùng ở cả dạng số ít và số nhiều như: fish (cá),carp (cá chép), cod (cá thu), squid (cá
mực), trout (cá trầu),turbot (cá bơn), salmon (cá hồi), mackerel (cá thu), pike (cá chó), plaice (cá
bơn sao), deer (con nai),sheep (con cừu). Có một số từ/ cụm từ luôn luôn đi với danh từ đếm được
(như few, a few, many…) trong khi một số từ chỉ bổ nghĩa cho danh từ không đếm được như (little,
a little, much…).
Ví dụ 1: We have cut down _____ trees that there are now vast areas of wasteland all over the
world.
A. so much

B. so many

C. so few

D. so little

=> Vì danh từ đi sau (trees) là danh từ đếm được số nhiều nên chỉ có thể điền phương án B hoặc C.
Dựa vào ý nghĩa của câu (vế sau) thì ta phải chọn B. (Chúng ta đã chặt nhiều cây xanh đến nỗi ngày
nay có nhiều khu đất hoang rộng lớn trên toàn thế giới). Mặt khác, việc xác định sự tương ứng về số
giữa chủ ngữ và động từ cũng giúp ta chọn được đáp án chính xác từ những phương án có nội dung
tương tự nhau.
Ví dụ 2: As you know 75% of the world’s _____ is in English.
A. mail

B. parcels

C. envelopes

D. letters

Ngoài kiến thức thực tế, học sinh cũng có thể phân tích ngữ pháp của câu để chọn từ điền vào chỗ
trống. Ta thấy rằng động từ to be được chia ở dạng số ít là “is” nên chủ ngữ chắc chắn là số ít hoặc
không đếm được. Các phương án B, C, D đều ở dạng số nhiều nên danh từ không đếm được mail
chính là đáp án.

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EXERCISE
PASSAGE 1
Education is more important today than ever before. It helps people acquire the skills they need for
such everyday (1)_______ as reading a newspaper or managing their money. It also gives them the
specialized training they may need to (2)_______ for a job or career. For example, a person must
meet certain educational requirements and obtain a (3)_______ or certificate before he can
practice law or medicine. Many fields, like computer operation or police
work, (4)_______ satisfactory completion of special training courses.
Education is also important (5)_______ it helps people get more out of life. It increases their
knowledge and understanding of the world. It helps them acquire the skills that make life more
interesting and enjoyable, (6)_______ the skills needed to participate in a sport, paint a picture, or
play a musical (7)_______ . Such education becomes (8)_______ important as people gain more
and more leisure time.
Education also helps people adjust to change. This habit has become necessary because social
changes today take place with increasing speed and (9)_______ the lives of more and more people.
Education can help a person understand these changes and provide him (10)_______ the skills for
adjusting to them.
Question 1: A. works
B. jobs
C. actions
D. activities
Question 2: A. do

B. prepare

C. make

D. work

Question 3: A. license

B. card

C. diploma

D. paper

Question 4: A. requires

B. requiring

Question 5: A. therefore

B. despite

Question 6: A. such as

B. for instance

C. such that

D. for example

Question 7: A. appliance

B. equipment

C. instrument

D. device

Question 8: A. increased

B. increasing

C. increase

D. increasingly

Question 9: A. effect

B. affect

Question 10: A. with

B. for

C. require
C. although

C. affective
C. in

D. to require
D. because

D. effective
D. to

PASSAGE 2:
Nearly 200 of the 1500 native plant species in Hawaii are at risk of going extinct in the near future
because they have been (1)_______ to such low numbers. Approximately 90 percent of Hawaii's
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plants are found nowhere else in the world but they are (2)_______ by alien invasive species such
as feral goats, pigs, rodents and (3)_______ plants.
The Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group is striving to (4)_______ the extinction of the 182 rare
Hawaiian plants with fewer than 50 individuals remaining in the (5)_______ . Since
1990, (6)_______ a result of their "Plant Extinction Prevention Program", sixteen species have
been brought into (7)_______ and three species have been reintroduced. Invasive weeds have been
removed in key areas and fencing put up in order to (8)_______ plants in the wild.
In the future the Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Program aims (9)_______ collecting genetic
material from the remaining plants in the wild for storage as a safety net for the future. They
also aim to manage wild populations and where possible reintroduce species into (10)_______ .
Question 1: A. developed
B. reduced
C. disappeared
D. increased
Question 2: A. conserved

