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WCDMA interference processing guide huawei

W-Interference Processing Guide-20060330-A-3.0

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Confidentiality level

WCDMA RNP

For internal use only

Product version

Total 51 pages

3.0

W-Interference Processing Guide
(For internal use only)
Prepared by


Li Junwei and Jiang Lihong

Date

Reviewed by

Xie Zhibin, Li Wenhui, Hu
Wensu, Qin Yan, Gong Haitao,
Wan Liang, Yu Yongxian, and
Hu Mingchao

Date

Qin Yan and Wang Chungui

Date

Reviewed by
Approved by

2006-03-03

2006-03-16

2006-03-23

Date

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All Rights Reserved

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Revision Records
Date

Revised
version

Description

Author

2006-03-03

3.00

Initial transmittal

Li Junwei and
Jiang Lihong

2006-03-15

3.01

Revising it according to the first review

Li Junwei and
Jiang Lihong

3.02

Modifying flow chats, adding acronyms
and format, adding introductions to each
chapter, modifying judgment criteria for
internal and external interference,
modifying cases, removing operators'
information, adding figures to locating
methods, and explaining the typical
RTWP

Li Junwei and
Jiang Lihong

2006-03-22

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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction to Interference Processing.......................................................................9
Chapter 2 Interference Processing Procedures ..........................................................................10
Chapter 3 Methods for Finding Interferences ..............................................................................11
3.1 Finding Interferences by Network Operation Indexes .........................................................11
3.2 Sorting Candidate Cells by Priority......................................................................................11
Chapter 4 Interferences Analysis and Location ..........................................................................12
4.1 Collecting data and Confirming Interferences .....................................................................12
4.1.1 Obtaining Interference Data......................................................................................12
4.1.2 Confirming Interferences...........................................................................................12
4.1.3 Customizing Judgment Criteria for Abnormal Interferences.....................................14
4.2 Judging Types of Interferences ...........................................................................................14
4.2.1 Criteria for Judging Interferences .............................................................................14
4.2.2 Sampling RTWP Variation Due to Internal Interference ...........................................15
4.2.3 Sampling RTWP Variation Due to External Interference..........................................18
4.3 Equipment and Documents Needed In Interference Test ...................................................29
4.4 Locating Internal Interference..............................................................................................30
4.4.1 Initial Location ...........................................................................................................30
4.4.2 On-site Location........................................................................................................31
4.5 Locating External Interference ............................................................................................32
4.5.1 Preparations before On-site Location .......................................................................32
Chapter 5 Interference Elimination ...............................................................................................35
Chapter 6 Interference-related Cases ...........................................................................................36
6.1 A Intermodulation Interference Case...................................................................................36
6.2 Repeater Interference Case 1 .............................................................................................36
6.3 Repeater Interference Case 2 .............................................................................................36
6.4 Repeater Interference Case 3 .............................................................................................36
6.5 Interference Location Cases in Indoor Distributed System .................................................36
6.6 PHS-to-WCDMA Interference Location Cases ...................................................................36
Chapter 7 Introduction to Locating Downlink Interferences ......................................................37
7.1 Locating Downlink Interference ...........................................................................................37
7.2 Analyzing Downlink Interference .........................................................................................37
7.3 Eliminating Downlink Interference .......................................................................................37
7.4 Downlink Interference Cases ..............................................................................................37
Chapter 8 Appendix 1: Basic Knowledge about Interference ....................................................38
8.1 Definition of Interference .....................................................................................................38
8.2 Interference Influence..........................................................................................................38
8.2.1 Influence on Sensitivity .............................................................................................38
8.2.2 Influence on Algorithm ..............................................................................................38
8.2.3 Influence on System .................................................................................................38
8.3 The source and features of Interference .............................................................................38
8.3.1 Internal Interference..................................................................................................38
8.3.2 External Interference.................................................................................................39
8.4 PIM Description ...................................................................................................................44
8.4.1 Connection of DIN connectors..................................................................................45
8.4.2 Occurrence of Antenna PIM......................................................................................45
8.4.3 Controlling Antenna PIM ...........................................................................................45
8.4.4 Features of Antenna PIM ..........................................................................................46
8.4.5 Relationship between PIM and NodeB Alarms.........................................................46
Chapter 9 Appendix 2: RTWP Description....................................................................................47
9.1 RTWP Definition ..................................................................................................................47
9.2 Uplink RF Channel Adjustment Principles...........................................................................48
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9.3 RTWP Error and Accuracy ..................................................................................................49
9.4 RTWP Effect........................................................................................................................50
List of Reference .............................................................................................................................51