B. guarded

C. invested

D. threatened

Question 3: A. native

B. national

C. international

D. non-native

Question 4: A. prevent

B. influence

C. encourage

D. stimulate

C. hole

D. atmosphere

Question 5:A. wild

B. sky

Question 6: A. so

B. due

Question 7: A. contamination

B. production

C. cultivation

Question 8: A. derive

B. vary

C. remain

Question 9: A. at

B. on

C. with

Question 10: A. shelters

C. as

B. reserves

C. gardens

7

D. but
D. generation
D. protect
D. for
D. halls


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PASSAGE 3:
Not everybody recognizes the benefits of new developments in communications technology.
Indeed, some people fear that text messaging may actually be having a negative (1)_____ on young
people's communication and language skills, especially when we hear that primary school children
may be at (2)______ of becoming addicted to the habit. So widespread has texting become,
however, that even pigeons have started doing it. (3) _____, in this case, it's difficult to view the
results as anything but positive.
Twenty of the birds are about to (4) ______ to the skies with the task of measuring air pollution,
each (5) _____ with sensor equipment and a mobile phone. The (6) _____ made by the sensors will
be automatically (7) _____ into text messages and beamed to the Internet - where they will appear
on a dedicated 'pigeon blog'.
The birds will also each have a GPS receiver and a camera to capture aerial photos, and
researchers are building a tiny 'pigeon kit' containing all these (8)_____. Each bird will carry these
in a miniature backpack, (9) _____ , that is, from the camera, which will hang around its neck.
The data the pigeons text will be displayed in the (10) _____of an interactive map, which will
provide local residents with up-to-the-minute information on their local air quality.
B. outcome
C effect
D conclusion
Question 1. A. result
Question 2.

A danger

B threat

C risk

D peril

Question 3.

A Therefore

B What's more

C Whereas

D That is

Question 4.

A make

B launch

C reach

D take

Question 5.

A armed

B loaded

C granted

D stocked

Question 6.

A studies

B readings

C reviews

D inquiries

Question 7.

A adapted

B converted

C revised

D applied

Question 8.

A gadgets

B utensils

C appliances

D implements

Question 9.

A instead

B except

C apart

D besides

B. way

C. form

D. size

Question 10. A. shape

8


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Passage 4:
From the seeds themselves to the machinery, fertilizers and pesticides - The Green Revolution
regimen depend heavily on technology. One (1) ............ , however, depends much (2) .......... on
technology - organic farming. Many organic farmers use machinery, but (3) ........chemical
fertilizers or pesticides. (4) ........... chemical soil enrichers, they use animal manure and plant parts
not used as food -,natural,organic fertilizers that are clearly a renewable (5) ........... Organic farmers
also use alternatives for pesticides; for example they may rely (6)............natural predators of certain
insect pests. (7) ......... the need arises, they can buy the eggs and larvae of these natural predators
and introduce them into their crop fields. They use (8) .............. techniques to control pests as well,
like planting certain crops together because one crop repels the other's pests. Organic farmers do not
need a lot of land; (9) .............. organic farming is perfectly (10) ...........to small farms and is
relatively inexpensive. Finally, many organic farmers' average yields compare favorably with other
farmers' yields.
Question 1. A. alternative B. alternate

C. alteration

D. alternation

Question 2. A. more

B. less

C. better

D. worse

Question 3. A. also

B. for

C. not

D. all

Question 4. A. In spite of

B. On account of

C. In favour of

D. Instead of

Question 5. A. resource

B. source

C. matter

D. substance

Question 6. A. of

B. to

C. on

D. in

Question 7. A. Then

B. If

C. Because

D. Though

Question 8. A. others

B. another

C. the others

D. other

Question 9. A. instead

B. in one way

C. on one hand

D. in fact

Question 10. A. suitable

B. open

C. likely

D. suited

9


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PASSAGE 5:
The Industrial Revolution in Britain was built on the use of machines in factories. Since the 1950s,
Britain's (36)......industries have replaced machine operators with computers, and this (37)......has
led to a decline in the number of (38).......in many factories. Goods are bought and used much more
than ever before but a lot of these goods are imported. By the beginning of the 20th century, other
industrial countries like the USA were (39).......with Britain's exports, and countries in the Far East
have been able to provide cheaper (40)......since the 1970s. Areas located with heavy industries are
suffering high unemployment. During the last 30 years, there has been a constant rise in smaller
industries (41).........as "light industries". These ones use electricity and are not (42) .........on raw
materials such as coal so they are "footloose", i.e. they can be located anywhere. They produce such
things as washing machines or spare (43) .......... Some of these industries produce nothing at all, but
provide services like distribution. The consumer boom of the 1980s and the increased leisure time
of most Britons have led to rapid (44) ........ in service industries like banking, tourism, retailing and
information processing, and in industries which distribute, maintain, and repair (45).........consumer
goods.
1.
A. manufacturing
B. big
C. large
D. running
2.

A. replacement

B. change

C. exchange

D. automation

3.

A. employers

B. employees

C. labors

D. servers

4.

A. working

B. familiar

C. competing

D. fed up

5.

A. things

B. products

C. produce

D. imports

6.

A. considered

B. regarded

C. known

D. worked

7.

A. dependent

B. reliable

C. dependable

D. command

8.

A. details

B. parts

C. sections

D. gadgets

9.

A. growth

B. increase

C. expansion

D. extension

10.

A. everyday

B. home

C. household

D. expensive

10


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PASSAGE 6:

If you are an environmentalist, plastic is a word you tend to say with a sneer or snarl. It has
become a symbol of our wasteful, throw-away society. But there seems little (1) ______ it is here to
stay, and the truth is, of course, that plastics have brought enormous (2) ______ , even
environmental ones. It’s not really the plastics themselves that are the environmental evil – it’s the
way society chooses to use abuse them.
Almost all the 50 or so different kinds of modern plastics are made from oil, gas, or coalnon-renewable natural (3) ______ . We (4) _______ well over three million tons of the stuff in
Britain each year and, sooner or later, most of it is thrown away. A high (5) _______ of our annual
consumption is in the (6) ________ of packaging, and this (7) ________ about seven per cent by
weight, of our domestic (8) ________ . Almost all of it could be recycled, but very little of it is,
though the plastic recycling (9) _______ is growing fast.
The plastics themselves are extremely energy-rich. They have a higher caloric value than
coal and one method of “recovery” strongly favored by the plastic manufacturers is the (10)
_______ 0f waste plastic into fuel.
Question 1. A. doubt

B. evidence

C. concern

D. likelihood

Question 2. A. pleasures

B. benefits

C. savings

D. profits

Question 3. A. processes

B. products

C. fuels

D. resources

Question 4. A. remove

B. consume

C. change

D. import

Question 5. A. proportion

B. portion

C. amount

D. rate

Question 6. A. way

B. form

C. kind

D. type

Question 7. A. takes

B. makes

C. carries

D. constitutes

Question 8. A. goods

B. refuse

C. rubble

D. requirements

Question 9. A. industry

B. manufacture

C. factory

D. plant

Question 10. A. melting

B. change

C. conversion

D. replacement

11


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PASSAGE 7:

Most traditional human life in deserts is nomadic. It (1) ______ in hot deserts on finding water,
and on following infrequent rains to (2) ______ grazing for livestock. In cold deserts, it depends on
finding good hunting and fishing grounds, on sheltering from blizzards and winter (3) ______, and
on storing enough food for winter. Permanent settlement in both kinds of deserts requires
permanent water, food sources and adequate shelter, or the technology and energy sources to (4)
______ it.
Many deserts are flat and featureless, lacking landmarks, or composed of repeating landforms
such as sand (5) ______ or the jumbled ice-fields of glaciers. Advanced skills or devices are
required to navigate through such landscapes and (6) _____ travelers may die when supplies run (7)
______ after becoming lost. In addition, sandstorms or blizzards may cause disorientation in
severely-reduced visibility.
The (8) ______ represented by wild animals in deserts has featured in explorers' accounts but
does not cause higher (9) ______ of death than in other environments such as rainforests or savanna
woodland, and generally does not affect human distribution. Defense against polar bears may be
advisable in some areas of the Arctic. Precautions against snakes and scorpions in choosing (10)
______ at which to camp in some hot deserts should be taken.
Question 1: A. locates
B. selects
C. follows
D. depends
Question 2: A. earn

B. demand

C. obtain

D. require

Question 3: A. extremes

B. poles

C. tops

D. heights

Question 4: A. grow

B. supply

C. comfort

D. bring

Question 5: A. dunes

B. piles

C. valleys

D. stores

Question 6: A. inconsistent

B. incapable

C. inexperienced

D. independent

Question 7: A. of

B. out

C. in

D. over

Question 8: A. danger

B. dangerous

C. endanger

D. endangered

Question 9: A. level

B. rate

C. scale

D. standard

Question 10: A. sight

B. lies

C. sites

D. seats

12


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PASSAGE 8:

POLAR BEARS
Polar bears are in danger of dying out. (1) _________ some other endangered animals, it’s
not hunters that are the problem, it’s climate change. Since 1979, the ice cap at the Arctic Circle
where the polar bears live has (2) _________ in size by about 30 percent. The temperature in the
Arctic has slowly been (3) _________ and this is (4) _________ the sea ice to melt, endangering the
polar bears’ home.
The polar bears’ main (5) _________ of food are the different types of seal found in the
Arctic. They catch them by waiting next to the air holes the seals have (6) _________in the ice. (7)
_________ the bears are very strong swimmers, they could never catch seals in the water. This
means that the bears (8) _________ do rely on the ice to hunt.
Polar bears also need sea ice to travel. They can (9) _________ a huge territory and often
swim from one part of the ice to another. They have been known to swim up to 100km, but when
there is less ice, they may have to swim further and this can (10) _________ fatal to the bears. A
number of bears have drowned in the last few years and scientists believe that it is because they
were not able to reach more sea ice before they became too tired and couldn’t swim any further.
Question 1: A. Opposite

B. Compared

C. Unlike

D. Different

Question 2: A. cut

B. reduced

C. shortened

D. lost

Question 3: A. lifting

B. gaining

C. advancing

D. rising

Question 4: A. resulting

B. turning

C. causing

D. creating

Question 5: A. sources

B. means

C. origins

D. materials

Question 6: A. placed

B. set

C. brought

D. made

Question 7: A. Even

B. Although

C. As

D. Despite

Question 8: A. really

B. properly

C. surely

D. fully

Question 9: A. pass

B. extend

C. cover

D. spread

Question 10: A. prove

B. happen

C. come

13

D. end


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PASSAGE 9:
Getting friends and family to pose for photos is hard enough, but how would you cope with a rabbit,
an owl or a butterfly that simply (1) _______to keep still? Simon King, wildlife film—maker and
photographer, says you don't need any formal (2)_______ to get started. "The whole idea is that
photographing wildlife should be fun". Simon offers the following (3)_______
Specialize from the start. You're more likely to get good result sooner if you (4)_______ on the
type of wildlife - insects for instance - (5)_______ than just going off to the woods or park with
your camera and snapping whatever you see. Pick something that isn't hard to photograph.
Choosing an animal that's hard to (6)_______ or will run away if it sees you (7) _______
unnecessary problems. How about flowers or a group of birds?
Search second-hand camera shops and local papers for quality (8) _______. You don't need to (9)
_______ a fortune. Simon started with just a second-hand camera that cost around $30. But you will
need a single lens reflex camera. Remember it's the whole photograph that counts, nor just the
subject. (10) _______ you're composing a picture and try to be as artistic as possible.
Question 1: A. disobeys

B. dislikes

C. refuses

D. avoids

Question 2: A. training

B. education

C. exercise

D. lecture

Question 3: A. lessons

B. facts

C. warnings

D. tips

Question 4: A. think

B. concentrate

C. limit

D. depend

Question 5: A. more

B. other

C. better

D. rather

Question 6:A. spot

B. notice

C. meet

D. glance

Question 7:A. creates

B. starts

C. puts

D. leads

Question 8: A. instruments

B. equipment

C. material

D. tools

Question 9: A. cost

B. make

C. spend

Question 10: A. think

B. guess

C. invent

14

D. lose
D. imagine


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PASSAGE 10:
If you're an environmentalist, plastic is a word you tend to say with a sneer or a snarl. It has become
a symbol of our wasteful, throw- away society. But there seems little doubt it is here to stay, and the
truth is, of course, that plastic has brought enormous ( 1) ________even environmental evil- it's the
way society chooses to uses and ( 2) ___________them.
Almost all the 50 or so different kinds of modern plastic are made from oil, gas or coalnon-renewable natural ( 3) ____________. We (4) _____________well over three million tones of
the stuff in Britain each year and, sooner or later, most of it is thrown away. A high ( 5)
__________ of our annual consumption is in the form of packaging, and this ( 6) _________about
seven per cent by weight of our domestic refuse. Almost all of it could be recycled, but very little of
it is, though the plastic recycling (7) _______is growing fast.
The plastics themselves are extremely energy-rich- they have a higher calorific (8)
_________than coal and one (9) ____________of "recovery" strongly favoured by the plastic
manufacturers is the ( 10) __________ of waste plastic into a fuel.
Question 1. A. savings