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List of Tables
Table 3-1 Sample list of network operation indexes ........................................................................ 11
Table 4-1 Equipment and Documents..............................................................................................29
Table 8-1 Technical parameters of PHS system..............................................................................39
Table 9-1 Received total wide band power(TS 25.215 v600)..........................................................47
Table 9-2 Absolute accuracy requirement .......................................................................................49
Table 9-3 Relative accuracy requirement ........................................................................................49
Table 9-4 Received total wideband power measurement report mapping ......................................49

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List of Figures
Figure 2-1 Interference processing flow chat ..................................................................................10
Figure 4-1 Analyzing interference in Nastar.....................................................................................13
Figure 4-2 Configuring judgment criteria for abnormal interference in Nastar ................................14
Figure 4-3 Variation of RTWP due to load .......................................................................................16
Figure 4-4 Variation of RTWP due to improper connection of multiple RF......................................16
Figure 4-5 Antenna-feeder structure................................................................................................17
Figure 4-6 Variation of RTWP ..........................................................................................................17
Figure 4-7 Variation of RTWP due to interaction of 2G and 3G signals ..........................................18
Figure 4-8 Site distribution around the site 501800.........................................................................19
Figure 4-9 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (1)..........................................................................19
Figure 4-10 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (2) ........................................................................20
Figure 4-11 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (3) ........................................................................20
Figure 4-12 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (4) ........................................................................20
Figure 4-13 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (5) ........................................................................21
Figure 4-14 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (6) ........................................................................21
Figure 4-15 Variation of RTWP ........................................................................................................22
Figure 4-16 RTWP variation of cell 45680 .......................................................................................22
Figure 4-17 Antenna location ...........................................................................................................23
Figure 4-18 RTWP variation.............................................................................................................23
Figure 4-19 Site location ..................................................................................................................24
Figure 4-20 RTWP variation of a NodeB near railway .....................................................................24
Figure 4-21 RTWP variation due to indoor air-conditioner...............................................................24
Figure 4-22 RTWP variation due to power on or off of outdoor air-conditioner of other operator ...25
Figure 4-23 RTWP variation due to power on or off of indoor emergency lights .............................25
Figure 4-24 Long-time RTWP variation............................................................................................26
Figure 4-25 Short-time RTWP variation ...........................................................................................26
Figure 4-26 Frequency spectrum when the directional antenna approaches the YBT250..............27
Figure 4-27 Uplink interference due to transmission line (1) ...........................................................27
Figure 4-28 Uplink interference due to transmission line (2) ...........................................................27
Figure 4-29 Long-time RTWP variation of the interference like self-excitation................................28
Figure 4-30 Short-time RTWP variation of the interference like self-excitation ...............................28
Figure 4-31 Frequency spectrum feature.........................................................................................28
Figure 4-32 Structure of interference test ........................................................................................29
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Figure 4-33 RTWP variation when the diversity reception is not configured ...................................31
Figure 4-34 Locating interference source by using AOA .................................................................33
Figure 4-35 Schematic drawing of middle location ..........................................................................34
Figure 4-36 Schematic drawing of two-point location ......................................................................34
Figure 8-1 Frame structure of PHS system .....................................................................................39
Figure 9-1 Structure of uplink Rx channel of V1.3 NodeB...............................................................47