B. pleasures

C. benefits

D. profits

Question 2. A. abuse

B. endanger

C. store

D. dispose

Question 3. A. processes

B. resources

C. products

D. fuels

Question 4. A. import

B. consign

C. remove

D. consume

Question 5. A. amount

B. proportion

C. portion

D. rate

Question 6. A. makes

B. carries

C. takes

D. constitutes

Question 7. A. industry

B. manufacture

C. plant

D. factory

Question 8. A. demand

B. effect

C. value

D. degree

Question 9. A. medium

B. method

Question 10. A. melting

B. conversion

C. measure
C. change

15

D. mechanism
D. replacement


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PASSAGE 11:
Face-to-face conversation is two-way process: You speak to me, I reply to you and so on. Two-way
(1)______depends on having a coding system that is understood by both (2)______ and receiver,
and an agreed convention about (3)______ the beginning and end of the (4) ______. In speech, the
coding system is the language like English or Spanish; the convention that one person speaks at a
time may seem too obvious to (5)______. In fact, the (6)______ that people use in conversations
and meetings are often non-verbal. For example, lowering the pitch of the voice may mean the end
of a sentence; a sharp intake of breath may signal the desire to (7)______, catching the chairman’s
(8)______may indicate the desire to speak in a formal setting like a (9)______, a clenched fist may
indicate anger. When these (10)______ signals are not possible, more formal signals may be
needed.
Question 1: A. interchange B. exchange

C. correspondence

D. communication

Question 2: A. announcer

B. transmitter C. messenger D. sender

Question 3: A. signing

B. symbolizingC. signalling D. showing

Question 4: A. message

B. topic

C. idea

Question 5: A. judge

B. mention

C. recognize D. notice

Question 6: A. signals

B. symptoms C. symbols

D. theme

D. signs

Question 7: A. interchange B. interfere

C. interrupt

D. intercept

Question 8: A. elbow

B. eye

C. shoulder

D. hand

Question 9: A. chat

B. debate

C. broadcast

D. lecture

Question 10: A. visual

B. auditory

C. verbal

D. sensory

16


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PASSAGE 12:
Why do people like to chew gum? Some people say they like the taste____ 1 ____say they can
think better if they chew gum. Some people chew it when they have some boring work to ____2
____.Others chew gum when they are nervous.
Gum is a ____3 ____of things. For many years gum companies made gum from chicle. Chicle is a
natural gum from a tree in Mexico and Central America. Now companies use plastic and rubber
made from petroleum ____4 ___of chicle.
Gum must be soft ____5____ you can chew it. A softener keeps it soft. The gum company makes
the softener from vegetable oil. A sweetener makes the gum sweet. The sweetener is usually sugar.
Then the company ___6___ the flavor.
Thomas Adams made the first gum from chicle in 1836. ___7___, chewing gum was not new. The
Greeks chewed gum from a tree ____8___ 2,000 years ago. Mayan Indians in Mexico chewed
chicle. Indians in the Northeastern United States taught Europeans to chew gum from a tree there.
People first made bubble gum in 1928. Children like to __9___ bubble with bubble gum. Some
university students do ___10___.
Question 1: A. The other

B. Others

C. The others

D. Other

Question 2:

A. make

B. get

C. do

D. carry

Question 3:

A. mixture

B. roll

C. fix

D. connection

Question 4:

A. aside

B. apart

C. inside

D. instead

Question 5: A. so that

B. then

C. for

D. that

Question 6: A. puts

B. places

C. adds

D. fits

Question 7: A. However

B. More

C. But

D. Though

Question 8: A. more

B. over

C. above

D. than

Question 9: A. turn

B. set

C. pass

D. blow

Question 10: A. so

B. too

C. then

D. same

17


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PASSAGE 13:

Technology is used for the (1) ______ of human needs and production is increased by
technology. Science and technology, the (2) __________ concerned with know- what and latter
with know- how, are continuously conditioning man’s world view and have (3) ______ material
standards beyond any earlier vision of man’s potential. However, in this science and technology are
too much concerned with quantity at the expense of (4) ________. technology has made (5)
_______ the mass production of articles and mass production seems to have reduced the quality of
goods. If a motor-car in the past was made to last, today it is made to be thrown away and (6)
_______. While the quality in terms of new features has improved, (7) __________is of little
concern to manufacturers. In their drive to expand markets and be competitive, manufacturers
ignore quality and are concerned with quantity or the number of products that can be sold. Evolving
technology encourages the economy of economy of transience which is fast replacing the economy
on permanence of the old world. Medical technology prolongs life and reduces the mortality rate,
but the quality of life (8)_______ . Genetics has increased agricultural productivity, and the Green
Revolution that it set in motion had resulted in high- yielding variety of wheat, rice paddy, etc., but
they (9)________ the quality which the traditional variety, through low- yielding, had. Alvin
Toffler in his Future Shock considers the lowering of costs of manufacture and increased demand as
factors (10)_________ for the sacrifice of quality. Science and technology should be concerned
equally with quality and quantity. This concern is of great importance since science and technology
are to make further strides.

1. A. satisfaction

B. requirement

C. disappoinment

D.demand

2. A. before

B. older

C. former

D. first

3. A. raised

B. risen

C. lifted

D.aroused

4. A. number

B. value

C. evaluation

D.quality

5. A. it possible

B. possible

C. available

6. A. replaced

B. refunded

C. repaired

D.impossible
D. refilled

7. A. endurance

B. strength

C. duration

D. durability

8. A. deteriorates

B. diminished

C. loosens

D.devastates

9. A. insufficient

B. shortage

C. lack

D. miss

10. A. used

B. responsible

C. asking

18

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PASSAGE 14:

In the United States and Canada, it is very important to (1)______ a person directly in the
eyes when you are having a conversation (2)______ him or her. If you look down or to the side
when the (3)______ person is talking, that person will think that you are not interested in (4)______
he or she is saying. This, (5)______, is not polite. If you look down or to the side when you are
talking, it might 6)______ that you are not honest. However, people who are speaking will
sometimes look away for (7)______ seconds when they are thinking or (8)______ to find the right
word. But they always turn immediately (9)______ to look the listener directly in the eyes. These
social "rules" are (10)______ for two men, two women, a man and a woman, or an adult and a
child.
Question 1: A. talk

B. notice

C. get

D. look

Question 2: A. with

B. to

C. for

D. about

Question 3: A. others

B. another

C. one

D. other

Question 4: A. which

B. what

C. that

D. where

Question 5: A. yet

B. in addition

C. of course

D. although

Question 6: A. become

B. come

C. seem

D. turn

Question 7: A. a little

B. a few

C. little

D. few

Question 8: A. trying

B. looking

C. achieving

D. managing

Question 9: A. up

B. back

C. down

D. over

Question 10: A. like

B. the same

C. likely

D. such as

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PASSAGE 15:
Looking for an unforgettable way to celebrate that special occasion? Well, the (1)__of options open
today’s youngster – or even “ oldster” for that matter, is a far cry from the traditional party or
restaurant visit. No longer is it (2)__sufficient to invite your friends round , buy some food and get a
barker to produce a cake. No, today’s birthday boy or girl is looking for something out of the
ordinary, ranging from the (3)__ expensive to the downright dangerous. Anything goes, as long as it
is unusual and impressive.
Top of this year ‘s popular (4)__are as follows: taking some friends rally driving , helicopter
lessons, plane trip and parachuting , and hot air ballooning . Then there is always group bungee
jumping or taking your buddies on a stomach – churning , while water rafting (5)__down rapids.
The desire of adventurous celebration is not restricted to the (6)__. I recently met an octogenarian
who celebrated (7)__the milestone of eighty by having a fly lesson.
Of course, if you have money the world is your oyster. A very rich relation of mine flew fifty of his
friends to a Caribbean island to mark the passing of his half century. Unfortunately I was only a
(8)__relation.
Undoubtedly, the more traditional forms of celebration do continue to (9)__the less extravagant or
less adventurous among us. However, with my own half century looming on the horizon I would
not say no to a weekend in Paris and a meal at the Eiffel Tower. I can (10)__dream. Perhaps by the
time I’m eighty I’ll be able to afford it.
Question 1: A. scale
B. degree
C. range
D. variance
Question 2: A. hoped
B. decided
C. marked
D. considered
Question 3: A. perfectly
B. dearly
C. outrageously
D.explicity
Question 4: A. experiments
B. extravagances.
C. exposures
D. expenses
Question 5: A. ride
B. travel
C. voyage
D. crossing
Question 6: A. adolescents
B. teenagers
C. youth
D. young
Question 7: A. attaining
B. arriving
C. reaching
D. getting
Question 8: A. distant
B. remote
C. faraway
D. slight
Question 9: A. pacify
B. satisfy
C. distract
D. absorb
Question 10:A. however
B. but
C. nevertheless
D.anyway

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PASSAGE 16:
COULD COMPUTER GAMES BE GOOD FOR YOU AFTER ALL
In Britain, the average young person now spends more money on games each year than on
going to the cinema or renting videos. But is this 1_____ a bad thing? For years, newspaper reports
have been 2 _____ that children who spend too much time playing computer games become
unsociable, bad- tempered, even violent as a 3 _____ But new research, 4 _____ out in both Europe
and the USA, suggests that the opposite may be true.
Indeed, playing some of the more complicated games may help people of all ages to improve
certain skills. Researchers claim that this is because the games 5 _____ the brain work harder in
certain ways, like 6 _____ sounds and movements quickly and identifying what they are. The fact
that people play the games repeatedly 7 _____ that they get a lot of practice in these skills which are
therefore likely to become highly developed.
Social skills may benefit, too. Researchers in Chicago think that fans of first- person shooter games
8 _____
“Counterstrike” are better than non-players when it comes to building trust and co-operation, and
that this 9 _____ them to make good friendships and become strong members of their communities.
So rather than 10 _____ up computer games, perhaps young people need to spend more time on
them?
Question 1.
Question 2.
Question 3.
Question 4.
Question 5.
Question 6.
Question 7.
Question 8.
Question 9.
Question 10.

A. necessarily
A. speaking
A. product
A. worked
A. make
A. realizing
A. means
A. in order to
A. supports
A. giving

B. certainly
B. informing
B. result
B. thought
B. force
B. noticing
B. asks
B. such as
B. helps
B. ending

C. fully
C. telling
C. reason
C. turned
C. push
C. imagining
C. brings
C. due to
C. shows
C. taking

21

D. nearly
D. saying
D. conclusion
D. carried
D. keep
D. solving
D. causes
D. as well as
D. serves
D. stopping


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PASSAGE 17:
Everybody has heard about the Internet, do you know that an “intranet” is? It is this: just as
the Internet connects people around the world, intranets connect people within a (1)____ company.
In fact, intranets make use of the same software programs as the Internet to (2)____ computers and
people. This (3)____ that you do not have to buy a lot of additional programs to set up an intranet
service. If your intranet is working properly, it can link together a huge amount of (4)____ which is
stored in different places in the company. In this way, people can get the information they need,
regardless (5)____ where it comes from. A company intranet can , of course, be used for
unimportant information like office memos or canteen menus. But an intranet should (6)____
important information which people need to make decision about new products, costs and so on.
The intranet is (7)____ to share their information with other people. (8)____, many departments
don’t want to share their specialist knowledge with others. Another problem which often occurs is
(9)____ top managers like to use the intranet to “ communicate down” rather than to “ communicate
across”. That is, they use the intranet to give orders, not to (10)____ information between
themselves and others working in the same organization.
Question 1. A. large

B. jointed

C. single

Question 2. A. contact

B. introduce

C. distinguish D.compare

Question 3. A. is

B. is said

C. indicates

D. means

Question 4. A. parts

B. information

C. elements

D.properties

Question 5. A. on

B. with

C. of

D. to

Question 6. A. bring

B. provide

C. give

D. take

Question 7. A. likely

B. willing

C. going

D.happened

Question 8. A. Luckily

B. Consequently

C. However

D.Unfortunately

Question 9. A. that

B. what

C. which

D.it

Question 10. A. change

B. exchange

C. transform D.transit

22

D. branch


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PASSAGE 18:

GLOBAL WARMING
Few people now question the reality of global warming and its effects on the world's climate. Many
scientists (1) ______ the blame for recent natural disasters on the increase (2) ______ the world's
temperatures and are convinced that, more than ever before, the Earth is at (3) ______ from the
forces of the wind, rain and sun. According to them, global warming is making extreme weather
events, (4) ______ as hurricanes and droughts, even more (5) ______ and causing sea levels all
around the world to (6) ______.
Environmental groups are putting (7) ______ on governments to take action to reduce the amount
of carbon dioxide which is given (8) ______ by factories and power plants, thus attacking the
problem at its source. They are in (9) ______ of more money being spent on research into solar,
wind and wave energy devices, which could then replace existing power (10)______.
Some scientists, however, believe that even if we stopped releasing carbon dioxide and other gases
into the atmosphere tomorrow, we would have to wait several hundred years to notice the results.
Global warming, it seems, is to stay.
Question 1: A. give