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W-Interference Processing Guide-20060330-A-3.0

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W-Interference Processing Guide
Key words: WCDMA, interference, main, diversity, RTWP, and intermodulation
Abstract: this document discusses the processing methods and process
Acronyms and abbreviations:
Acronym and Abbreviations

Full spelling

PIM

Passive Interactive modulation

RTWP

Received Total Wideband Power

BCCH

Broadcasting Channel

FNE

Fixed Network Element

AOA

Angle of Arrival

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W-Interference Processing Guide-20060330-A-3.0

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Interference Processing
This document aims to satisfy on-site engineers with the request from locating uplink
interferences in WCDMA networks and provides common methods and operation
process for locating uplink interference in WCDMA networks.
This document consists of the following chapters and content:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)

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Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8

Introduction to Interference Processing
Interference Processing Procedures
Methods for Finding Interferences
Interferences Analysis and Location
Interference Elimination
Interference-related Cases
Introduction to Locating Downlink Interferences
Appendix

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Chapter 2 Interference Processing Procedures
This chapter provides interference processing procedures, which are detailed in the
following chapters

Figure 2-1 Interference processing flow chat
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Chapter 3 Methods for Finding Interferences
You can find uplink interferences in WCDMA networks by several methods, but a
common method is analyzing indexes related to network operation.

3.1 Finding Interferences by Network Operation Indexes
The best method for finding uplink interferences is observing the average RTWP among
network operation indexes. Normally the unloaded network RTWP is about –105.5 dBm.
If the average RTWP of some cells reaches about –95 dBm, 10 dB higher than that
of unloaded network, the cells encounters uplink interferences.
If the average RTWP of some cells reaches about –85 dBm, 20 dB higher than that
of unloaded network, the cells encounters strong uplink interferences.

z
z

If conditions permit, solve the interference problem at once.
The maximum RTWP is recommend as a reference for judgment only, because it might
be caused by an access peak or even is related to UE algorithm and performance.
Therefore, you need not pay special attention to it.
Table 3-1 lists network operation indexes.
Table 3-1 Sample list of network operation indexes
RNCId

CellId

CellName

Time(As
hour)

VS.MaxRTWP

VS.MeanRTW
P

VS.MinR
TWP

2

40661

NpCetr_A
DE

2006-2-17
17:00

–52.5

–104.36

–105.3

1

48602

TaiHongBl
dg_CD

2006-2-17
17:00

–57.5

–94.89

–96.4

1

58143

KwongYu
_CD

2006-2-15
16:00

–60.3

–82.79

–88.8

Indexes in Table 3-1 are from a network. The three cells are three typical types of cells.
z
z
z

The average RTWP of cell 40661 is –104.36 dBm, needless of attention.
The average RTWP of cell 48602 reaches –94.89 dBm, so you must pay attention
to the cell.
The average RTWP of cell 58143 reaches –82.79 dBm, the cell strongly interfered,
so you must pay special attention to the cell.

3.2 Sorting Candidate Cells by Priority
After selecting candidate cells according to average RTWP, sort candidate cells by
priority according to the following factors:
z
z
z

Whether VIP subscribers are in the cell
The cell traffic
How important the cell is to KPIs of entire network

After considering these factors, process candidate cells by priority.