B. put

C. takes

D. has

Question 2: A. in

B. at

C. by

D. to

Question 3: A. danger

B. harm

C. risk

D. threat

Question 4: A. just

B. well

C. such

D. even

Question 5: A. strong

B. strict

C. heavy

D. severe

Question 6: A. raise

B. lift

C. rise

D. arise

Question 7: A. pressure

B. force

C. persuasion

D encouragement

Question 8: A. off

B. up

C. over

D. away

Question 9: A. request

B. suggestion

C. belief

D. favor

Question 10: A. houses

B. factories

C. stations

D. generations

23


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PASSAGE 19:

Interpreting the feelings of other people is not always easy, as we all know, and we (1)____ as
much on what they seem to be telling us, as on the actual words they say. Facial (2)____ and tone of
voice are obvious ways of showing our (3)____ to something, and it may well be that we
unconsciously express views that we are trying to hide. The art of being (4)____ lies in picking up
these signals, realizing what the other person is trying to say, and acting so that they are not
embarrassed in any way. For example, we may understand that they are in fact (5)____ to answer
our question, and so we stop pressing them. Body movements in general may also indicate feelings,
and interviewers often pay particular attention to the way a candidate for a job walks into the room
and sits down. However it is not difficult to present the right kind of appearance, while what many
employers want to know relates to the candidate’s character traits, and (6)____ stability. This raises
the awkward question of whether job candidates should be asked to complete psychological tests,
and the further problem of whether such tests actually produce (7)____ results. For many people,
being asked to take part in such a test would be an objectionable (8)____ into their private lives.
After all, a prospective employer would hardly ask a candidate to run a hundred meters, or
expect his or her family doctor to provide (9)____ medical information. Quite apart from this
problem, can such tests predict whether a person is likely to be a (10)____ employee or a values
colleague?
Question 1:

A. reckon

B. rely

C. trust

D. estimate

Question 2:

A. manner

B. image

C. expression

D. looks

Question 3:

A. notion

B. feeling

C. view

D. reaction

Question 4:

A. successful

B. humble

C. good at

D. tactful

Question 5:

A. hesitant

B. reluctant

C. tending

D. used

Question 6:

A. psychological

B. physical

C. similar

D. relevant

Question 7:

A. reliable

B. predictable

C. faithful

D. regular

Question 8:

A. invasion

B. infringement

C. intrusion

D. interference

Question 9:

A. confidential

B. secretive

C. reticent

D. classified

Question 10:

A. laborious

B. particular

C. thorough

D. conscientious

24


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PASSAGE 20:

If you can roll a ball, you can play bowls. Everyone can play: young and old, men and women,
the fit and the not so fit. It is the (1)____ outdoor game that really is a sport for all. What other
sports can grandparents play on equal terms with their grandchildren? What other game is so simple
that you could take up it today and be (2)____ in the national championship tomorrow?
Simple? Perhaps that is not the (3)____ word. There are bowls players in their thousands
(4)____ will tell you that, although bowls is a game that anyone can (5)____ in five minutes, it
takes a lifetime to (6)____ it. They are the people who have developed a passionate interest in the
game .(7)____ for outsiders, bowls is another word, and a strange and puzzling one. They see a
bowl game in action and wonder what is going on.
What the players are trying to do is easy to explain. Their (8)____ is to roll their bowls, called
wood, as near as possible to the little white ball, called the jack. If one of your bowls finishes nearer
to the jack than your opponent's, you score one point and he or she scores (9)____ If you have the
two nearest, you score two, and so on. The skill involved in rolling a bowl that weighs around 2
kilos across about 40 meters so that it stops only a very short (10)____ from the target is just as
impressive as the skills required in other sports.
Question 1. A. special

B. one

C. alone

D. individual

Question 2. A. entering

B. precisely

C. competing

D. accurately

Question 3. A. right

B. genuine

C. just

D. suitable

Question 4. A. when

B. whose

C. which

D. who

Question 5. A. see through

B. pick up

C. catch on

D. find out

Question 6. A. tame

B. manage

C. master

D. control

Question 7. A. However

B. Although

C. Unlike

D. Besides

Question 8. A. point

B. attempt

C. scheme

D. aim

Question 9. A. something

B. anything

C. nothing

D. everything

Question 10. A. extent

B. distance

C. range

D. length

25


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