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W-Interference Processing Guide-20060330-A-3.0

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Chapter 4 Interferences Analysis and Location
4.1 Collecting data and Confirming Interferences
Locating interference problems is complex, so you must collect comprehensive data
before location. This is key to solving interference problems. Without comprehensive
data, locating problems on site or drawing a conclusion takes a longer time and is less
efficient. Uplink interferences feature differently in different periods of a day or week, so
tracing more RTWP contributes more to locating uplink interferences. To confirm
interference, and determine the interference strength and types of consequent
interference, you must collect the following data:
z
z

The RTWP data for 7 (days, at least 3 days) x 24 (hours) of cells to be located
The RTWP data for 7 (days, at least 3 days) x 24 (hours) of cells adjacent to the cell
to be located

4.1.1 Obtaining Interference Data
Obtaining interference data proceeds as below:
1)
2)
3)

4)

Create cell routine test and then start it
Start the FTP Server for the target computer
Execute the following commands on the MML Command interface on M2000 Client:
ULD FILE: DSTF=”c:/bin/RtwpLog_NodeBxxx”, FLAG=RTWPLOG,
IP=”10.161.209.251”, USR=”FTP authorized user name”, PWD=”FTP password”,
CF=UNCOMPRESSED[,SD=2005&11&16, ST=15&30&50, ED=2005&11&16,
ET=15&40&50]
After the previous operations, the file is saved in the name of RtwpLog_NodeBxxx in
the directory c:/bin.
Start Nastar, and select to import RTWP file to new project in import interface.



Note:

The IP in the previous MML commands is the IP of a NodeB.

4.1.2 Confirming Interferences
Confirming interference proceeds as below:
1)
2)
3)

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Start Nastar
Double click object tree function node
Select WCDMA Interference Analysis > Abnormal Interference Analysis
Select the cell to be analyzed. Wait for a time for analysis, and then the system
displays an interface as shown in Figure 4-1.

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Figure 4-1 Analyzing interference in Nastar
As shown in Figure 4-1, the cells are ranked according to interference strong to
weak.
In the column Interference,
z
Nice indicates no interference
z
Acceptable indicates the interference is acceptable
z
Problematic indicates interference is present in the cell
In the column Priority,
z
H indicates you must pay attention to the cell by preference
z
L indicates an cell with ordinary interference
In the column BaseNoise,
z
Nice indicates a normal base noise
z
TBD (to be determined) indicates an abnormal noise figure, so you must pay
attention to the cell
4)

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in the tool bar, click a column, the system displays the interference chat
Click
and uplink CE chat
In the chat,
z
CE Resource Utilize reflects the usage of uplink credit (you can transfer it to
CE when it is divided by 2)
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z

For internal use only

MainDivCurve reflects the RTWP of current main

4.1.3 Customizing Judgment Criteria for Abnormal Interferences
Customizing judgment criteria for abnormal interferences proceeds as below:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Start Nastar
Double click object tree function node
Double click WCDMA Interference Analysis
Select Edit Interference Config

Figure 4-2 shows configuring judgment criteria for abnormal interference in Nastar.

Figure 4-2 Configuring judgment criteria for abnormal interference in Nastar
BaseNoise indicates the judgment criteria for abnormal interference is based on the self
noise figure of main, diversity, or a proper noise figure specified by the customer.
z

z
z

Beyond base noise
It indicates the relevant noise threshold. If the interference is stronger than the
threshold by Beyond base noise, the interference is effective.
Duration indicates the duration threshold for effective interference
Interference Counter indicates threshold of the interference times. If the
interference times is more than Interference Counter, the cell is interfered.

4.2 Judging Types of Interferences
4.2.1 Criteria for Judging Interferences
I. Interference Types
The interference includes internal interference and external interference.

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The interference occurring on NodeB to the antenna-feeder system is internal
interference. The specific internal interference might be:
z
z
z
z

Intermodulation due to participation of transmitted signals
The transmitted signals interfere receiver band due to problematic transmitters and
the receiver encounters self-excitation
Intermodulation and unlocked phenomenon generated by transmitted signals inside
the receiver
RTWP problem due to improperly configured NodeB RF

The external interference includes in-band signal interference and out-band strong signal
interference. The typical types are personal handyphone system (PHS) interference,
repeater interference, interference from handset interferer.

II. Criteria
The interference belongs to external interference if it meets the following judgment
criteria:
z

z
z

The interference to main or diversity is relevant. Namely, in terms of time, the
interference to main or diversity trends similarly, and the difference between them is
within 5 dB.
The external interference affects multiple cells that are geographically bordering.
In terms of time feature of RTWP, the external interference is mutational, the
interference occurs at a regular point and in a regular period, and lasts for a regular
period (exceptions are microwave interference, improperly configured gain of
repeaters, so the RTWP is not mutational)

The interference which is not external interference is internal interference, so it follows
the internal interference processing procedures. Locating external interference takes
more effort and time than locating internal interference. Therefore, if the interference is
not confirmed to be internal interference, it must be rechecked.
The inter-modulation interference which takes a high ratio in internal interference
features typically as below:
z
z
z
z
z

The RTWP of main and diversity is usually irrelevant. If the RTWP is relevant, there
must be special causes, such as the main and diversity are combined at some point.
The interference is related to traffic. The interference occurs less probably when
traffic is lower.
The RTWP fluctuates sharply, as great as about 10 dB, or even greater than 10 dB.
The interference will last for a period, without mutational change, which is different
from that of external interference.
In terms of time feature of RTWP, the RTWP changes irregularly.

The intermodulation usually meets one or more of the previous five features. If the five
features are all met, it must be intermodulation.
For better understanding of the previous judgment criteria, the following examples
provide direct phenomena of various interference from actual networks. Therefore no
specific locating process is provided.

4.2.2 Sampling RTWP Variation Due to Internal Interference
I. Multi-frequency Intermodulation Due to Load
In an indoor distributed system, the 3G signals, 2G signals of the operator S, and 2G
signals of the operator P are combined. The operator P uses the absolute radio frequency
channel number (ARFCN) 747. The operator S uses the ARFCN 850 and hopping
frequency ARFCN 815.
Figure 4-3 shows the variation of RTWP.
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Figure 4-3 Variation of RTWP due to load
The interference in the cell is caused by a load with loose connection. Once the load is
touched, the RTWP changes sharply.
The RTWP changes as below:
z
z
z
z

The main and diversity are irrelevant
The RTWP fluctuates sharply
The interference lasts for a period
The RTWP changes irregularly in terms of time

II. Multi-frequency Intermodulation Due to Improper Connection of Multiple RF
The multiple RF connection involves duplexer, feeder, and jumper connector.
The site is constructed with indoor distribution system shared by multiple operators. The
antenna-feeder structure is complex. Wherein, multiple hybrid couplers, feeders, and
jumpers are improperly connected, so the RTWP is as shown in Figure 4-4.

Figure 4-4 Variation of RTWP due to improper connection of multiple RF
The RTWP changes as below:
z
z
z

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The RTWP fluctuates sharply
The interference lasts for a period
The RTWP changes irregularly in terms of time

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III. Single Frequency Intermodulation Due to Improper Connection of Feeder and
Jumper
The 3G signals and 2G signals are combined. The 2G network uses only one channel
number. Intermodulation occurs due to improper connection of feeder and jumper.
Figure 4-5 shows the antenna-feeder structure.

Figure 4-5 Antenna-feeder structure
Figure 4-6 shows the variation of RTWP due to improper connection of feeder and
jumper.

Figure 4-6 Variation of RTWP
The RTWP changes as below:
z
z
z
z

The main and diversity are irrelevant
The RTWP fluctuates sharply
The interference lasts for a period
The RTWP changes irregularly in terms of time

IV. Multi-frequency Intermodulation Due to Interaction of 2G and 3G signals
This is an indoor site, with 2G and 3G signals combined. It is an indoor distributed
system shared with other operators.
Figure 4-7 shows the variation of RTWP due to interaction of 2G and 3G signals.
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Figure 4-7 Variation of RTWP due to interaction of 2G and 3G signals
In Figure 4-7, the main interference (in red) is caused by intermodulation of DCS signals
and 3G signals at a connector.



Note:

The diversity is not connected to antenna. The external signals near cabinet interferes
diversity.

The RTWP changes as below:
z
z
z
z

The main and diversity are irrelevant
The RTWP fluctuates sharply
The interference lasts for a period
The RTWP changes irregularly in terms of time

4.2.3 Sampling RTWP Variation Due to External Interference
I. Sites Around Repeaters of Self-excitation Interference
Figure 4-8 shows the site distribution around the site 501800.

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Figure 4-8 Site distribution around the site 501800
In the network as shown in Figure 4-8, a 3G repeater close to the NodeB 501800
transmits a self-excitation signal every hour approximately. Therefore the uplink in
multiple cells is interfered. The uplink interference varies according to the direction and
the distance between the cell and the repeater. However, it is clear that the uplink
interference occurs every hour approximately.

Figure 4-9 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (1)

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Figure 4-10 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (2)

Figure 4-11 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (3)

Figure 4-12 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (4)

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Figure 4-13 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (5)

Figure 4-14 Variation of RTWP in adjacent cells (6)



Note:

The site 501800 is an indoor site with a single antenna.

The RTWP changes as below:
z
z
z
z

The main and diversity are relevant
The interference influences multiple cells that are close to each other
The interference is mutational
The interference changes with a regular internal

II. Uplink Interference to Host Cell Due to Repeater Self-excitation
The NodeB 45680 uses a 3G repeater. The host cell of the repeater is the first cell 54291
of the NodeB 45680. The occurrence time of self-excitation of the repeater is irregular.
Figure 4-15 shows the RTWP variation of cell 54291.

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Figure 4-15 Variation of RTWP
The RTWP changes as below:
z

The main and diversity are relevant
The interference is mutational

III. Uplink Interference to Host Cell Due to Improperly Configured Gain of
Repeater and Self-excitement
The gain of the repeater is 90 dB. Figure 4-16 shows the RTWP variation of cell 45680.

Figure 4-16 RTWP variation of cell 45680
After adjustment of the repeater gain to 70 dB, the RTWP becomes normal.
The RTWP variations feature the same as that of improperly configured gain of repeater.
Namely, the interference is strong and stable.

IV. Uplink Interference to 3G Antenna Due to Close Radiation from 2G Repeater
Antenna
The 3G antenna is interfered by a 2G repeater antenna another operator. The 3G
antenna uses space diversity. As shown in Figure 4-17, the 3G antenna is a diversity
antenna and the main antenna is far from 2G antenna.

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Figure 4-17 Antenna location

Figure 4-18 RTWP variation
The RTWP changes as below:
z
z

The main and diversity are relevant
The interference is mutational

V. RTWP Variation Due to Passing Trains
The NodeB is close to the railway with intensive trains passing by.
Figure 4-19 shows the site location near the railway.

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Figure 4-19 Site location

Figure 4-20 RTWP variation of a NodeB near railway

VI. Uplink Interference Due to State Switch of Indoor Air-conditioner Controller
Figure 4-21 shows the uplink interference fluctuation upon state switch of indoor
air-conditioner controller.

Figure 4-21 RTWP variation due to indoor air-conditioner
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VII. Uplink Interference Due to Power On or Off of Outdoor Air-conditioner of
Other Operator
Figure 4-22 shows the RTWP variation due to power on or off of outdoor air-conditioner
of other operator

Figure 4-22 RTWP variation due to power on or off of outdoor air-conditioner of other operator

VIII. Uplink Interference Due to Power On or Off of Indoor Emergency Lights
Figure 4-23 shows the RTWP variation due to power on or off of indoor emergency lights,
marked in red.

Figure 4-23 RTWP variation due to power on or off of indoor emergency lights

IX. Uplink Interference with Period of 200 Seconds
This uplink interference is probably due to air-conditioner compressor, but this cannot be
confirmed due to property restriction.
Figure 4-24 shows the long-time RTWP variation.

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